Hara Takashi was a Japanese politician and the 10th Prime Minister of Japan from 29 September 1918 until his assassination on 4 November 1921. He was called Hara Kei informally, he was the first commoner appointed to the office of prime minister of Japan, giving him the informal title of "commoner prime minister". He was the first Japanese Christian prime minister. Hara was born in a village of the feudal Morioka domain in Mutsu Province, he was the son of a samurai-class family which had resisted the Meiji Restoration and the establishment of the government which Hara himself would one day lead. Due to his association with a former enemy clan of the new Imperial Government, dominated by the feudal clans of Chōshū and Satsuma, Hara for long remained an outsider in the world of politics, he went to Tokyo by boat. He failed the entrance examination of the prestigious Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, instead joined the Marin Seminary, a French-established, free parochial school, it was here. Soon after that he joined the law school of the Ministry of Justice, but left without graduating to take responsibility for a student protest against the school’s room and board policy.
At the age of 17 he was baptized as a Roman Catholic, taking the name of "David", though it was speculated that he became Christian for personal gain at the time, he remained a Christian in public life until the day he died. At the age of 19, Hara broke away from his family's samurai class and chose instead the classification of commoner. At various times in his political career, offers were made to raise his rank, but Hara refused them every time on the basis that it would alienate himself from the common men and limit his ability to gain entrance to the House of Representatives. Beginning in 1879, Hara worked as a newspaper reporter for three years, he quit his job in protest over efforts of his editors to make the newspaper a mouthpiece for the Rikken Kaishintō political party of Ōkuma Shigenobu. In 1882, Hara took a position in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the request of Foreign Minister Inoue Kaoru. Based on discussions Hara had with him on his views for the future of Japanese politics during a trip both men took to Korea in 1884, Inoue appointed Hara to become consul-general in Tianjin, the first secretary to the embassy of Japan in Paris.
Under Mutsu Munemitsu, Hara served as ambassador to Korea. He left the Foreign Ministry to work as a journalist for several years, became the manager of a newspaper company, the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun. In 1900, Hara joined Itō Hirobumi's new-founded party Rikken Seiyūkai. Hara became the first secretary-general of the party, he ran for the lower house as a representative from Iwate Prefecture and was appointed Minister of Communications in the Fourth Ito Administration. He served as Home Minister in several cabinets between 1906 and 1913. Hara was able to effect many reforms from the powerful position of Home Minister. Hara realized that a fundamental political issue in Japan was the tension between the elected government and the appointed bureaucracy, his career was dedicated to weakening the power of the non-elected bureaucrats; as Home Minister, he systematically dismissed local bureaucrats in local governments in every capacity from governor down to high school principal. Any public employee who fell under his power would be replaced by someone in whom he saw real ability instead of a mere useful recipient of a favor.
Thus, he created a system in which people with talent could rise to the top of the bureaucracy, regardless of their background or rank. Hara understood that maintenance of the supremacy of the elected leaders depended on the government’s ability to develop the Japanese national infrastructure and on a long-term economic plan that would address regional as well as national interests. In 1914, after heated debate, he was appointed the president of the Rikken Seiyūkai to replace the outgoing leader, Saionji Kinmochi. Under Hara's leadership, Seiyukai first lost its majority control of the Diet in the 1915 general elections, but regained its majority in the 1917 general elections. In 1918, Terauchi Masatake fell from office due to the Rice Riots of 1918. Hara was appointed as his successor on 28 September 1918, it was the first cabinet headed by a commoner. Hara was the first civilian in Japanese history to become the administrative chief of any of the armed services, when he temporarily took charge of the Navy Ministry, in absence of the Navy Minister, Admiral Katō Tomosaburō, serving as the Japanese representative at the Washington Naval Conference.
As prime minister, Hara suffered in terms of popularity, because he refused to use his majority in the lower house to force through universal suffrage legislation. Hara's cautious approach disappointed liberals and socialists, who accused him of delaying universal suffrage as it would endanger his position in power; as a party politician, Hara had never been the favorite of the conservatives and military, he was despised by the ultranationalists. During his term of office, Japan participated in the Paris Peace Conference, joined the League of Nations as a founding member. In Korea, Japan used military force to suppress the Samil Rebellion, but began more lenient policies aimed at reducing opposition to Japanese rule. Following the Samil Uprising, Hara pursued a conciliatory policy towards colonies Korea, he arranged for his political ally, Saitō M
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the Soviets; the February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, the capital of Russia at that time. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government, dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy; the army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Tsar Nicholas's abdication. The Soviets, which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.
