Filippo Parodi was an Italian sculptor of the Baroque period, Genoas first and greatest native Baroque sculptor. Born in Genoa into a family of sculptors, Parodi developed his facility with wood and his two extended sojourns in Rome refined his style, he joined the studio of Bernini as an assistant, although he appears to have been influenced by Algardi and his pupil Ercole Ferrata. Later on returning to Genoa, he met the French Baroque sculptor Pierre Puget, Parodi developed a large studio to handle a large number of commissions. In Genoa during the 1661-1670s, he completed an Ecstasy of Saint Martha for Santa Marta, a Saint John for Santa Maria di Carignano, the cornice is crowded with celebrative angels by a stuccador from Lugano, Pietro Roncaioli. In Venice, he completed the elaborate funeral Monument of Bishop Francesco Morosini, for Johann Adam Andreas I von Liechtenstein of Vienna, he produced two allegorical busts and Virtue, which remain in the Liechtenstein collection, Vienna. The expressive bust of Vice has a specific Bernini source in Berninis Anima dannata, the statues are emotive and often witty reworkings of sculptures by Bernini.
Parodi worked with Giacomo Antonio Ponsonelli an Italian late-Baroque sculptor who was his son-in-law, other pupils of Parodi were Angelo de Rossi, Andrea Brustolon, the brothers Francesco, Francesco Bonanni, and Bernardo Schiaffino. Glory of the Magdalene, high altar, S. Maria delle Vigne, boy with a Skull Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg Winter from a set of Seasons Bruce Boucher. Pelican History of Art and Architecture Italy, 1600-1750
Giovanni I Cornaro
Giovanni I Corner or Cornaro was the 96th Doge of Venice, reigning from 24 January 1625 until his death. He was the son of Marcantonio Cornaro and Cecilia Giustinian and he married Chiara Dolfin on 10 February 1578 and the couple had twelve children. He served as capitano of Verona, before winning a spot on the Council of Ten in 1597, in 1600, he was made podestà of Padua, and in 1603, podestà of Brescia. In May 1609, he was named procurator of San Marco, Doge Francesco Contarini died on 6 December 1624. Following a long held on 4 January 1625, the Dogal voters converged on Giovanni Cornaro as their preferred candidate. Cornaros children were opposed to Cornaros selection as Doge because of Venices prohibition on the children of Doges being appointed to high office in government or in the Church. Cornaro now attempted to turn the Dogal position to his familys advantage, in 1626, Pope Urban VIII appointed Cornaros son Federico Baldissera Bartolomeo Cornaro as a cardinal. This move was ratified by the Senate of Venice, but a latter attempt to make Federico Cornaro Bishop of Vicenza.
On December 30, Renier Zen was attacked by masked assassins, who were found to include Giorgio Cornaro. Zen grew even more outspoken in his criticism of Cornaro in the wake of Giorgio Cornaros failed assassination attempt. Venice now became divided into two factions, a faction that was pro-papal and backed by the Venetian oligarchs. Rioting broke out between the two factions on 23 July 1628, and for the rest of Cornaros life, Venice was locked in a civil war, the Venetian government had basically broken down by late 1628. Cornaro died on 23 December 1629, with a new war in Montferrat looming and he and his wife are buried in the Tolentini. This article is based on this article from Italian Wikipedia
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order which was the earliest, followed by the Ionic order, when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and it was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the column of Phocas. The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus, probably an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket.
Its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period, the earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, and it may have a rosette at the center of each side. Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight and their height to width ratio is about 10,1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Vesta, the Tivoli Orders Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops, the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette, the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent and these capitals are typically dated to the 1st centuries of our era, and constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.
