A housing estate is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Accordingly, a housing estate is built by a single contractor, with only a few styles of house or building design, so they tend to be uniform in appearance. In the British Isles, the term is quite broad, can include anything from high rise government-subsidised housing, right through to more upmarket, developer-led suburban tract housing. In major Asian cities such as Shanghai, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Seoul, an estate may range from detached houses to high density tower blocks with or without commercial facilities. Housing estates are the usual form of residential design used in new towns, where estates are designed as an autonomous suburb, centred on a small commercial centre; such estates are designed to minimise through-traffic flows, to provide recreational space in the form of parks and greens. The use of the term may have arisen from an area of housing being built on what had been a country estate as towns and cities expanded in and after the 19th century.
It was in use by 1901. Reduction of the phrase to mere "estate" is common in the United Kingdom and Ireland, but not in the United States. Given the security situation and Power shortages in the South Asia'Gated communities' with Self power generation and modern amenities such as Bahria Town and DHA have been developed in all major cities Pakistan. Bahria Town is largest private housing society in Asia. Bahria has been featured by international magazines and news agencies such as GlobalPost, Los Angeles Times and Emirates 24/7, referred to as the prosperous face of Pakistan. Gated communities in Pakistan are targeted towards upper middle class and upper class, are immune from problems of law enforcement. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, housing estates have become prevalent since World War II, as a more affluent population demanded larger and more spaced houses coupled with the increase of car usage for which terraced streets were unsuitable. Housing estates were produced by private developers.
The former tended to be a means of producing public housing leading to monotenure estates full of council houses known as "council estates". The latter can refer to higher end tract housing for the middle class and upper middle class. In addition, the problems incurred by the early attempts at high density tower-block housing turned people away from this style of living; the resulting demand for land has seen many towns and cities increase enormously in size for only moderate increases in population. This has been at the expense of rural and greenfield land. There has been some effort to address this problem by banning the development of out-of-town commercial developments, encouraging the reuse of brownfield or developed sites for residential building; the demand for housing continues to rise, in the UK at least has precipitated a significant housing crisis. Renowned housing estates in the capital include the Andover Estate in Holloway, North London, the aforementioned Broadwater Farm estate situated in Tottenham, the Heygate Estate in Walworth, South East London and the Alton Estate in Roehampton, South West London.
In the UK, some of the post war new towns were constructed en masse from housing estates rather than as organic growth from a population centre. In the former Czechoslovakia during the Communist era a construction of large housing estates was an important part of urban planning; the government wanted to provide large quantities of affordable housing and to slash costs by employing uniform designs over the whole country. They sought to foster a "collectivistic nature" in the people. Large housing estates of concrete panel buildings now dominate the suburbs of Prague and other towns; the largest such suburb in the former Czechoslovakia and central Europe can be found in Petržalka, a part of the Slovak capital of Bratislava. Due to dense population and government control of land use, the most common form of residential housing in Hong Kong is the high-rise housing estate, which may be publicly owned owned, or semi-private. Due to the oligopoly of real-estate developers in the territory, the economies of scale of mass developments, there is the tendency of new private tower block developments with 10 to over 100 towers, ranging from 30-to-70-storeys high.
Public housing provides affordable homes for those on low incomes, with rents which are subsidised, financed by financial activities such as rents and charges collected from car parks and shops within or near the estates. They may vary in scale, are located in the remote or less accessible parts of the territory, but urban expansion has put some of them in the heart of the urban area. Although some units are destined for rental, some of the flats within each development are earmarked for sale at prices which are lower than for private developments. A private housing estate is characterised by a cluster of high-rise buildings with a shopping centre or market of its own in the
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the national public service media of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television and the Internet; the radio service began on 1 January 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on 31 December 1961, making it one of the oldest continuously operating public service broadcasters in the world. RTÉ publishes a weekly lifestyle magazine called the RTÉ Guide. RTÉ is financed through advertising; some RTÉ services are only funded by advertising, while other RTÉ services are only funded by the licence fee. RTÉ is a statutory body, run by a board appointed by the Government of Ireland. General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General. RTÉ is regulated by the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Radio Éireann, RTÉ's predecessor and at the time a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, was one of 23 founding organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.
