Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge is located in northwestern Oregon, 10 miles west of Salem in Polk County. Situated in open farmland near the eastern foothills of the Oregon Coast Range with the broad Willamette Valley and the Cascade Range to the east, elevations range from 185 to 414 feet MSL; the Willamette Valley, with its mild, rainy winter climate, is an ideal environment for wintering waterfowl. The valley was once a rich mix of wildlife habitats with extensive wetlands, meandering stream channels and vast seasonal marshes. Today, the valley is a mix of farmland and growing cities, with few areas remaining for wildlife; the Refuge consists of 1,173 acres of cropland, which provide forage for wintering geese, 300 acres of forests, 550 acres of grasslands, 500 acres of shallow water seasonal wetlands and 35 acres of permanent open water. In 1965, Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge was created to help ensure some of the original habitat remained for species preservation.
The refuge is managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, an agency of the U. S. Department of the Interior; as with the other refuges within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Complex, the primary management goal of Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge is to provide high quality wintering habitat for geese the dusky Canada goose, so as to ensure healthy, viable goose populations while minimizing goose browse damage to crops on private agricultural lands. Unlike most other Canada geese, dusky Canada geese have limited winter ranges, they nest on Alaska's Copper River Delta and winter exclusively in the Willamette Valley. Habitat loss and hunting caused a decrease in their population. Dusky Canada geese appear at the Refuge in the fall and use it as their last stop before starting the spring journey back to their Alaska nesting grounds. During the winter of 2001, a survey found a total of 35,988 geese and ducks in the refuge. By resting in undisturbed areas on the refuges, wintering geese regain energy reserves required for migration and nesting.
Because of their need for a quiet resting area, the majority of the refuge interior is closed to public entry while the geese are in residence, from October 1 through April 30. The croplands, rolling oak-covered hills, grass fields, shallow wetlands of the Refuge are home to many wildlife species. Cinnamon teal, mallards and hooded mergansers are just a few of the duck species that are common during the winter months. Great blue herons and other shorebirds feed along the waters edge. Red-tailed hawks can be seen flying over the refuge and a small number of bald eagles winter on the refuge. In addition to the abundant bird life, 30 species of mammals, 8 species of amphibians, 10 species of reptiles occur here; the largest remaining population of the endangered Fender's blue butterfly is found on the refuge. Wildlife and wildlands observation, photography and environmental education and interpretation are the major public use activities allowed on the refuge. Visitor facilities include the Baskett Slough information and wildlife viewing kiosk, located on the north side of Oregon Route 22 about 2 miles west of the intersection with Oregon Route 99W.
About 5 miles of walking trails include the year-round Baskett Butte Loop Trail, the Morgan Lake and Inter-Tie Trails. The refuge is only open during daytime hours and in keeping with the focus of habitat and wildlife preservation, no hunting or fishing is allowed; the refuge has increased efforts to restore and expand riparian, wet prairie, upland prairie and oak savanna habitats. The oak savanna habitat on the Refuge supports the largest surviving population of the endangered Fender's blue butterfly which feeds upon the threatened Kincaid's lupine plant; the Refuge was named for George J. Baskett, an early Willamette Valley settler, a thoroughbred horse breeder. List of National Wildlife Refuges "Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Retrieved 2006-07-04. "Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge Profile". Wildlife Observation and Photography. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Retrieved 2006-07-04. "Baskett Slough National Wildlife Refuge". Oregon's Important Bird Areas.
Audubon Society of Portland
Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge
Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1958 as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds. The refuge consists of 40,000 acres. Designated as Klamath Forest National Wildlife Refuge, the Refuge was renamed as all of the historic Klamath Marsh now lies within Refuge boundaries; this large natural marsh provides important nesting and resting habitat for waterfowl, while the surrounding meadowlands are attractive nesting and feeding areas for sandhill crane, yellow rail, various shorebirds and raptors. The adjacent pine forests support diverse wildlife including the great gray owl and Rocky Mountain elk. During summer months, opportunities to canoe in Wocus Bay allow for wildlife observation and a great scenic route; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge Refuge Overview Refuge Map
Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area
The Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area is located on the Oregon Coast, stretching 40 miles north of the Coos River in North Bend to the Siuslaw River in Florence, adjoining Honeyman State Park on the west. It is administered by the United States Forest Service; the Oregon Dunes are a unique area of windswept sand. They are the largest expanse of coastal sand dunes in North America and one of the largest expanses of temperate coastal sand dunes in the world, with some dunes reaching 500 feet above sea level, they are the product of millions of years of erosion by rain on the Oregon Coast. The Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area provides numerous recreational activities, including off-highway vehicle use, photography, canoeing, horseback riding, camping; the Carter Dunes Trail and Oregon Dunes Day Use provide forest access for the disabled. Frank Herbert's science-fiction novel Dune was inspired by the author's research and fascination with the area; the Oregon Dunes are over 100,000 years old and stretch 40 miles.
The youngest dunes, which are the closest to the ocean, began forming about 7,000 years ago. Studies of individual sand grains show that these sands were carried down from the mountains by the Umpqua and other smaller rivers. In 1963, Congressman Robert B. Duncan introduced a bill to establish a national seashore at the Oregon Dunes. Senator Wayne Morse opposed provisions of the bill that increased environmental protections by restricting property uses. In 1972 Congress set aside 32,186 acres of the total dune area as the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area; the actual dunes are managed by the U. S. Forest Service, while the remaining area is private or county land; the sand dunes were formed by water over time. The dune formation is dependent on the wind. In the summer the wind blows from the northwest at 12 -- 16 miles per hour. Mountain barriers near the coast deflect the wind currents, forming the sand into many different shapes. In the winter the winds are much slower, coming from southwest.
These winds move large amounts of sand. Water plays a role in dune formation. Waves and tides dredge sand from the ocean floor and deposit it onto the beaches, where the wind takes over; the water currents create marshy areas where standing water is several feet deep. Upward pressure causes the sand grains to float; this process results in quicksand. Quicksand is found in the unvegetated areas between the dunes; the barrage lakes are the largest lakes in Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area. They were formed when streams flowing west from the Coast Range foothills were dammed up by the developing dunes. Stable native plant species are vital to the success of the dunes ecosystem. Several native plants and plant groups have been identified as crucial and are part of active management and conservation efforts; these plants include red fescue, Port Orford cedar, evergreen huckleberry, seashore bluegrass, shore pine, hairy manzanita, bog blueberry, tufted hairgrass, slough sedge, Sitka spruce, skunk cabbage.
Original native plant species were drastically reduced over the years due to the planting of European beachgrass, Scotch broom and shore pine for sand stabilization that occurred from 1910 through 1979. Many species of birds live in the varied habitats of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area; the South Jetty area includes beach and coastal wetlands where the tundra swan, marsh wren, Canada goose, yellow-rumped warbler, red-tailed hawk, long-billed curlew and least sandpiper make their home. The great blue heron, American bittern, green heron, Virginia rail, cinnamon teal, common yellowthroat, common merganser, belted kingfisher, snowy plover, bald eagle, osprey live along the Siticoos area by the Waxmyrtle Trail; the Eel Creek area includes many shore pines and provides shelter to the pine siskin, chestnut-backed chickadee, Swainson's thrush, northern flicker, red crossbill, olive-sided flycatcher, Anna's hummingbird. The white-tailed kite, northern harrier, violet-green swallow, downy woodpecker, orange-crowned warbler, yellow warbler, black-throated gray warbler, Townsend’s warbler, hermit warbler, great horned owl, great egret have been sighted in the Horsefalls area.
The western snowy plover uses the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area as a nesting site. In 1993, it was identified as a "threatened" species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, with only 68 birds remaining in Oregon. Multiple agencies used a multi-pronged approach to increase their numbers. Techniques included restoring the plover habitat along the sand dunes by removing invasive beach grasses and maintaining the appropriate structures optimal for nest building. Protection of nesting sites is achieved by education and beach restrictions during the nesting season from March 15 through September 15; when necessary, these restrictions are enforced by police officers. Other techniques include removal of accurate population monitoring; as of 2012, the number of plovers had increased to 403 birds. The Oregon Dunes Restoration Collaborative is an organization that works with numerous government entities to preserve and restore the dunes; the group, formed in 2014, is engaged in efforts to combat the spread of invasive plant species that consume a large portion of the dunes.
The invasive species seen today are a result of a twentieth-century effort by land managers to stabilize the du
Yachats is a small coastal city in Lincoln County, United States. According to Oregon Geographic Names, the name comes from the Siletz language and means "dark water at the foot of the mountain". There is a range of differing etymologies, however. William Bright says. At the 2010 census, the city's population was 690. In 2007, Budget Travel magazine named Yachats one of the "Ten Coolest Small Towns of the U. S. A.", Yachats was chosen among the top 10 U. S. up-and-coming vacation destinations by Virtualtourist. In 2011, Arthur Frommer, founder of Frommer's Travel Guides, listed Yachats number seven among his ten favorite vacation destinations in the world. Archeological studies have shown. Remains of a pit-house in Yachats have been radiocarbon dated at 570 AD. Yachats is built on numerous graves left by its past inhabitants. Excavations for construction of buildings and U. S. Route 101 uncovered a great many artifacts. Most of these became part of the fill dirt forming the base of the current city. For many centuries the Native Americans in this area were hunter-gatherers who migrated between summer camps and winter residences.
The Alsea Tribe had as many as 20 permanent villages on the Alsea River and the central Oregon coast. Archeological and linguistic evidence support the existence of a southern Alsea village known as the Yahuch band, located on the coast at the Yachats River. By 1860, the Yahuch band was extinct, many having succumbed to European diseases such as smallpox and tuberculosis. In order to open up land in the Coos Bay area for homesteading in the early 1860s, the U. S. Army forcibly marched the Coos and Lower Umpqua Indians 80 miles north over rugged terrain to the Alsea Sub-Agency reservation in Yachats where the peaceful Indians, treated by the Army as though they were prisoners of war, were incarcerated. Amanda's Trail, named for a blind Indian woman who suffered on the march, was dedicated on July 19, 2009; the trail climbs 800 feet from downtown Yachats to the summit of Cape Perpetua where it links with the extensive trail system of the Siuslaw National Forest. In Yachats the hunter-gatherer tribes were forced to learn to make a living by agriculture.
Crops planted near the ocean failed. 300 Indians died in just 10 years. Twelve years after the Alsea Sub-Agency had opened, the Indians were allowed to establish a trail and develop agricultural plots up the Yachats River Valley, where they were able to grow potatoes, oats and corn, they were allowed to return to hunting. Once the Indians had built a new life there, the U. S. government opened up the area for homesteading in 1875, once again, forced the Indians to move—some returned to their ancestral homelands, others went 40 miles north to the Siletz Reservation. Many of the Indians died during this relocation. Homesteaders used the Indian trails to develop the Yachats area. In 1892 the first post office was established in Yachats; until Yachats could be reached by a macadam road, rains made it impossible for the mail to be carried by car. The Roosevelt Memorial Highway, carved out of the rock of Cape Perpetua in 1931, changed all this by opening up a route from the town of Florence. Despite the early difficulties of reaching Yachats, the tourist industry began in 1905 with the conversion of a chittum bark warehouse into the first hotel.
Today tourism is the city's main industry. Yachats was part of the war effort in both World Wars I and II. Spruce was needed for airplanes during World War I, in 1918 the U. S. Army Signal Corps undertook an area about 2 miles north of Yachats. A railroad needed for transporting logs to a mill was completed just three days before the war ended. A private company continued the logging operations, however. Early in World War II the West Shelter built by the Civilian Conservation Corps near the top of Cape Perpetua was used as an observation site and radar station for the detection of enemy submarines and aircraft. In Yachats and gun emplacements were installed along the ocean drive. Military personnel were housed in a local skating rink and the Ladies Club was rented for recreation. After the war, the U. S. Coast Guard discovered Japanese mines; these were destroyed. The Little Log Church is a historical museum displaying many artifacts relating to Yachats's past; the church, built in 1926, was designed in the shape of a cross.
Sir Robert Perks, who owned most of Yachats at the time, provided the property. The museum is now owned by the city. Of city residents age 25 or older in 2000, 94.0% achieved a high school education or higher, compared to the national average of 80.4%, 40.3% held a bachelor's degree or higher compared to 24.4% nationally. As of the census of 2010, there were 690 people, 400 households, 198 families residing in the city; the population density was 758.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 807 housing units at an average density of 886.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.2% White, 0.1% African American, 1.7% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 400 households of which 5.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples livin
Cape Perpetua is a large forested headland projecting into the Pacific Ocean on the central Oregon Coast in Lincoln County, Oregon. The land is managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Siuslaw National Forest. Cape Perpetua is located about 2 miles south of Yachats, along U. S. Route 101, it is a typical Pacific Northwest headland. At its highest point, Cape Perpetua rises to over 800 feet above sea level. From its crest, an observer can see 70 miles of Oregon coastline and as far as 37 miles out to sea on a clear day. For at least 6,000 years, Native Americans hunted for mussels, sea urchins, clams along the coast near Cape Perpetua. Cape Perpetua was part of the southern territory of the Alsea people. In their language the Cape was named Halqaik, which might mean something like'exposed place'. Evidence of their lives can still be found in the huge piles of discarded mussel shells that lie along the shore near the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center; the cape was named by Captain James Cook on March 7, 1778, as he searched for the Pacific entrance to a Northwest Passage.
Cook named the cape Perpetua. The area became part of the Siuslaw National Forest in 1908. In 1914, the United States Forest Service cut a narrow road into the cliff around Cape Perpetua and constructed a wooden bridge across the Yachats River, opening travel between the small community of Yachats and Florence to the south; the wooden bridge was replaced in 1926 with a steel structure. The Cape Perpetua section of the Roosevelt Memorial Highway was built in the 1930s. In 1933, a Civilian Conservation Corps camp was built at the foot of the cape just north of Cape Creek, near where the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center is located today; the CCC constructed the Cape Perpetua campground, a network of trails, the West Shelter observation point near the top of the cape. During World War II, the West Shelter observation point was used as a coastal watch station, a large coastal defense gun was temporarily installed. An SCR-270B radar was installed at an undetermined location to take advantage of the height of the promontory.
The Cape Perpetua Shelter and Parapet were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The Forest Service created the Cape Perpetua Scenic Area and built the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center in the 1960s to highlight the unique beauty of the central Oregon Coast; the scenic area includes 2,700 acres of old growth spruce, Douglas-fir, western hemlock. Camping, hiking, whale watching, a visitor center with daily programs are all available within the Cape Perpetua Scenic Area. There are twenty-six miles of interconnected hiking trails in old growth forests which lead to Pacific Ocean tidal pools. One of the trails leads to a 600-year-old Giant Sitka Spruce known as the Silent Sentinel of the Siuslaw; this tree stands more than 185 feet high, has a 40-foot circumference at its base. On September 15, 2007, this ancient spruce was designated an Oregon Heritage Tree by the State of Oregon to recognize its exceptional age and size and ensure its protection. Along the Cape Perpetua coastline, there are several unique features as well.
The Devil's Churn is a long crack in the coastal rock that fills with each ocean wave exploding as incoming and outgoing waves collide. The Spouting Horn at Cook's Chasm and Thor's Well on the plateau nearby are both salt water fountains driven by the power of the ocean tide. Thor's Well is at 44.278421°N 124.113499°W / 44.278421. Spouting Horn is at 44.277497°N 124.112994°W / 44.277497. Both Thor's Well and Spouting Horn are best seen an hour before high tide to an hour after high tide. How spectacular the sights are is a function of the height of the high tide and the direction and size of the swells; the wind can be a factor. Devil's Churn, Spouting Horn and Thor's Well are popular with visitors; the Cape Perpetua Visitor Center is located two miles south of Yachats. The visitor center has views of the coast from its deck, it is used to watch migrating gray whales. The visitor center has natural history and cultural exhibits, an interactive children's science area, a theater with nature films, a bookstore.
An SCR-270B radar was installed on the site in 1943 in response to the bombing of Mt. Emily, Oregon. Cape Perpetua Visitor Center Siuslaw National Forest
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is a protected area in the northern Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon in the United States. The 4,554-acre park, including the marble cave, is 20 miles east of Cave Junction, on Oregon Route 46; the protected area, managed by the National Park Service, is in southwestern Josephine County, near the Oregon–California border. Elijah Davidson, a resident of nearby Williams, discovered the cave in 1874. Over the next two decades, private investors failed in efforts to run successful tourist ventures at the publicly owned site. After passage of the Antiquities Act by the United States Congress, in 1909 President William Howard Taft established Oregon Caves National Monument, to be managed by the United States Forest Service; the growing popularity of the automobile, construction of paved highways, promotion of tourism by boosters from Grants Pass led to large increases in cave visitation during the late 1920s and thereafter. Among the attractions at the remote monument is the Oregon Caves Chateau, a six-story hotel built in a rustic style in 1934.
It is a National Historic Landmark and is part of the Oregon Caves Historic District within the monument. The NPS, which assumed control of the monument in 1933, offers tours of the cave from mid-April through early November. In 2014, the protected area was expanded by about 4,000 acres and re-designated a National Monument and Preserve. At the same time, the segment of the creek that flows through the cave was renamed for the mythological Styx and added to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Oregon Caves is a solutional cave, with passages totaling about 15,000 feet, formed in marble; the parent rock was limestone that metamorphosed to marble during the geologic processes that created the Klamath Mountains, including the Siskiyous. Although the limestone formed about 190 million years ago, the cave itself is no older than a few million years. Valued as a tourist cave, the cavern has scientific value. Activities at the park include cave touring, hiking and wildlife viewing. One of the park trails leads through the forest to Big Tree, which at 13 feet is the widest Douglas fir known in Oregon.
Lodging and food are available in Cave Junction. Camping is available in the preserve at the Cave Creek Campground, at a local USFS campground, private sites in the area. Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve is in the Siskiyou Mountains, a coastal range, part of the Klamath Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon; the monument consists of 484 acres in the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest, about 6 miles north of the Oregon–California border in Josephine County. Elevations within the monument range from 3,680 to 5,480 feet. Mount Elijah in the preserve rises to 6,390 feet. In December 2014, the U. S. Congress enlarged the protected area that includes the cave and changed its name from Oregon Caves National Monument to Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve; the preserve covers 4,070 acres, both it and the monument, which abuts the preserve, are administered by the same staff. By highway, Oregon Caves is 55 miles southwest of Grants Pass, 300 miles south of Portland and 450 miles north of San Francisco.
The caves are 20 miles east of the small city of Cave Junction via Oregon Route 46 off U. S. Route 199; the main cave has known passages totaling about 15,000 feet in length. Eight separate smaller caves have been discovered in the monument. Runoff from the wooded monument forms small headwater streams of the Illinois River, a major tributary of the Rogue River. One of five small springs in the monument becomes Upper Cave Creek, which flows on the surface before disappearing into its bed and entering the cave. Supplemented by water entering the cave from above, the stream emerges from the main entrance as Cave Creek. Within the cave, Cave Creek is known as the River Styx, named for the river Styx of Greek mythology connecting Earth to the Underworld. In late 2014, Congress added the River Styx to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, which added a level of protection aimed at keeping the stream free-flowing in perpetuity, it is the only subterranean river in the Wild Rivers system. Archeologists believe the first humans to inhabit the Rogue River region were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
Radiocarbon dating suggests. At least 1,500 years before the first contact with whites, the natives established permanent villages along streams. So, no evidence has been found to suggest that any of the native peoples, such as the Takelma who lived along the Rogue and Applegate rivers in the 19th century, used the cave. Bypassed by the early non-native explorers, fur traders, settlers because of its remote location, the region attracted newcomers in quantity when prospectors found gold near Jacksonville in the Rogue River valley in 1851; this led to the creation of Jackson County in 1852 and, after gold discoveries near Waldo in the Illinois River valley, the creation of Josephine County, named for the daughter of a gold miner. With an influx of miners and of settlers who farmed donation land claims, Josephine County's population was only 1,204 in 1870. Elijah Jones Davidson, who discovered the cave in 1874, had emigrated from Illinois to Oregon with his parents, who settled along Williams Creek in Josephine County.
Williams, as the community came to be called, is about 12 miles northeast of the cave. Only a few people visited the cave during the next de
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry