Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan; the city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; the first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States, it is the fourth-most-populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio, after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron.
Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks for stockades." One was at the intersection of Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples; this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615; the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north, they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth.
They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas; the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River, they were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River. Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time; the Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan, on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U. S. More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. To the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
These two towns bordered each other across Cherry Street. This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a different angle from those southwest of it. In 1824, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in 1833, its Wabash and Erie Canal extension; the canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, it was difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status; the towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville and Maumee. The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends.
One recounts that Washington Irving, traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major
Kent State Golden Flashes men's basketball
The Kent State Golden Flashes men's basketball team represents Kent State University in Kent, United States. The Golden Flashes compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division I level as a member of the Mid-American Conference East Division; the team was founded in 1913 and played their first intercollegiate game in January 1915. They joined the Mid-American Conference in 1951 and have played in the East division since the MAC went to the divisional format in 1997. Home games are held at the Memorial Athletic and Convocation Center, which opened in 1950 and is one of the oldest arenas in college basketball. Rob Senderoff was hired as the 24th coach in the program's history; the Flashes gained national attention in the late 1990s and early 2000s after earning their first bid to the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 1999. Two years Kent State picked up their first tournament win, followed the next year by their run to the Elite Eight in 2002 as a 10th seed where the Flashes finished the season ranked 12th nationally.
The 2002 Golden Flashes set a team record with 30 wins along with a MAC single-season record of 17 conference wins. Through the 2016–17 season, Kent State has six total appearances in the NCAA Tournament, the most recent being in 2017, along with eight appearances in the National Invitation Tournament, four in the CollegeInsider.com Tournament. In MAC play, the Flashes have six regular-season titles, nine East division titles, six MAC Tournament championships; the men's basketball team is Kent State's oldest collegiate team, founded in 1913 during the first fall semester at the new Kent State Normal School campus. The team was organized, though only five men were enrolled out of the initial enrollment of 140 at the beginning of the term, as the new school was a teacher training college and thus had a predominately female student body. More men would arrive at the school in the coming weeks, they played and won their first game against Kent High School and competed against local company and high school teams for that first season, going 7–2.
During the following season, Kent State played its first intercollegiate game, a 56–6 loss to Otterbein College, on January 22, 1915. An additional intercollegiate game, a 54–18 home loss to Muskingum College, was played that year along with three other games against local teams. Kent State's first intercollegiate win was recorded March 10, 1916, a 27–17 home win over Ashland College, played in the former heating plant and manual training building. A shortage of men during both World Wars prevented teams from being formed for the 1917–18, 1918–19, 1943–44 seasons. Beginning in 1932, Kent State played as a member of the Ohio Athletic Conference before joining the Mid-American Conference and beginning league play in 1951. Kent State was placed in the East Division when the MAC went to a divisional alignment in 1997. During their first years of existence, a variety of different venues were used for home games including on-campus facilities at what is now Cartwright Hall and the old heating plant, as well as off-campus facilities at the local Congregational Church gymnasium and Theodore Roosevelt High School, until Wills Gymnasium opened in 1925.
In 1950, the team moved to their current home, the Memorial Athletic and Convocation Center, known as the Men's Physical Education Building until 1956 and as Memorial Gym until 1992. The team played in relative anonymity for most of its existence, they made their first appearance in the MAC Tournament Championship game in 1984, losing a close 42–40 game. They would make the title game again in 1989, losing both 64 -- 63 and 67 -- 65 respectively; the Flashes made their first post-season appearance in the 1985 National Invitation Tournament, losing in the first round. They returned to the NIT in 1990, losing in the first round both times. In 1996, Gary Waters was hired as head coach and began to build what would become the longest run of success in Mid-American Conference history. In 1999 the Flashes won over 20 games and defeated the Miami RedHawks in the MAC Tournament Championship game in Toledo to win their first MAC Tournament title and make their first-ever NCAA Tournament appearance, where they were defeated by Temple in the opening round at FleetCenter in Boston.