This section deals with the history of RTÉ as an organisation. For details on this history of the various services see the separate articles on those services. For history of the broadcasting service prior to 1960, see Minister for Posts and Telegraphs and RTÉ Radio 1. Broadcasting in Ireland began in 1926 with 2RN in Dublin. From that date until June 1960 the broadcasting service operated as a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, those working for the service were directly employed by the Irish Government and regarded as civil servants. RTÉ was established on 1 June 1960 under the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960, the principal legislation under which it operates; the existing Radio Éireann service was transferred to the new authority, made responsible for the new television service. The television service started broadcasting on 31 December 1961, from the Kippure transmitter site near Dublin. Eamonn Andrews was the first Chairman of Radio Éireann, the first director general was Edward Roth.
The name of the authority was changed, at the suggestion of Áine Ní Cheanainn, to Radio Telefís Éireann by the Broadcasting Authority Act 1966, both the radio and television services became known as RTÉ in that year. The Broadcasting Act 2009 changed the name of the organisation from "Radio Telefís Éireann" to "Raidió Teilifís Éireann", to reflect the proper spelling of the name in Irish. However, the station retains "Radio Telefís Éireann" carved in stone at the entrance to its Donnybrook headquarters in Dublin. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960 the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs of the day could direct RTÉ "not to broadcast any matter, or any matter of any particular class". In 1971 the first such directive was issued by Gerry Collins, directing RTÉ not to broadcast "any matter that could be calculated to promote the aims or activities of any organisation which engages in, encourages or advocates the attaining of any particular objective by violent means". A year Collins dismissed the entire RTÉ Authority over a report of an interview with Seán Mac Stíofáin, the chief of staff of the Provisional IRA.
RTÉ reporter Kevin O'Kelly, who reported the Mac Stiofáin interview, was jailed for contempt in a court case arising out of the interview. Kelly refused to identify Mac Stiofáin's as the voice on a tape seized from his house by the Garda Síochána. In 1976 Conor Cruise O'Brien, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, amended Section 31 and thereafter issued a new annually-based directive to the RTÉ authority. RTÉ was now explicitly banned from broadcasting interviews or reports of interviews with spokespersons for Sinn Féin, the Provisional IRA, or any organisation banned in Northern Ireland under the UK's Northern Ireland Act 1973; these directives were reissued on an annual basis until the final one appeared in January 1993. During the late 1970s RTÉ was accused of extending the censorship rules into a system of self-censorship. A small minority of programme makers emerged who approved of Section 31 supporters of the Workers' Party, including Eoghan Harris, Gerry Gregg who opposed that party's official policy.
Opponents of censorship were portrayed as secret IRA sympathizers. The effect of this ban was greater than and similar to, though less harsh than, the censorship provision introduced in 1988 in the United Kingdom; the UK ban did not prevent reports of interviews with spokespersons. This allowed interviews using actors' voices dubbing the direct speech of censored persons; this was not permissible on RTÉ. In 1992–93, in O'Toole vs RTÉ, RTÉ was found by the High Court and Supreme Court to have illegally and unconstitutionally extended the censorship ban to Sinn Féin members who were not speaking on behalf of the party; the RTÉ ban did not affect UK stations broadcasting in the Republic of Ireland as, until 1988 at least, viewers in the Republic were still able to hear the voices of Sinn Féin representatives. The following figures were issued by RTÉ as part of their annual report in 2012. In 2012 RTÉ received in total €180,894,000 in public funding from the licence fee, it received €127,100,000 in commercial revenue.