The classical design was adapted, usually taking a more elongated form. Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas, usually as central figures surrounded, the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or they may bear interesting proportional relationships, one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be carved with a continuous design or left plain. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are exactly 1,1, above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions. The Corinthian column is almost always fluted, if it is not, it is often worth pausing to unravel the reason why
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Francesco Cornaro (Doge)
For the cardinal, see Francesco Cornaro. Francesco Cornaro or Francesco Corner was the 101st Doge of Venice and his reign as Doge was the shortest of any Doge. He was elected on 17 May 1656 and died only a few weeks later, Francesco Cornaro was the son of Giovanni Cornaro, who was Doge of Venice from 1625 to 1629. Francesco Cornaro was married to Andriana Priuli, the daughter of Antonio Priuli, Francesco Cornaro had a prestigious political career. Cornaro soured on politics after an incident occurred while he was serving as the Ambassador of the Republic of Venice to the Duke of Savoy, the Duke became convinced that Cornaro was plotting against him and had Cornaro expelled from the Duchy of Savoy. After that, Cornaro withdrew from politics and devoted himself to business and it was widely believed that he would never be elected as Doge. However, after the death of Carlo Contarini on 1 May 1656, Cornaro was elected Doge on 17 May 1656 and he is buried in the Tolentini. This article was based on this article on Italian Wikipedia
Andrea Tirali was an Italian architect working in Venice and the Veneto. He is known to have worked at Villa Duodo at Monselice, at Villa Duodo he added to the work of the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi. He designed the portico to the Church of Tolentini, Venice from an idea of Scamozzi, the S. Vidals facade and he was the architect of Villa Sceriman at Mira and Villa Morosini at Fiesso Umbertiano, of him the restauratiom of SS. Apostolis towerbell, Scuola of Angelo Custode at Santi Apostoli, Palazzo Venier and Ponte dei Tre Archi at Cannaregio, of his the aechitect of St Vidal s Vision Sanctuary at Pellestrina
Johann Liss was a leading German Baroque painter of the 17th century, active mainly in Venice. Liss was born in Oldenburg in Schleswig-Holstein, after an initial education in his home state, he continued his studies, according to Houbraken, with Hendrick Goltzius in Haarlem and Amsterdam. Around 1620 he travelled through Paris to Venice, Liss fled to Verona to escape the plague spreading in Venice, but succumbed there prematurely in 1629. According to Houbraken, he worked day and night on his paintings, so that Joachim von Sandrart felt that his health was at risk and his legacy is as a painter of both sensuous mythological and pious biblical subjects, a master of colors and Baroque painting. He was most influential to Venetian 18th-century painters like Sebastiano Ricci, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Joachim von Sandrart wrote in 1675 that because he fared well in Venice, he soon returned there. He died along with others during the plague that began in 1629. Lute Player Visitation of St Jerome Vision of Saint Jerome Peasants playing mora Death of Cleopatra Abel mourned by his parents Venus in front of mirror Death of Phaeton Cupid Wittkower, pelican History of Art and Architecture Italy, 1600-1750
Sack of Rome (1527)
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome, part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac —the alliance of France, Venice, Florence. The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, the 34,000 Imperial troops mutinied and forced their commander, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon and Constable of France, to lead them towards Rome. Numerous bandits, along with the Leagues deserters, joined the army during its march, the Duke left Arezzo on 20 April 1527, taking advantage of the chaos among the Venetians and their allies after a revolt which had broken out in Florence against the Medici. In this way, the undisciplined troops sacked Acquapendente and San Lorenzo alle Grotte. The troops defending Rome were not at all numerous, consisting of 5,000 militiamen led by Renzo da Ceri and 189 Papal Swiss Guard, the citys fortifications included the massive walls, and it possessed a good artillery force, which the Imperial army lacked.
Duke Charles needed to conquer the city swiftly, to avoid the risk of being trapped between the city and the Leagues army. On 6 May, the Imperial army attacked the walls at the Gianicolo, Duke Charles was fatally wounded in the assault, allegedly shot by Benvenuto Cellini. The Duke was wearing his famous white cloak to him out to his troops. The death of the last respected command authority among the Imperial army caused any restraint in the soldiers to disappear, Philibert of Châlon took command of the armies, but he was not as popular or feared, leaving him with little authority. One of the Swiss Guards most notable hours occurred at this time, almost the entire guard was massacred by Imperial troops on the steps of St Peters Basilica. After the brutal execution of some 1,000 defenders of the Papal capital and shrines and monasteries, as well as the palaces of prelates and cardinals, were looted and destroyed. Even pro-Imperial cardinals had to pay to save their properties from the rampaging soldiers, on 8 May, Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, a personal enemy of Clement VII, entered the city.
He was followed by peasants from his fiefs, who had come to avenge the sacks they had suffered by Papal armies, Colonna was touched by the pitiful conditions of the city and hosted in his palace a number of Roman citizens. The Vatican Library was saved because Philibert had set up his headquarters there, after three days of ravages, Philibert ordered the sack to cease, but few obeyed. In the meantime, Clement remained a prisoner in Castel SantAngelo, francesco Maria della Rovere and Michele Antonio of Saluzzo arrived with troops on 1 June in Monterosi, north of the city. Their cautious behaviour prevented them from obtaining a victory against the now totally undisciplined Imperial troops. At the same time Venice took advantage of this situation to capture Cervia and Ravenna, Emperor Charles V was greatly embarrassed by the fact that he had been powerless to stop his troops striking against Pope Clement VII and imprisoning him
Nicholas of Tolentino
Nicholas of Tolentino, known as the Patron of Holy Souls, was an Italian saint and mystic. Born in 1245 in SantAngelo, St. Nicholas of Tolentino took his name from St. Nicholas of Myra, Nicholas became a monk at 18, and seven years later, he was ordained a priest. He gained a reputation as a preacher and a confessor,1274, he was sent to Tolentino, near his birthplace. The town suffered from civil strife between the Guelphs, who supported the pope, and Ghibellines, who supported the Holy Roman Emperor, Nicholas was primarily a pastor to his flock. He ministered to the poor and the criminal and he is said to have cured the sick with bread over which he had prayed to Mary, the mother of God. He gained a reputation as a wonder-worker, Nicholas died in 1305 after a long illness. People began immediately to petition for his canonization, Eugene IV canonized him in 1446, and his relics were rediscovered in 1926 at Tolentino. A studious and gentle youth, at the age of 16 Nicholas became an Augustinian Friar and was a student of the Blessed Angelus de Scarpetti.
A monk at the monasteries at Recanati and Macerata as well as others, he was ordained in 1270 at the age of 25, and soon became known for his preaching and teachings. Nicholas, who had had visions of angels reciting to Tolentino, in 1274 took this as a sign to move to that city, Nicholas worked to counteract the decline of morality and religion which came with the development of city life in the late thirteenth century. Once, when weak after a long fast, he received a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Augustine who told him to eat some bread marked with cross, upon doing so he was immediately stronger. He started distributing these rolls to the ailing, while praying to Mary, often curing the sufferers and he ministered to his flock, helped the poor and visited prisoners. When working wonders or healing people, he asked those he helped to Say nothing of this. During his life, Nicholas is said to have received visions, including images of Purgatory, prayer for the souls in purgatory was the outstanding characteristic of his spirituality.
Because of this Nicholas was proclaimed patron of the souls in Purgatory, towards the end of his life he became ill, suffering greatly, but still continued the mortifications that had been part of his holy life. Nicholas died on September 10,1305, there are many tales and legends which relate to Nicholas. One says the devil once beat him with a stick, which was displayed for years in his church. In another, Nicholas, a vegetarian, was served a roasted fowl, for which he made the sign of the cross, and it flew out a window
Patriarch of Venice
The Patriarch of Venice is the ordinary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice. The bishop is one of the few patriarchs in the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, the only advantage of this purely formal title is the bishops place of honor in papal processions. In the case of Venice an additional privilege allows the patriarch, even if he is not a cardinal, the red biretta, however is still topped by a tuft, as is the custom with other bishops who are not cardinals. The diocese of Venice was created in 774 as suffragan of the Patriarchate of Grado and it was only in 1451 that, in consideration of the political influence of the city, its bishops were accorded the title of patriarch by the pope. By tradition, the Patriarch of Venice is created a cardinal at the following his appointment. A large number of the prelates holding this office have been elected pope, Three of these were in the 20th century alone, Pius X, John XXIII and John Paul I. The Venetian islands at first belonged to the diocese of Altino or of Padua, under jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Aquileia, during the Lombard invasion many bishops of the invaded mainland escaped under protection of the Byzantine fleet in the eastern lagoons.
The archbishop himself took refuge in Grado, where he was claimed as patriarch, at the end of the invasion, many of the ancient dioceses of the mainland were restored by the Lombards, while the exiles supported the new sees in the lagoons. Two patriarchs emerged, the Patriarchate of Old Aquileia on the mainland, in 774 or 775, Pope Adrian I and John IV, Patriarch of Grado, authorized the establishment of an episcopal see on the island of Olivolo. The first bishop, was nominated and enthroned by the doge, the dioceses cathedral was San Pietro di Castello. In 828 the body of Saint Mark the Evangelist was smuggled from Alexandria, when the ship reached Olivolo island in Venice, the saint made signs showing he did not want to be placed in the custody of the bishop. Instead, he was taken to the chapel, and planning began to create a magnificent new temple, St Marks Basilica. The legend that St. Mark himself had preached the Gospel at Venice grew up in times, in 1074, the Bishop of Olivolo began to be styled the Bishop of Castello.
Enrico Contarini was the first to hold this title, in 1084 the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in his Golden Bull recognized the full independence of Venice, along with freedom from tributes, trade restrictions and customs duties. The Republic of Venice began its Golden Age under the Doge Enrico Dandolo, the relationship between the bishop, the patriarch and the doge was complex. The bishops of Olivolo, and Castello, were technically suffragans of the Patriarch of Grado. From the middle of the 11th century the patriarchs took up residence for most of the time at San Silvestro, Venice, an important role was played by the primicerio, based in Saint Marks, who represented the doge and the city government. The primicerio invested the bishops and patriarchs, thus Venice succeeded to the whole metropolitan jurisdiction of Grados eccelsiastical province, including the sees of Dalmatia
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014,264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the La Dominante, Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Masks, City of Bridges, The Floating City, and City of Canals.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016, the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean beloved, lovable, a connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color sea-blue, is possible.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum. In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II