The following season, the Flashes again won over 20 games and finished second in the MAC East, but failed to win the conference tournament and received their first NIT invitation since 1990. The Flashes hosted the first-round game against Rutgers and recorded their first-ever post-season win, a 73–62 victory. Kent State would win their second-round match-up at Villanova before falling in the quarterfinals at Penn State; the 2000–2001 season saw the Flashes win their first-ever MAC East title and their second tournament title to return to the NCAA Tournament. The experience in the NIT proved to be valuable as Kent State scored their first win, a 77–73 upset over the fourth-seeded Indiana Hoosiers, before falling to the Cincinnati Bearcats in the second round in San Diego. At the end of the 2000–01 season, Waters accepted the head coaching job at Rutgers. While at KSU, Waters overall record was 92–60, he was succeeded at Kent State by Stan Heath. Kent State enjoyed its best season in 2001–2002, led by seniors Trevor Huffman, Andrew Mitchell, Demetric Shaw, Eric Thomas and junior transfer Antonio Gates.
The season saw MAC records set in overall wins, conference wins, longest winning streak. After beginning the season 4–4, Kent State won 20 of their next 21 games. Following their only MAC loss of the season, they proceeded to win 15 straight games to close the regular season at 24–5 with a 17–1 record in the MAC and w
Ohio Bobcats men's basketball
The Ohio Bobcats men's basketball team is an intercollegiate varsity sports program of Ohio University. The team is a member of the Mid-American Conference East Division competing in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the Bobcats have played their home games in the Convocation Center since 1968. The first Ohio basketball game occurred in 1907 when the Bobcats defeated the Parkersburg YMCA 46–9. Through the 2005–06 season, Ohio has posted a.569 winning percentage over its 100-year history and a.566 winning percentage in its 61 years in the Mid-American Conference. The Bobcats have won six Mid-American Conference tournament titles, as well as 10 MAC regular-season titles. Prior to joining the MAC, the'Cats won an Ohio Athletic Conference title in 1921 and three Buckeye Athletic Association championships. In addition, Ohio has played in the NCAA Tournament 13 times, appearing in 1960, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1983, 1985, 1994, 2005, 2010 and 2012; the Bobcats have been selected for the National Invitation Tournament five times: in 1941, 1969, 1986, 1995, 2013.
Ohio appeared in the College Basketball Invitational in 2008 and 2016 and the CollegeInsider.com Tournament in 2011 and 2014. The program was ranked 86th in Street & Smith's 100 Greatest Basketball Programs of All Time, published in 2005; the first intercollegiate men's basketball game involving an Ohio University team was played in Athens in 1907 against the Parkersburg YMCA. Under the direction of coach James Jones, the Bobcats won the game by a score of 46–9 and continued their victories with a 5-game winning streak to start the season. The'Cats would go on to earn a 7 -- 4 record. Coach Jones would only be at Ohio for two more seasons, leading the team to records of 1–1 in the 1908–09 campaign and 2–5 during the 1909–10 season. Over the next three seasons, the basketball program was in a state of flux, with a new coach taking over the reins every year. Ohio joined the Ohio Athletic Conference in 1911, started out poorly under coach Arthur Hinaman with a 2–9 record. A bit of stability arrived to Athens with the hiring of coach Mark Banks in 1913.
Banks would lead the program to a 3–10 season in his first year, but the'Cats surged to 11–4 in Bank's second year at the helm. That 1914–1915 squad beat the Cincinnati Bearcats and the Miami Redskins twice, while impressively defeating Wooster by a score of 51–20. Banks teams would fall off over the next several seasons, with the low point being a 2–14 mark in the 1916–1917 campaign. Banks would coach only one more year, with the Bobcats posting a 4–8 record in the 1918–1919 season. Bank's successor was Frank Gullum, who in his two years at the helm was 5 -- 6, respectively. Gullum was succeeded by Russell Finsterwald, who led the team to an outstanding 15–2 season in his first year at the helm; that 1920–1921 team defeated the Miami Redskins and Cincinnati Bearcats each twice, earned Ohio's first Ohio Athletic Association title. Finsterwald's 1921–1922 squad was impressive, posting a 19–4 mark with two wins against the Bowling Green Falcons. Though Finsterwald would only last these two seasons, his work cannot be underestimated in steering the'Cats towards a legacy of success.
Butch Grover took the reins of the Ohio program in 1922, led the team to a newfound level of success. His inaugural 1922–1923 season was marked by an 11–8 record, wins over teams such as the Cincinnati Bearcats and the Marietta Pioneers. In 1923, the Bobcats marked their move into the brand new Men's Gymnasium with a 16–5 record and a near miss of an Ohio Athletic Conference title. Several winning seasons the Bobcats moved into the Buckeye Athletic Association in 1926 and started off with an 8–13 mark in the 1926–1927 season. Ohio won its first Buckeye Athletic Association title with a 12–4 mark. Just two seasons in 1933–1934, the Bobcats won another Buckeye Athletic Association championship with a 16–4 record and two wins over the archrival Miami Redskins; the 1936–1937 season marked Grover's third and final Buckeye Athletic Association championship. The Bobcats were 18–3 that year, earned wins over programs such as Xavier and Dayton. William J. "Dutch" Trautwein took over the Bobcat basketball program in 1938.
He led the team to 12 -- 19 -- 6 records in his first two seasons. In the 1940–41 season, the team earned a record of 18–4, was selected for the National Invitation Tournament after a season which included wins over Xavier, Toledo and archrival Miami. With the play of Frank Baumholtz, the Bobcats finished as runners-up in the tournament to perennial power Long Island University. Baumholtz, known as the "Midvale Marvel", earned tournament MVP honors and All-American status for his NIT performance. Following his Ohio career, he became one of a few to play two professional sports – basketball with the Cleveland Rebels in 1946–47 and baseball with the Chicago Cubs, Cincinnati Reds, Philadelphia Phillies over a 10-year career. After several more winning seasons under Trautwein, the Bobcats undertook a new challenge in 1946 when they joined the new Mid-American Conference. The'Cats were 13–10 in their first year in the MAC, followed that up with a 10–10 mark in the 1947–1948 season; the 1948–1949 season was Trautwein's last, with the team compiling a 6–16 record.
Ohio alumnus Jim Snyder took over for Trautwein in 1949. Ohio's winningest coach, dubbed "Gentleman Jim", guided the Bobcats for a quarter century. With star players like Jim Betts, Bunk Adams, Jerry Jackson, Don Hilt, Gerald McKee and Sports Illustrated cover boy Walter Luckett, Snyder won a total of
University of Toledo
The University of Toledo referred to as U of Toledo or UT, is a public research university located in Toledo, United States. The university operates a 450-acre Health Science campus, which includes the University of Toledo Medical Center, in the West Toledo neighborhood of Toledo; the university was founded in 1872 in downtown Toledo as the Toledo University of Trades. It closed after six years and was turned over to the city of Toledo to reopen in 1884 as the Toledo Manual Training School and developed from a vocational school into a university through the late 1800s; the university moved to its current location in the Ottawa neighborhood in 1931. Since its establishment, the university has physically expanded to include more than 100 major buildings with a combined area of more 1,400 acres and transformed its academic program from a vocational and secondary education into a comprehensive research university, known for its curriculum in the science and medical fields. Toledo has a current enrollment of over 20,000 students.