RTÉ total expenditure in 2012 was €327,023,000. They had restructuring costs of €46,161,000 in 2012. Losses for the year came to €65,147,000. Profit and Loss across radio and online services. RTÉ receives income from two main sources: The television licence fee. Within the State, it is necessary to pay a fee of €160 per annum to possess any piece of
Acceptable Risk (TV series)
Acceptable Risk is an Irish television crime drama series, broadcast on RTÉ, that first aired on 24 September 2017. Produced by Facet4 Media and Saffron Moon for RTÉ Television, Acceptable Risk stars Elaine Cassidy as Dublin-based Sarah Manning, whose husband Lee is murdered whilst on a business trip in Montreal. Filmed between Ireland and Canada, the first series, comprising six episodes, was broadcast during September and October 2017. Subsequently, the series has been sold to the United States, where it made its North American debut on Acorn TV, to the UK, where it debuted on Universal TV on December 6, 2018. Internationally, the series has been distributed by Acorn Media Enterprises. Following strong viewing figures for the series, which opened with viewing figures of more than 380,000, Facet4 Media have since confirmed a second series is in development. Elaine Cassidy said of landing the part of Sarah Manning; that might seem weird but it’s the way things used to be, it doesn’t happen that way now."
Angeline Ball said of her role as Emer Byrne. I tried to make her as bland as possible in terms of her life. It’s a world which offers a high salary and a great lifestyle to those who are part of it." Elaine Cassidy as Sarah Manning Morten Suurballe as Hans Werner Hoffman Angeline Ball as Det. Sgt. Emer Byrne Lisa Hogg as Nuala Mulvaney Geordie Johnson as Detective Dusquene Paul Popowich as Lee Manning Risteárd Cooper as Barry Lehane Lorcan Cranitch as Ch. Supt. James Nulty Rory Nolan as Morrice O'Hanlon Catherine Walker as Deirdre Kilbride Charlie Kelly as Aidan O'Sullivan Kate Moran as Anna Coyle Madeleine Knight as Mila Beck Eddie Jackson as Cormac Walsh Dearbhla Molloy as Marie Heffernan Adjoa Andoh as Margaret Kroll Gloria Cramer Curtis as Rose Manning Elijah O'Sullivan as Eamonn Manning Karen Ardiff as Bridget MacNally Maria Tecce as Donna Welty Ali White as Theresa Lehane Acceptable Risk on IMDb
RTÉ Television Centre
The RTÉ Television Centre is a television studio complex, owned by Raidió Teilifís Éireann and has been home to Ireland's national public service broadcaster since 1961. It is situated at Donnybrook, Dublin 4; the building houses the main production studios for RTÉ Television, the control rooms for all RTÉ's TV channels, RTÉ's main newsroom. When plans for an Irish national television station were developed in the late 1950s attention turned to a suitable location for the new television studios and adjoining offices. By September 1959 a 25-acre area of land on the Stillorgan road in Donnybrook became the favoured site for the new television production centre. On 3 October 1960 the new Radio Éireann Authority signed a £500,000 contract for the construction of the television centre and offices at the proposed location. A few hours after this the contractors began to move in; the contract was awarded to Messrs. E. Stone & Sons Ltd. from Thorncastle street in Dublin, one of four firms invited to tender.
The building when completed in 1962 contained the first purpose-built television studios in Ireland, as existing studios in Belfast had been set up in converted buildings. At the beginning of "The Troubles" in Northern Ireland a bomb damaged the front of the building early on the morning of 5 August 1969; the Ulster Volunteer Force claimed responsibility, this being the first bomb that they had planted in the Republic of Ireland. The bombing took place during the protest campaign by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association but before the 1969 riots; the Television Centre, designed by the Scott-Tallon-Walker firm of architects in Dublin, is 30 feet high with the tops of the main studios rising a further 15 feet above the roof line. In all there are eight television studios in four main production studios. There were only three studios in the original building completed in 1962, since a number of new studios and sound stages have been added to the existing complex. From the early 1970s all the studios were converted to colour operation starting with Studio 3, the news studio, finishing with Studio 1 in 1976.
Since January 2019 all of the studios have been upgraded to High Definition standard. In the late 1970s RTÉ's schedule was increasing and expanding with the launch of Ireland's second channel RTÉ 2 in November 1978. There was a growing need for a new larger television studio, as Studio 1 was seen as being too small for many productions. Studios 4 and 5 were constructed towards the end of the 1970s. Studio 4 measures 6,525 sq ft. From the early 1980s onwards it would be home to the majority of RTÉ's large audience based shows. In 1995 Studio 4 was redeveloped to better cater for audiences, a new permanent seating rostra was built into it that can accommodate audiences of up to 250. Today Studio 4 is one of the busiest studios in the Television Centre, accommodating The Late Late Show, The Ray D'Arcy Show and Prime Time all in one week; as well as the studios the building houses the control rooms for the various channels, MCR, technical areas for video playout, edit suites, graphics area, scene dock, dressing rooms, green rooms, makeup area, wardrobe, a radio news studio, RTÉ's main newsroom and the RTE Canteen.
In an adjoining building there are two sound stages which are used for dramas, soaps etc. such as RTÉ's flagship soap Fair City, the award winning drama Love/Hate. The sound stages are named A and B and both measure 5,865 sq ft. 4,180 sq ft Completed in 1962, Studio 1 was the largest studio in the television centre and was designed for variety shows and musicals. The studio can comfortably accommodate an audience of 120, it is home to many of RTÉ's game shows, including Winning Streak and Know The Score. Former programmes recorded or transmitted included: 1,980 sq ft Studio 2, the second of the original studios, was designed for interviews, panel games and current affairs programmes. Programmes recorded or transmitted included: 728 sq ft The original studio was extended and equipped with unmanned robotic cameras in 2009. During December 2018 and January 2019 the studio was refurbished and upgraded to High Definition working to coincide with a relaunch of RTE News presentation on Monday 28 January 2019.
The refurbishment of the studio and news presentation was part of a € 1.7 million revamp. 6,525 sq ft The largest studio in the television centre, it can accommodate audiences of up to 250. This studio is home to programmes such as The Late Late Show, The Ray D'Arcy Show, The Tommy Tiernan Show, The Imelda May Show, Claire Byrne Live and Prime Time. 2,415 sq ft Built in the late 1970s, Studio 5 was the first studio in the television centre to be upgraded to High Definition. As home to RTÉ Sport, programmes broadcast from the studio include The Sunday Game, Soccer Republic, Against the Head, as well as RTÉ's coverage of the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Champions League and Six Nations Championship. 540 sq ft 400 sq ft 400 sq ft In 2009 RTÉ announced its long-term plans for the redevelopment of the entire Donnybrook site including the Television Centre and the Radio Centre. The project envisages the gradual replacement over a 10- to 15-year period of most of the current 1960 and 1970s buildings on the Donnybrook site with a purpose-built modern building complex designed for the digital and high-definition age
Donnybrook is a district of Dublin, Ireland. It is situated on the southside of the city, in the Dublin 4 postal district, is home to the Irish public service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann, it was once part of the Pembroke Township. Its neighbouring suburbs are Ballsbridge, Sandymount and Clonskeagh. Donnybrook is a civil parish situated in the old barony of Dublin. Donnybrook Fair dates from a charter of King John of England in 1204 and was held annually until 1866, it began as a fair for livestock and agricultural produce but declined, growing into a more of a carnival and fun fair. Drunkenness and hasty marriages became commonplace and the people of Donnybrook were anxious that it should cease; the fair's reputation for tumult was its undoing. From the 1790s on there were campaigns against the drunken brawl the fair had become. After a good deal of local fund raising, the patent was bought by a group of prominent residents and clergy, bringing about its demise; the Fair took place on lands now occupied by the Ever Ready Garage.
The word donnybrook has since entered the English language to describe a rowdy brawl. Donnybrook Castle was an Elizabethan residence of the Ussher family. James Ussher was appointed Archbishop of Armagh in the Church of Ireland by Queen Elizabeth I of England; the mansion was replaced in 1795 by the existing Georgian house. It is now occupied by the Religious Sisters of Charity. Donnybrook Graveyard dates back to the 8th century and was once the location of a church founded by St Broc, it was the site of Catholic and Protestant churches, both called St Mary's. Those buried in it include Dr. Bartholomew Mosse, the founder of the Rotunda Hospital, Sir Edward Lovett Pearce, architect of the Irish Houses of Parliament on College Green and Dr. Richard Madden, biographer of the United Irishmen, it is possible that the wall on the south side of the cemetery is the oldest man made structure still existing in Donnybrook. The brick chimney behind the cemetery was built on the site of a former marble works and served as a Magdalene laundry.
The river Dodder runs at one time there was a ford here. It is subject to periodic serious flooding and in 1628 one of the Usshers of Donnybrook Castle was drowned while trying to cross. Donnybrook is a civil parish consisting of sixteen townlands. All but four of these townlands are situated in the Barony of Dublin. Donnybrook is the single biggest parish in that barony; the most southerly townlands, Annefield and Priesthouse, belong to the barony of Rathdown. The smallest of these, Annefield, is itself an enclave of Simmonscourt which gives its name to a pavilion of the Royal Dublin Society. Today, the majority of Priesthouse is occupied by Elm Park Golf Club and the studios of RTÉ; the remaining townland of Sallymount - the parish's most westerly point - is in the barony of Uppercross. The television and radio studios of the national broadcaster, RTÉ, are located in Priesthouse, Donnybrook. Donnybrook is in the Dáil Éireann constituency of Dublin Bay South and the Pembroke-Rathmines local electoral area of Dublin City Council.
Donnybrook is home to the all-girls' Muckross Park College. St. Mary's mixed primary school is located on Belmont Avenue. John Scotus Secondary school, Morehampton Road WritersPatrick Kavanagh Anthony Trollope Flann O'Brien aka Myles na gCopaleen aka Brian O'Nolan, lived on Belmont Avenue Benedict Kiely Padraic Colum Brendan Behan Denis Johnston and his wife, the actress/ director Shelah RichardsOthersJack B. Yeats Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton John Boyd Dunlop Guglielmo Marconi Éamon de Valera Pádraig Pearse The O'Rahilly Michael Collins George E. H. McElroy Garret FitzGerald Albert Reynolds Shane MacGowan Méav Ní Mhaolchatha Frederick May William Downes, 1st Baron Downes Richard Gibson - Actor - Played part of Herr Otto Flick in sitcom series'Allo'Allo! Donnybrook is the traditional home of rugby union in Leinster; the headquarters of the Irish Rugby Football Union Leinster Branch is located opposite Donnybrook Stadium, where the professional Leinster team played their home games until recently.
Kiely's pub in Donnybrook village is a traditional social point for rugby fans. Most Leinster Schools Rugby Senior Cup games are hosted in Donnybrook Stadium; some Junior Cup ties are hosted on the grounds. Rugby clubs Bective Rangers and Old Wesley have their home ground in Donnybrook Stadium. During the school year secondary schools such as St Conleth's College, Belvedere College, Wesley College, Clongowes, St. Michaels and many more play rugby in Donnybrook Stadium. There are several tennis clubs in Donnybrook, Donnybrook LTC, St. Marys LTC, Bective LTC. Belmont Football Club has its home ground in Herbert Park. Merrion Cricket Club is backing on to the Dodder. List of towns and villages in Ireland Donnybrook Parish Web Site Friends of Donnybrook Web Site Historyeye|Seaview Terrace- a history Donnybrook Tidy Towns Web Site Dictionary.com/Word of the Day Archive/donnybrook — etymology of the noun Dublins Famous People and Where They Lived by
Glenroe is a television drama series broadcast on RTÉ One in Ireland between September 1983, when the first episode was aired, May 2001. A spin-off from Bracken — a short-lived RTÉ drama itself spun off from The Riordans — Glenroe was broadcast from September to May, each Sunday night at 8:30 pm, it was created, written for much of its run, by Wesley Burrowes, by various other directors and producers including Paul Cusack, Alan Robinson and Tommy McCardle. Glenroe was the first show to be subtitled by RTÉ, with a broadcast in 1991 starting the station's subtitling policy. Glenroe centred on the lives of the people living in the fictional rural village of the same name in County Wicklow; the real-life village of Kilcoole was used to film the series. The series was filmed in studio at RTÉ and in various other locations when directors saw fit; the main protagonists were the Byrne and McDermott/Moran families, related by the marriage of Miley Byrne to Biddy McDermott, colloquially known as Biddy and Miley.
Other important characters included the proprietor of the local pub. Glenroe was noted for its original title sequence, which featured the words "Gleann Rua" in Gaelic script morphing into "Glenroe" over a series of rural images; the original title sequence was used from the 1983/84 series to the end of the 1992/93 series, was replaced with a more up-to-date title sequence at the start of the 1993/94 series. Jarlath Hayes, master Irish typographer and designer, "who gave his best years as a man of letters working within Irish publishing…drew his own type, Tuam Uncial…it became familiar to a generation of Glenroe viewers on RTÉ television where it featured in the credits". Glenroe's theme tune was that of a traditional Irish song called "Cuaichín Ghleann Néifinn" and was arranged by Jim Lockhart of Horslips; the original version was used from the 1983/84 series to the end of the 1992/93 series. A newly recorded version, arranged by Máire Ní Bhraonáin of Clannad, was introduced with the start of the 1993/94 series, along with changes to the title sequence.
The central focus of Glenroe is the fictional rural area of the programme's title, located in County Wicklow. The setting is a rural area consisting of a collection of farms, small village, period house and other rural locations; the programme focuses on a cast of characters living in a rural area near the village pub. The main characters are Miley Byrne and Biddy McDermott, whose courtship and marriage form the centerpiece of the action during the early years, their parents feature in the storylines. Miley's father Dinny Byrne is a chancer and Biddy's mother, widowed early in the series, conducts a long-running relationship with Dick Moran, the local solicitor. Dick has other affairs, such as that with Terry Kileen. A number of themes are explored throughout the series from relationships, facing tragedy and other life challenges. While the main theme is drama, there are elements of comedy evident, e.g. the interactions between two central characters of Miley Byrne and his father Dinny Byrne. The soap opera originated in America as radio serials.
"They were dramas broadcast in instalments, aimed at women working in the home. The makers of soap powders and other household products found them a good advertising medium for building up a loyal audience of consumers. Glenroe, as a story, had origins in two previous shows, The Riordans and Bracken; the three productions were the brainchildren of Wesley Burrowes. Gerry Jeffers, an Irish tutor who taught media literacy, wrote in an Irish Times article in 1995 about the soap opera and "the lasting appeal of a television genre that tops the ratings and provides fuel for chat in homes and schools"; the idea that audiences of soap operas have difficulty separating reality from fiction is commented on in his article. He recounts one soap actor's experience with a stranger in an airport. Anna Friel, who played Beth Jordache in Brookside, was accosted in an airport by a passenger mistaking her for the character she played; the article asked, "What is so special about soaps? What attracts viewers in such large numbers?
What effect does watching TV serials have on people? Does the popularity of soap operas tell us anything about ourselves?" Jeffers wrote. They feature topical social problems... Biddy and Miley’s marriage has come under stress in Glenroe, they mostly take place in real time, with Christmas, Easter etc being marked. However, many soaps have a few characters who are exaggerated figures of fun, sources of'comic relief.'" The article discussed the original characteristics of the soap opera as opposed to film. "Soap operas concentrate on dialogue and characters’ responses to happenings rather than on action." Niall Mathews, managing editor of entertainment TV in RTÉ, is quoted: "All successful soap characters, while possessing traits that are positive and good, invariably portray or embody character weaknesses and flaws, failings with which an audience can identify. It is this dark side of people’s characters that makes them multi-layered and interesting". Deirdre Falvey of The Irish Times wrote about "that spooky area where fictional characters become confused with the actors who play them."Emmanuel Kehoe, in his piece for the Sunday Business Post in 2010, wrote, "the association of soap actor and television character is somewhat more benign in Ireland than in England, where it is the stock-in-trade of tabloid journalism, an acto