The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the left-leaning urban middle class. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin who campaigned for an immediate end to the war, land to the peasants, bread to the workers; when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control.
In the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the now supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist republic, practicing Soviet democracy on a national and international scale; the promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was honored promptly with the Bolshevik leaders signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Cheka was established which functioned as a revolutionary security service that sought to weed out and punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on similar events during the French Revolution.
Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there was a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land; the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. A council of workers called. While the 1905 Revolution was crushed, the leaders of the St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to 1917.
The 1905 Revolution led to the creation of a Duma, that would form the Provisional Government following February 1917. The outbreak of World War I prompted general outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family. While the nation was engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of defeats and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion; the Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in 1915. This proved to be disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia; this led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against th
Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department
The Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department serves as the police force of Tokyo Metropolis. Founded in 1874, it is headed by a Superintendent-General, appointed by the National Public Safety Commission, approved by the Prime Minister; the Metropolitan Police, with a staff of more than 40,000 police officers, over 2,800 civilian personnel, manages 102 stations in the prefecture. The main building of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department is located in the Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda ward, Tokyo. Built in 1980, it is 18 stories tall, a large wedge-shaped building with a cylindrical tower, it is seen from the street and a well-known landmark. In 2007, the TMPD was under scrutiny when a serving TMPD officer was involved in an incident where he used his official sidearm to shoot a female person to death before he committed suicide; the TMPD was investigating an incident in the Kamata Police Station in Ota Ward where a police officer committed suicide due to harassment at work. The chief in charge has been disciplined.
The Metropolitan Police Department is under the command of a Superintendent-General and reports directly to the Tokyo Metropolitan Public Safety Commission. The Superintendent-General can be appointed and replaced at any time as long as the prime minister and the TMPSC receives their approval. Since the MPD is autonomous, it does not operate under the authority of any Regional Police Bureau; the MPD commands the following bureaus: Administration Bureau Personnel and Training Bureau Traffic Bureau Community Police Affairs Bureau Security Bureau Public Security Bureau Criminal Investigation Bureau Community Safety Bureau Organized Crime Control Bureau The MPD has its own academy, the Metropolitan Police Department Academy. The ranks used in the TMPD have been revised in 2013, changing only the English translation of some of the ranks used by the force. Otherwise, these ranks are observed throughout its history. Superintendent-General Deputy Superintendent-General Senior Commissioner Superintendent Supervisor Commissioner Chief Superintendent Assistant Commissioner Senior Superintendent Superintendent Chief Inspector Inspector Inspector Assistant Inspector Sergeant Senior Police Officer Police Officer Security Police Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department
Demography of the Empire of Japan
This article deals with the population of the Empire of Japan. See demographics of Japan and demographics of Japan before Meiji Restoration; the population of Japan at the time of the Meiji Restoration was estimated to be 34,985,000 on January 1, 1873, while the official original family registries and de facto populations on the same day were 33,300,644 and 33,416,939, respectively. These were comparable to the population of the United Kingdom and Austria-Hungary. Meiji government established the uniformed registered system of koseki in 1872, called Jinshin koseki; the first national census based on a full sampling of inhabitants was conducted in Japan in 1920 and was conducted every five years thereafter. Per the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the population distribution of Japan proper from 1920 to 1945 is as follows The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman, it is based on good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.
The above figures include Hokkaidō, the northernmost island, sparsely populated, with area similar to the state of Maine. In Japan proper, the population of major cities was as follows: In 1937 Japanese demographers projected the Japanese population in 1980 to reach 100,000,000, in accordance with observed growth rates. Japan annexed Taiwan after the First Sino-Japanese War, while victory in the Russo-Japanese War gained Japan the Kwantung Leased Territory and Korea; these acquisitions increased the area controlled by Japanese to 262,912 square miles. The total population of the Empire of Japan, including Taiwan and Karafuto was 64,940,034 on Dec 31, 1908, which could be broken down as follows: Japan proper: 51,742,486 Korea: 9,918,566 Taiwan: 3,252,589 Karafuto: 26,393And the population of concessions as of Dec 31, 1908, was as follows: Kwantung: 427,117 Railway Zone: 28,307The census population in 1940 was: Japan proper: 73,114,308 Korea: 24,327,326 Formosa: 5,746,959 Karafuto: 339,357 Kwantung: 1,889,123 South Seas Mandate: 161,792 Total: 105,226,202 In terms of cities, the population of major cities: The population of Manchuria in early 1934 was estimated at 30,880,000.
These numbers included 30,190,000 Chinese, 590,760 Japanese, 98,431 other nationalities. The Chinese numbers included 680,000 ethnic Koreans. In 1937, shortly after the foundation of Manchukuo, the government launched a twenty-year colonization program, with the goal of increasing the population through the immigration of 1,000,000 Japanese families between 1936 and 1956; this was in addition to the Japanese military garrison of 300,000 men in 1937. Between 1938 and 1942 a contingent of young farmers of 200,000 arrived in Manchukuo. In Shinkyō Japanese made up 25% of the population. By 1940, the total population of Manchukuo was estimated at 36,933,000, which included 1 million Japanese civilian and 500,000 Japanese military personnel; these figures exclude that of the Kwantung Leased Territory and Dalian, which were included within that of the Japanese overseas territories. Taeuber Irene B. and Beal, Edwin G. The Demographic Heritage of the Japanese Empire, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 237, World Population in Transition, pp. 64–71 Population of Japan, Statistics Bureau Kindai Digital Library at the National Diet Libray of Japan Imperial Japan Static Population Statistics as of December 31, 1908 Japan Registered Population Tables as of January 1, 1874 DSpace at Waseda University Kokudaka and population Table Boys, Anthony FF, World Population, 2000 Wendell Cox Consultancy New York Times, Mar 2, 1921 Asian Population Statistics
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directive to the Japanese government, aiming to transform it into a non-terrorist nation. In Japan, the position was referred to as GHQ, as SCAP referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U. S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet ratified after a few amendments. Australian, British and New Zealand forces under SCAP were organized into a sub-command known as British Commonwealth Occupation Force; these actions led MacArthur to be viewed as the new Imperial force in Japan by many Japanese political and civilian figures being considered to be the rebirth of the shōgun-style government which Japan was ruled under until the start of the Meiji Restoration. Biographer William Manchester argues that without MacArthur's leadership, Japan would not have been able to make the move from an imperial, totalitarian state, to a democracy.
At his appointment, MacArthur announced that he sought to "restore security and self-respect" to the Japanese people. One of the largest of the SCAP programs was Public Health and Welfare, headed by U. S. Army Colonel Crawford F. Sams. Working with the SCAP staff of 150, Sams directed the welfare work of the American doctors, organized new Japanese medical welfare systems along American lines; the Japanese population was physically badly worn down and medicines were scarce, sanitary systems had been bombed out in larger cities. His earliest priorities were in distributing food supplies from the U. S. Millions of refugees from the defunct overseas Empire were pouring in in bad physical shape, with a high risk of introducing smallpox and cholera; the outbreaks that did occur were localized, as emergency immunization, quarantine and delousing prevented massive epidemics. Sams, promoted to Brigadier General in 1948, worked with Japanese officials to establish vaccine laboratories, reorganize hospitals along American lines, upgrade medical and nursing schools, bring together Japanese, U.
S. teams that dealt with disasters, child care, health insurance. He set up an Institute of Public Health for educating public health workers and a National Institute of Health for research, set up statistical divisions and data collection systems. SCAP arrested 28 suspected war criminals on account of crimes against peace, but it did not conduct the Tokyo trials. President Harry Truman had negotiated Japanese surrender on the condition the Emperor would not be executed or put on trial. SCAP carried out that policy; as soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Before the war crimes trials convened, SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family being indicted, but to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo Prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, MacArthur decided not to prosecute Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On May 6, 1947, he wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence." The deal was concluded in 1948. According to historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, "MacArthur's extraordinary measures to save the Emperor from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war." Above the political and economic control SCAP had for the seven years following Japan's surrender, SCAP had strict control over all of the Japanese media, under the formation of the Civil Censorship Detachment of SCAP. The CCD banned a total of 31 topics from all forms of media.
These topics included: Criticism of SCAP. All Allied countries. Criticism of Allied policy pre- and post-war. Any form of imperial propaganda. Defense of war criminals. Praise of "undemocratic" forms of government, though praise of SCAP itself was permitted; the atomic bomb. Black market activities. Open discussion of allied diplomatic relations. Although some of the CCD censorship laws relaxed towards the end of SCAP, some topics, like the atomic bomb, were taboo until 1952 at the end of the occupation. MacArthur was succeeded as SCAP by General Matthew Ridgway when MacArthur was relieved by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War in April 1951; when the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect on April 28, 1952, the post of SCAP lapsed. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1.
Police services of the Empire of Japan
The Police System of the Empire of Japan comprised numerous police services, in many cases with overlapping jurisdictions. During the Tokugawa bakufu, police functions were based on a combination of appointed town magistrates of samurai status, who served as chiefs of police and judges; the magistrates were assisted by a professional police force with samurai status officers, deputized jittemochi commoners with powers of arrest. The citizenry was organized into gonin-gumi, the forerunner of the tonarigumi, whose members were collectively responsible for the actions and activities of any one of their members; the official formula used in feudal times to inform a subject that he had been placed under arrest was to shout "Go yo!" – the expression was used to mean "Official business!" or "Clear the way!". As part of the modernization of Japan after the Meiji Restoration, the new Meiji government sent Kawaji Toshiyoshi on a tour of Europe in 1872 to study various law enforcement systems, he returned impressed with the structure and techniques of the police forces of France's Third Republic and of Prussia as models for the new Japanese police system.
With the establishment of the Home Ministry in 1873, his recommendations were implemented, civilian police powers were centralized at the national level, although implementation was delegated to the prefectural level. Under the Home Ministry, the Keihōkyoku had quasi-judicial functions, including the power to issue ordinances, regulate business licenses, construction permits, industrial safety and public health issues, in addition to its criminal investigation and public order functions; the centralized police system acquired responsibilities, until it controlled all aspects of daily life, including fire prevention and mediation of labor disputes. During the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, the lack of an organized, trained standing army forced the central government to use units from the police bureau as militia to suppress the uprising. After 1911, a separate department, the Special Higher Police, was established to deal with political crimes; the Tokko investigated and suppressed subversive ideologies, ranging from anarchism, communism and the growing foreign population within Japan, but its scope increased to include religious groups, student activists and ultra-rightists.
The Tokko regulated the content of motion pictures, political meetings, election campaigns. The Tokko had a counter-espionage function similar to MI5 in Great Britain; the military fell under the jurisdiction of the Kempeitai for the Imperial Japanese Army and the Tokkeitai for the Imperial Japanese Navy, although both organizations had overlapping jurisdiction over the civilian population. After the Manchurian Incident of 1931, military police assumed greater authority, leading to friction with their civilian counterparts. After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, police regulated industry and commerce to maximize the war effort and to prevent speculation and hoarding, mobilized labor, controlled transportation. Civil police services were set up overseas. From the 1930s period to the Pacific War, other similar but "native" civil police services operated in Manchukuo and the Nanking Nationalist Government; the police and security services in South Pacific Mandate and occupied Pacific areas were the charge of the Tokeitai.
The Tokyo metropolitan area came under the jurisdiction of the Teikoku Keishichō or Keishichō, headed by Kawaji from 1874, from which he could direct the organization of the national police system. The vague wording of the Peace Preservation Laws gave all police organizations wide scope for interpretation of what constituted "criminal activity", under the guise of "maintenance of order", the police were allowed broad powers for surveillance and arrest. Lack of accountability and a tradition of'guilty until proven innocent' led to many of the brutalities carried out by the police forces. In rural areas the police had great authority and were accorded the same mixture of fear and respect as the village head; the increasing involvement of the police in political affairs was one of the foundations of the authoritarian state in Japan in the first half of the twentieth century. After Japan's surrender in 1945, the American occupation authorities retained the prewar police structure until a new system was implemented and the Diet of Japan passed the 1947 Police Law creating the new National Police Agency.
At the beginning of modern police systems, only senior officers were permitted to wear a sword, so most constables had only a baton. In 1882, all officers started to be issued a sabre. Only some elite detectives, bodyguards, or SWAT units such as the Special Security Unit of the TMPD were issued pistols. FN Model 1910 or Colt Model 1903 were used for open-carry uses, FN M1905 or Colt Model 1908 Vest Pocket for concealed carry uses, and in the border area like Karafuto Prefecture and Korea, there were some armed police units with military small arms. Kempeitai Tokeitai Tokko Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department Law enforcement in Japan National Police Agency Tipton, Elise. Japanese Police State Tokko – the Interwar Japan. Allen and Unwin. ASIN: B000TYWIKW. Cunningham, Don. Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3536-5. Katzenstein, Peter J. Cultural Norms and National Security: Police and M
Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni
General Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni was a Japanese imperial prince, a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 30th Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. An uncle-in-law of Emperor Hirohito twice over, Prince Higashikuni was the only member of the Japanese imperial family to head a cabinet and was the last general officer of the Imperial Japanese military to become Prime Minister, he was the founder of the Chiba Institute of Technology. Prince Naruhiko was born in Kyoto, the ninth son of Prince Kuni Asahiko and the court lady Terao Utako, his father, Prince Asahiko, was a son of Prince Fushimi Kuniie, the twentieth head of the Fushimi-no-miya, the oldest of the sesshu shinnōke or cadet branches of the imperial dynasty from whom an emperor might be chosen in default of a direct heir. Prince Naruhiko was a half-brother of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi, the father of the future Empress Kōjun, the wife of Emperor Hirohito, his other half-brothers, Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, Prince Nashimoto Morimasa, Prince Kaya Kuninori, all formed new branches of the imperial family during the Meiji period.
Emperor Meiji granted Prince Naruhiko the title Higashikuni-no-miya and permission to start a new branch of the imperial family on 3 November 1906. Prince Naruhiko married the ninth daughter of Emperor Meiji, Princess Toshiko, on 18 May 1915; the couple had four sons. Prince Higashikuni Morihiro. Prince Moromasa. Prince Akitsune. Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army. In 1908, he graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy as a second lieutenant, was promoted to lieutenant in 1910 and to captain in 1913. In 1914, he graduated from the Army War College, he was commissioned a captain in the 29th Infantry Brigade, promoted to major in the IJA 7th Division in 1915. Prince Higashikuni studied military tactics at the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique in Paris France, from 1920 to 1926, during which time he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in 1920 and to colonel in 1926. Always somewhat of a rebel, Prince Higashikuni's behavior in Paris scandalized the Imperial Court.
He had a French mistress, enjoyed high living. He left his wife and children in Japan, the death of his second son did not prompt his return. In 1926, the Imperial Household Ministry dispatched a chamberlain to Paris to collect him. Upon his return to Japan, he was assigned to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Headquarters. Promoted to major-general in August 1930 and appointed commander of the 5th Infantry Brigade, he was promoted to lieutenant-general in August 1934 and given command of the IJA 4th Division. After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, he headed the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, the IJA 2nd Army stationed in China from 1938–1939, he was promoted to general in August 1939. According to a memo discovered by historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Prince Higashikuni authorized the use of poison gas against the Chinese on 16 August 1938. On 13 May 1939 the Imperial General Headquarters authorized the use of poison gas to Japanese Northern China Area Army（大陸指第四百五十二号). Only riot control agents were used till then.
Prince Higashikuni moved to the post at home dated 4 January 1939. Promoted to full general, The prince was awarded the Order of the Golden Kite, 1st Class in 1940. Before the start of the Second World War, on 15 October 1941, outgoing Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe proposed Prince Higashikuni to Emperor Hirohito as his successor for prime minister. Konoe believed that only a member of the Imperial Family with a distinguished military background could restrain the pro-war faction led by Generals Hajime Sugiyama, Hideki Tōjō, Akira Mutō. Prince Higashikuni was the choice of both Chief of Staffs of the Army and the Navy. However, both Emperor Hirohito and the Lord Privy Seal, Kido Kōichi, believed that it would be inappropriate for a member of the Imperial Family to serve in that position, as he could be blamed for anything which went wrong in the war. Thus, two days Hirohito chose General Hideki Tōjō as Prime Minister. In 1946, he explained this decision: "I thought Prince Higashikuni suitable as Chief of Staff of the Army.
Above all, in time of peace this is fine, but when there is a fear that there may be a war more considering the welfare of the imperial house, I wonder about the wisdom of a member of the Imperial family serving."Six weeks Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. During the early stages of the Pacific War, Prince Higashikuni served as commander of the General Defense Command from 1941 to 1944. Prince Higashikuni remained steadfast in his opposition to the war with the Allied powers, was part of the conspiracy which ousted Tōjō in July 1944 following the fall of Saipan to American forces; the American researchers with SCAP found out that he had planned towards the end of the war t