The university has a vibrant campus life, with over 300 student organizations. Its athletic teams, called the Rockets, are members of the Mid-American Conference; the University of Toledo began in 1872 as a private arts and trades school offering subjects such as painting and architectural drawing. The idea behind the school was fostered by Jesup Wakeman Scott, a local newspaper editor, who published a pamphlet in 1868 entitled "Toledo: Future Great City of the World." Scott's publication expressed his belief that the center of world commerce was moving westward, by 1900 would be located in Toledo. In preparation for the expected westward expansion of world commerce to Toledo, Scott donated 160 acres of land as an endowment for a university and the Toledo University of Arts and Trades was incorporated on October 12, 1872; the university's original mission was to "furnish artists and artisans with the best facilities for a high culture in their professions...." Scott died in 1874, a year before the university opened in an old church building downtown Toledo.
By the late 1870s the school was in financial trouble and after thirty years in operation, the school closed in 1878. On January 8, 1884, the assets of the school became property of the city of Toledo; the school reopened as the under direction of the city as the Toledo Manual Training School. It offered a three-year program for students at least 13 years old who received both academic and manual instruction. Jerome Raymond, the university's first president, expanded its offerings in the early 1900s by affiliating with the Toledo Conservatory of Music, the YMCA College of Law, the Toledo Medical College. Raymond created the College of Arts and Sciences. Despite the expansion, the school struggled financially and endured various legal battles over control. A. Monroe Stowe became president in 1914, helped organize and stabilize the university and on January 30, 1914 the college became known as Toledo University. Stowe founded the College of Commerce and Industry in 1914, the College of Education in 1916.
During the period, enrollment grew from 200 students to around 1,500. Along with the expanded academic offerings, extracurricular activities increased with the university's first intercollegiate athletic programs forming in 1915, including football in 1917. Other organizations formed, such as the addition of a student council and the university's first student newspaper, The Universi-Teaser, in 1919; the athletic programs received their nickname, the Rockets, in 1923 from a newspaper writer, who thought the name reflected the teams playing style. By the 1920s, Toledo University was a growing institution, limited only by the buildings that housed it. Classes were held in two downtown buildings. In 1922, the university moved into an automobile mechanics training facility, constructed for World War I on the original Scott land after it outgrew the two downtown buildings where the university first operating in. Despite being twice the size of the old buildings, the location on the Scott land became outdated after a 32 percent increase in enrollment created a shortage in classroom space.
In 1928, Henry J. Doermann soon initiated plans for a new campus. Doermann received his funding after a city-initiated bond levy passed by 10,000 votes. Doermann worked with a local architectural firm to design the new campus using design elements of the universities of Europe, the hope was that the architecture would inspire students. Less than a year University Hall and the Field House were completed in the Collegiate Gothic style. Although enrollments remained stable during the Great Depression, Philip C. Nash, who became president following Doermann's sudden death, instituted drastic measures to cut costs combined with New Deal funds from the federal government to help pay for new construction and scholarships; the impact of World War II drastically affected the university. The military contracted with university to offer war-training programs for both military and civilian persons. Areas of study for civilians included: Engineering and Management War Training program classes, Civilian Pilot Training classes.
The military used the university to house, train a detachment of the 27th Army Air Crew while the U. S. Cadet Nurse Corps trained nurses for army field hospitals. Enrollment of women grew during the
The Toledo Rockets are the athletic teams that represent the University of Toledo. The Rockets are a Division I Football Bowl Subdivision team in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and play in the Mid-American Conference; the school's colors are midnight gold. Toledo's principal rivals are the Falcons of Bowling Green State University; the two teams play for a trophy each year known as the Peace Pipe, a prize that originated in basketball but progressed to football in 1980. This rivalry is sometimes known as "The Battle for I-75" because the cities of Toledo and Bowling Green are located just off Interstate 75 and only 20 miles separate the two campuses. A member of the West Division of the Mid-American Conference, Toledo sponsors teams in six men's and ten women's NCAA sanctioned sports; when The University of Toledo played the then-powerful Carnegie Institute of Technology in football on September 29, 1923, Pittsburgh sports writers were surprised to learn that UT did not have a nickname.
Though an underdog, Toledo fought formidably, recovering a series of embarrassing fumbles by favored Tech. Pittsburgh writers pressed James E. Neal, a UT junior pharmacy student and writer for The Campus Collegian, working in the press box, to come up with a nickname for his school's team. Despite UT's 32-12 loss, the student labeled the team "Skyrockets," impressed by his alma mater's flashy performance against a superior team. William B. Hook, who started as an unknown substitute guard and ended a hero, grabbed a Carnegie fumble out of the air and raced 99 yards for a touchdown. A sportswriters remarked that Hook looked more like a rocket than a skyrocket as Carnegie Tech players failed to overtake him. Other writers began using the name "Rockets" with quotation marks in their stories, but after one week the quotation marks were dropped and The University of Toledo's nickname remained the Rockets; the Bowling Green State University Falcons have been the Rocket's biggest rival, dating back to 1919.
In 1935, UT beat the Falcons in a 63-0 blowout, the Toledo fans went crazy causing an outbreak of riots and damage. As a result, Bowling Green removed Toledo from their athletic play list until 1947; when the Rockets resumed play against Bowling Green, the Peace Pipe was instituted as a basketball award. There used to be a ceremony involving journalistic organizations from Toledo and Bowling Green at halftime of one of the UT-BG basketball games every year. Representatives from each school's newspaper smoked a six-foot peace pipe, carved from wood, with the winning school keeping the pipe until the next season. In 1969, the tradition came to an abrupt end when the pipe was stolen from its resting-place in the Collegian office; the thief was never caught, nor was the pipe recovered. The tradition was reinstated in 1980 for football with a miniature peace pipe replica resting atop a trophy created by Frank Kralik, former UT football player, as an award for the winner of the annual football game between Toledo and Bowling Green.
Rocky the Rocket, The University of Toledo's mascot, was created in the 1966–67 academic year by the Spirits and Traditions committee, an appendage of student government, with various students being chosen to dress up as the mascot for different games. In the fall of 1968, Rocky was taken under the wing of Dan Seemann, Director of Student Activities at the time, the First Official Rocky the Rocket, Bill Navarre, emerged. Navarre assumed the role at both home and away football and basketball games, wearing the Rocky the Rocket costume, made by the theatre department seamstress: a wastepaper basket with a pointed rocket top made of papier-mâché. In the past, Rocky was run by the Student Activities office, but is now supported by the Athletics Department. Any student can try out in the spring semester to be Rocky for the following year; the mascot can be viewed at various university sponsored events including pep rallies and away football games and women's basketball games and the homecoming parade.
Over the years, Rocky's costume has changed many times: In the early 1970s, Rocky wore a tall metal rocket helmet with many different jumpsuit type outfits, including such items as bell-bottom pants. In 1977, an authentic spacesuit and boots were donated to the university by the NASA Space Center in Houston, Texas with the help of former Ohio astronaut and Senator, John Glenn; the space suit was used for football games, but because of its mass, a lightweight replica was used for the basketball season. Both suits were used until 1980. Another Rocky costume, plush with huge feet, was introduced in 1983, but was only used until 1986 when a big blue plush Rocky with smaller feet was unveiled. Throughout the late 80s and most of the 90s only minor changes were made to Rocky's costume. In 1998, at the Bowling Green football game, the old Rocky got into a limousine and the new Rocky stepped out and displayed the new blue and gold rocket man Rocky costume, complete with jetpack. In 2002, an inflatable Rocky.
In 2008, the Rocketman Rocky and the inflatable Rocky the Rocket were retired, a new foam Rocketman Rocky arrived on the field of the Glass Bowl on a motorcycle. In 2011, at the home football opener pep rally, the female version of the 2008 Rocky, was introduced. Football at The University of Toledo started in 1917 with a 145 to 0 loss to The University of Detroit, they finished off that season 0-3, being out scored by their opponents 262-0. For twenty years, UT football teams were moved from one stadium to another including Armory Park, Waite Bowl, the Nebraska Avenue grounds, St. John's field, Swayne Field and Libbey Stadium. In 1937, The Un
NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca