The Lozi people are an ethnic group of western Zambia, inhabiting the region of Barotseland. They number 575,000 in Zambia out of a population of 10 million. Lozi are found in Namibia, Botswana, the bigger chunk of, found in the now Zambia, Zimbabwe; the Lozi are known as the Barotsi, Silozi, Barotose, Rozi, Rutse, or Tozvi. The Lozi speak a central Bantu language; the lives of the Lozi people seem to revolve around the Zambezi river, the second longest river in Africa. The word Lozi means'plain' in the Makololo language, in reference to the Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi on and around which most Lozi live, it may be spelt Lotse or Rotse, the spelling Lozi having originated with German missionaries in what is now Namibia. Mu- and Ba- are corresponding singular and plural prefixes for certain nouns in the Silozi language, so Murotse means'person of the plain' while Barotse means'people of the plain, it would be interesting. Lozi tradition states. In about 1830, an army that originated in the Sotho-speaking Bafokeng region of South Africa, known as the Makololo, led by a warrior called Sebetwane, invaded Barotseland and conquered the Lozi.
They ruled until 1864. The political organisation of the Lozi has long centred on a monarchy, whose reigning head, the Paramount King, is known as'Litunga' which means'keeper of the earth.' The renowned Litunga Lewanika, whose latter name was a nickname from the Mbunda meaning "unifier" following the Lozi revolt that overthrew the Sotho clique, reigned from 1878 to 1916 with a short insurrectionist break in 1884-85, requested Queen Victoria to bring Barotseland under protectorate status. Great Britain, was uninterested in acquiring the territory. A granting of a royal charter for the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes allowed the company to acquire Barotseland under the guise of the British government. Although under protectorate status, Lewanika realized that he had been tricked and petitioned for the protectorate status to be corrected. Yet, the land remained under Rhodes's control, when the territory failed to produce gold, copper or other exports, the "British South Africa Company defaulted on every commitment it had made to Lewanika," and few developments in infrastructure and education were made.
Although Barotseland was incorporated into Northern Rhodesia, it retained a large degree of autonomy, carried over when Northern Rhodesia became Zambia on its independence in 1964. In the run-up to independence, the Litunga, the Ngambela and about a dozen senior indunas went to London for talks with the Colonial Office, in an attempt to have Barotseland remain a Protectorate; the Litunga, Sir Mwanawina Lewenika III, quoted his grandfather's words to Queen Victoria, that "My country is your blanket, my people are but the fleas in your blanket." Although before colonial times, the region was self-sufficient in food and exported crops to neighbouring regions, today it is the least-developed region of Zambia, with only one major road into the province, from Lusaka to Mongu, only intermittent supplies of electricity. There remains some support in the region for greater autonomy within Zambia or for full independence, it is clear that history does not state where the Lozi people may have came from.
Lozi society is stratified, with a monarch at the top and those of recent royal descent occupying high positions in society. The monarch or Barotse Royal Establishment is known as Mulonga, Lozi society tolerates little criticism of an unpopular Litunga. Criticisms of a Litunga by a foreigner are treated as criticisms of the Lozi nation as a whole; the Lozi are not separate into clans, unlike most African ethnic groups. Lozi culture is influenced by the flood cycle of the Zambezi river, with annual migrations taking place from the flood plain to higher ground at the start of the wet season; the most important of these festivals is the Kuomboka, in which the Litunga moves from Lealui in the flood plain to Limulunga on higher ground. The Kuomboka takes place in February or March; these annual floods displace hundreds of people every year. Barotseland.com A history of the Lozi Media related to Lozi people at Wikimedia Commons An organisation promoting the development of the Lozi people Information on the Kuomboka
The Shona are a Bantu ethnic group native to Zimbabwe and neighboring countries. The people are divided into five major clans and adjacent to other groups of similar culture and languages; this name came into effect in the 19th century due to their skill of disappearing and hiding in caves when attacked. Hence Mzilikazi the great king called them amaShona meaning "those who just disappear." When the white settlers came to Mashonaland, they banned the Shona people from staying near caves and kopjes because of their hiding habits. This explanation is. There are various interpretations whom to subsume to the Shona proper and whom only to the Shona family; the Shona people are divided into various tribes in the east regions of Zimbabwe. It is important not to mistake the Bukalanga tribe of Matabeleland as these are a distinct clan of the Lozwi-Moyo Empire. Ethnologue notes that the language of the Bukalanga is mutually intelligible with the main dialects of the Eastern Shona as well as other Bantu languages in central and east of Africa, but counts them separately.
Sure members:Karanga or Southern Shona Duma Njiva Jena Mhari Ngova Nyubi Govera Rozvi, sharing the Karanga dialect Zezuru or Central Shona Budya Gova Tande Tavara Nyongwe Pfunde Shan Gwe Korekore or Northern Shona Shawasha Gova Mbire Tsunga Kachikwakwa Harava Nohwe Njanja Nobvu Kwazwimba narrow Shona Toko Hwesa Members or close relatives: Manyika in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. In Desmond Dale's basic Shona dictionary special vocabulary of Manyika dialect is included. Kalanga, in South-Western Zimbabwe, rather integrated in the Nguni culture, therefore little identification with the other Shona and Botswana: Dhalaunda/Batalaote Lilima Baperi Banyai, speaking Nambya in Zimbabwe and Botswana, sometimes subsumed to the Western Shona Ndau in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, their language is only intelligible with the main Shona dialects and comprises some click sounds that do not occur in standard ChiShona. When the term Shona was invented during the Mfecane in late 19th century by the Ndebele king Mzilikazi, it was a pejorative for non-Nguni people.
On one hand, it is claimed that there was no consciousness of a common identity among the tribes and peoples now forming the Shona of today. On the other hand, the Shona people of Zimbabwe highland always had in common a vivid memory of the ancient kingdoms identified with the Monomotapa state; the terms "Karanga"/"Kalanga"/"Kalaka", now the names of special groups, seem to have been used for all Shona before the Mfecane. Dialect groups are important in Shona. Although'standard' Shona is spoken throughout Zimbabwe, the dialects not only help to identify which town or village a person is from but the ethnic group with which the person identifies; each Shona dialect is specific to a certain ethnic group, i.e. if one speaks the Manyika dialect, they are from the Manyika group/tribe and observe certain customs and norms specific to their group. As such, if one is Zezuru, they speak the Zezuru dialect and observe those customs and beliefs that are specific to them. In 1931, during the process of trying to reconcile the dialects into the single standard Shona, Professor Clement Doke identified six groups, each with subdivisions: The Korekore or Northern Shona, including Taυara, Korekore proper, Goυa, the Korekore of Urungwe, the Korekore of Sipolilo, Nyongwe of "Darwin", Pfungwe of Mrewa.
The influx of immigrants, into the country from bordering countries, has contributed to the variety. There are more than ten million people who speak a range of related dialects whose standardized form is known as Shona; the Shona are traditionally agricultural. Their crops were sorghum, beans, African groundnuts, not before the 16th century, pumpkins. Sorghum and maize are used to prepare the main dish, a thickened porridge called sadza, the traditional beer, called hwahwa; the Shona keep cattle and goats, in history as transhumant herders. The livestock had a special importance as a food reserve in times of drought; the precolonial Shona states received a great deal of their revenues from the export of mining products gold and copper. In their traditional homes, called musha, they had separate round huts for the special functions, such as kitchen and lounging around a yard cleared from ground vegetation; the Shona are known for the high quality of their stone sculptures. Traditional pottery is of a high level.
Traditional textile production was expensive and of high quality. People preferred to wear skins or imp
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
The Tsonga people are a Bantu ethnic group native to South Africa and southern Mozambique. They speak Xitsonga, a Southern Bantu language, related to neighbouring Nguni and Vhavenda. A small number of Tsonga people are found in Swaziland and Zimbabwe; the Tsonga people of South Africa share a common history with the Tsonga people of southern Mozambique. The Tsonga people originated from Central and West Africa somewhere between AD 200 and 500, have been migrating in-and-out of South Africa for over a thousand years; the Tsonga people settled on the coastal plains of Southern Mozambique but settled in the Transvaal Province and around parts of St Lucia Bay in South Africa from as early as the 1300s. One of the earliest reputable written accounts of the Tsonga people is by Henri Philipe Junod titled "Matimu ya Vatsonga 1498-1650", formally published in 1977, it speaks of the earliest Tsonga kingdoms. Before this, the older Henri Alexandri Junod released his work titled "The life of a South African Tribe", first published under two volumes in 1912-1913 and re-published in 1927.
The historical movements of the Tsonga people is dominated by separate migrations, with the Tembe people settling at the northern parts of KwaZulu Natal around the 1350s and the Van'wanati and Vanyayi settling in the eastern Limpopo region between the late 1400s and 1650s. Separate migrations from parts of Mozambique occurred shortly thereafter and during the 1800s. According to historical records acquired from the Portuguese and Swiss Missionaries who arrived to Mozambique and South Africa in the 1800s, Portuguese sailors encountered Tsonga tribes near the coast of Mozambique. Early tribes identified are names such as the Mpfumo who belong to the Rhonga clan within the wider Tsonga ethnicity, further identified during the 1500-1650 are the Valenga, Vatonga and Vandzawu; the Vatsonga people from early on were much like a confederacy where different groups settled and assimilated within a particular area and adopted a similar language that differed on the basis of geographic location. Various dialects of the Thonga/Tsonga language emerged from around the 1200s or earlier, such as Xirhonga, Xin'walungu, Xibila and Xidjonga.
They held large territorial areas in southern Mozambique and parts of South Africa and extracted tribute for those who passed through. The Tsonga tribes operated like a confederacy in supplying regiments to aid different groups during times of crisis. Examples of this is the Rhonga tribe which supplied regiments to the Mthethwa establishment and engaged in trade; the Tsonga people have an age-old custom of leading their own tribes, with a senior traditional leader at the forefront of their own tribal establishment and is seen with a status equal to that of a king. The Tsonga people have lived according to these customs for ages and they hold the belief that "vukosi a byi peli nambu", a metaphor meaning "kingship does not cross territorial or family borders". Within apartheid South Africa, a Tsonga "homeland", Gazankulu Bantustan, was created out of part of northern Transvaal Province during the 1960s and was granted self-governing status in 1973; this bantustan's economy depended on gold and on a small manufacturing sector.
However, only an estimated 500,000 people—less than half the Tsonga population of South Africa—ever lived there. Many others joined township residents from other parts of South Africa around urban centres Johannesburg and Pretoria; the Constitution of South Africa stipulates that all South Africans have a right to identify with their own language, points out that tribal affiliations or "ethnicity" is identifiable through a common language. The various groups who speak the Xitsonga language or one of its dialects are therefore united by the language and take its name from it, hence Constitutionally they are the Tsonga people. There are other Tsonga groups in parts of Mozambique and Swaziland. Other related groups outside of South Africa who are ancestral or related to the South African Tsonga people go by various tribal names but they are sometimes classified within the heritage and history of the Tsonga people of South Africa; the Tsonga people speak the Xitsonga language, one of the official languages of the Republic of South Africa.
According to historians, the Xitsonga language had developed during the 1500s with its predecessor the "Thonga language" identified as the main origin. It was through the missionary work of the late 1800s to mid-1900s that led to a cohesive study of the Tsonga people's dialects and language features; the work carried out by Henri Junod and his father left a lasting legacy for the Tsonga people to rediscover their past history. It was however Paul Berthoud and his companion Ernest Creux who engaged with the Tsonga people of the Spelonken region to produce the first hymn books written in the Xitsonga language at around 1878. The
Goffal or Goffels is a term applied to Coloureds, or persons of mixed race claiming both European and African descent, in Malawi and Zimbabwe. The community includes many diverse constituents of Shona, Northern Ndebele, Chewa, British and Indian descent, it is not clear when the term "Goffal" first entered common usage, but among Coloureds themselves it had surfaced by the mid- to late 1970s. The nation with the largest Goffal population is Zimbabwe, where 18,000 still reside, their precise numbers are difficult to ascertain, due to the fact that some identify as members of other ethnic groups. The earliest Coloured communities in central Africa were formed in Southern Rhodesia by those who had emigrated as servants of Afrikaners and other white South African settlers from the Cape of Good Hope. Coloured immigration from South Africa spiked throughout much of the early twentieth century, but by the 1930s most local Coloureds had been born in Southern Rhodesia as offspring of British administrators and colonists and local women.
The Coloured populace increased to about 24,000 through intermarriage, by 1969 about 91% were considered Rhodesian citizens, a smaller number being Zambians and South Africans. During World War II, Coloureds served with distinction alongside Southern Rhodesian units during the East African Campaign. Southern Rhodesia, which had unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia in 1965, classified Coloureds as persons of mixed ancestry who did not follow a traditional African way of life and whose culture was European in origin and form. Coloureds who lived with black African families were notably excluded, as were those who physically passed for Europeans and Asians, respectively. Coloured Rhodesians were urbanised, the colonial government permitted them to live in segregated neighbourhoods reserved for Europeans. In 1969 the largest proportion of working Coloureds—about 30%— were employed by the Rhodesian manufacturing sector, the remainder being tradesmen or engaged in service delivery. At the outbreak of the Rhodesian Bush War, conscription was enforced for all male Coloureds of military age, who were expected to contribute four to five months of service to the Rhodesian Security Forces.
In 1966, the Ministry of Defence gave notice that it would henceforth extend conscription to all foreigners with residency status, making Coloureds of South African or other nationalities in Rhodesia liable for military service. Most Coloured recruits were assigned to the Reinforcement Holding Unit, concerned with transport and logistics, they were tasked with providing convoy security and guarding installations targeted for sabotage by insurgents. In 1978 the RHU was reorganised into the Rhodesian Defence Regiment; as the war intensified, Coloured personnel deployed to operational areas petitioned to receive the same pay as white soldiers. When Rhodesia was reconstituted as the new Republic of Zimbabwe in 1980, accompanied by the electoral triumph of leading black nationalist Robert Mugabe and his Zimbabwe African National Union, Coloureds numbered about 20,000. Mugabe won the country's first general elections held under a universal franchise, despite facing militant opposition from Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union and a number of minority parties.
All Coloureds registered in the Rhodesian electoral system prior to December 31, 1979 were permitted to vote, those that did so overwhelmingly endorsed the Rhodesian Front. As a conciliatory gesture Mugabe nominated a leading member of the Coloured community, Joseph Culverwell, to the Zimbabwean senate. ZANU's ascension was greeted with caution. During the bush war, black nationalists decried Coloureds as having benefited unjustly from the colonial racial hierarchy, those who attempted to join ZANU and ZAPU's guerrilla armies were detained or executed as spies. Less educated, blue collar Coloured workers were concerned they would face job displacement from an advancing black workforce once they lost the advantage of preferential employment by white supervisors. Others seemed convinced only blacks would benefit economically under Mugabe's rule, at the expense of themselves and other ethnic minorities. For their part, community activists were disappointed they weren't invited to participate at the Lancaster House talks on behalf of their people, felt this demonstrated both white and black Zimbabweans were uninterested in Coloureds' future political and social welfare.
Since the 1980s, Coloured Zimbabweans have complained of being disenfranchised, being projected as foreigners with limited rights. A Coloured lobby group, the National Association for the Advancement of Mixed Race Coloureds, was formed in 2001 to protest what they perceived as severe discrimination against their community by the state; the NAAC has issued a statement claiming that "Coloured people are visibly and verbally treated with disdain contemptuously dismissed with xenophobic comments" urging them to "go back to Britain". NAAC activists have highlighted the removal of Coloureds from important positions in the public service following complaints by ruling party officials, the government's steadfast refusal to grant loans to Coloured entrepreneurs. At the height of President Mugabe's land reform programme, Zimbabwean Minister of Education and Culture Aeneas Chigwedere demanded that Coloureds be excluded from the redistribution process on racial grounds, insisting that "if we give them land it will be giving it back to the white man".
Unlike Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, a British possession which remained governed directly by the Colonial Office
Demographics of Zambia
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Zambia, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and others aspects of the population. Zambia's population comprises more than 70 Bantu-speaking ethnic groups; some ethnic groups are small, only two have enough people to constitute at least 10% of the population. The majority of Zambians are subsistence farmers, but the country is fairly urbanised, with 42% of the population being city residents; the predominant religion is a blend of Christianity. Expatriates British or South African, as well as some white Zambian citizens, live in Lusaka and in the Copperbelt in northern Zambia, where they are either employed in mines and related activities or retired. Zambia has a small but economically important Asian population, most of whom are Indians. African: 99.5% Other: 0.5% According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population of Zambia is 16,591,390 in 2016, compared to only 2 340 000 in 1950.
The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 46.4%, 50.6% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.1% was 65 years or older. Registration of vital events is in Zambia not complete; the Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Births and deaths Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Fertility data as of 2013-2014: At national level, the TFR was highest among women with no religious affiliation at 6.5. Among the women with religious affiliation Protestants had the highest TFR of 6.0, followed by Muslims with 5.9 and Catholics with 5.7. The following demographic statistics of Zambia in 2019 are from the World Population Review. One birth every 47 seconds One death every 4 minutes One net migrant every 65 minutes Net gain of one person every 1 minutesThe following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. 16,445,079 0-14 years: 45.95% 15-24 years: 20% 25-54 years: 28.79% 55-64 years: 2.95% 65 years and over: 2.31% total: 16.8 years.
Country comparison to the world: 222th male: 16.7 years female: 16.9 years total: 17.2 years male: 17.1 years female: 17.3 years total: 16.46 years male: 16.26 years female: 16.67 years total: 16.5 years male: 16.4 years female: 16.6 years 41.1 births/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 6th 12 deaths/1,000 population 5.58 children born/woman Country comparison to the world: 8th 2.91% Country comparison to the world: 10th 19.2 years note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 0 migrant/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 100th 49% total dependency ratio: 91.9 youth dependency ratio: 87.1 elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 potential support ratio: 20.8 one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010; the country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest 6 children per woman because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, employment for women.
Zambia exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more to marry young, to give birth early, to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. Protestant 75.3% Roman Catholic 20.2% Other 2.7% None 1.8% Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects.