Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien; the story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 fantasy novel The Hobbit, but developed into a much larger work. Written in stages between 1937 and 1949, The Lord of the Rings is one of the best-selling novels written, with over 150 million copies sold; the title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, not only the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, but the hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: the Men, Aragorn, a Ranger of the North, Boromir, a Captain of Gondor.
The work was intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher. For economic reasons, The Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955; the three volumes were titled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end; some editions combine the entire work into a single volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been translated into 38 languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described as mythopoeia. Influences on this earlier work, on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.
The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy. The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works; the Lord of the Rings has inspired, continues to inspire, music and television, video games, board games, subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio and film. In 2003, it was named Britain's best novel of all time in the BBC's The Big Read. Thousands of years before the events of the novel, the Dark Lord Sauron had forged the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power and corrupt those who wore them: three for Elves, seven for Dwarves, nine for Men. Sauron was defeated by an alliance of Men led by Gil-galad and Elendil, respectively. In the final battle, son of Elendil, cut the One Ring from Sauron's finger, causing Sauron to lose his physical form.
Isildur claimed the Ring as an heirloom for his line, but when he was ambushed and killed by the Orcs, the Ring was lost in the River Anduin. Over two thousand years the Ring was found by one of the river-folk called Déagol, his friend Sméagol fell under strangled Déagol to acquire it. Sméagol was hid under the Misty Mountains; the Ring gave him long life and changed him over hundreds of years into a twisted, corrupted creature called Gollum. Gollum lost the Ring, his "precious", as told in The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins found it. Meanwhile, Sauron took back his old realm of Mordor; when Gollum set out in search of the Ring, he was tortured by Sauron. Sauron learned from Gollum. Gollum was set loose. Sauron, who needed the Ring to regain his full power, sent forth his powerful servants, the Nazgûl, to seize it; the story begins in the Shire, where the hobbit Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo Baggins, his cousin and guardian. Neither hobbit is aware of the Ring's nature, but Gandalf the Grey, a wizard and an old friend of Bilbo, suspects it to be Sauron's Ring.
Seventeen years after Gandalf confirms his guess, he tells Frodo the history of the Ring and counsels him to take it away from the Shire. Frodo sets out, accompanied by his gardener and friend, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, two cousins, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, they are nearly caught by the Black Riders, but shake off their pursuers by cutting through the Old Forest. There they are aided by Tom Bombadil, a strange and merry fellow who lives with his wife Goldberry in the forest; the hobbits reach the town of Bree, where they encounter a Ranger named Strider, whom Gandalf had mentioned in a letter. Strider persuades the hobbits to take him on as their protector. Together, they leave Bree after another close escape from the Black Riders. On the hill of Weathertop, they are again attacked by the Black Riders, who wound Frodo with a cursed blade. Strider leads the hobbits towards the Elven refuge of Rivendell. Frodo falls deathly ill from the wound; the Black Riders nearly capture him at the Ford of Bruinen, but flood waters summoned by Elrond, master of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.
Middle-earth Orc characters
The following is a list of the Orcs of Middle-earth, created by fantasy author J. R. R. Tolkien and considered to be part of the Middle-earth canon, which were given an individual name or title by the author. While the Orcs tend to appear as an anonymous mass in his works, a few individuals among them were mentioned by name or other personal identifying characteristics. Azog was an Orc chieftain until his death in T. A. 2799. He is referred to in a single remark by Gandalf to Thorin Oakenshield in The Hobbit: "Your grandfather Thrór was killed, you remember, in Azanulbizar by Azog."He precipitated the War of the Dwarves and Orcs in T. A. 2790 by killing King Thrór, who came to revisit Azanulbizar. By not only killing Thrór, but torturing him for some days, beheading him, branding his name on the dwarf's head, Azog earned the hatred of all Dwarves, who united in desire to kill him. In the following years, he was the common enemy of all Dwarves; the Orcs were driven back until they held only Azanulbizar.
The war Azog started climaxed in the Battle of Azanulbizar, where he killed Náin, but while fleeing back he was caught and beheaded by Náin's son Dáin. After killing Thrór, Azog had given a small pouch of money to Thrór's companion, as payment for him to tell the other Dwarves of the murder; the Dwarves returned the insult by setting Azog's severed head on a stake and sticking the money pouch in his mouth. Azog was succeeded by Bolg. In The Hobbit film series, Azog is depicted as 8 feet 5 inches tall, pale white orc with a white warg as his steed, he is portrayed by Manu Bennett in all three films in an expanded role from the original tale, is one of the primary antagonists of the films. Azog is unlike most orcs, shown to only speak in Black Speech and has sworn to wipe out the line of Durin, he is killed during the Battle of the Five Armies, in which he and Thorin Oakenshield mortally wound each other. Balcmeg was one of the Orcs killed according to The Book of Lost Tales. Tolkien wrote the story of the fall of the city in 1917 and never revised it, Balcmeg does not appear in the published Silmarillion.
Boldog is a formidable Orc-captain of a Host of Angband, sent to attack Doriath and capture Lúthien mentioned in The Lay of Leithian in The History of Middle-earth Volume III: The Lays of Beleriand. The name Boldog was used by several Orc chieftains during the First Age. In a note ca.1960 Tolkien suggested that it is possible that Boldog was a title, given to lesser Maiar, servants of Morgoth, who had taken an Orkish hröa. Bolg, an antagonist in The Hobbit, was an Orc chieftain who came to power in the Misty Mountains after his father, was killed in the war with Dwarves. Bolg led an army of Orcs in the Battle of Five Armies, he was killed by Beorn during the battle: "Swiftly he returned, his wrath was redoubled, so that nothing could withstand him, no weapon seemed to bite upon him. He scattered the bodyguard, pulled down Bolg himself and crushed him." Bolg is portrayed by Conan Stevens in The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, Lawrence Makoare in The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug and John Tui in The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies.
Conan Stevens was to portray him through prosthetic makeup, but once Lawrence Makoare replaced him, Bolg was revamped into a CGI character. Much of the action from the book involving Bolg in An Unexpected Journey is instead given to his father Azog, who, in the films, survives the confrontation with the Dwarves. In The Desolation of Smaug, when his father is summoned to lead the Necromancer's Orc army, Bolg resumes the prominent role, taking over the task of hunting down Thorin's company. In The Battle of Five Armies he leads a separate Orc army detachment raised in Gundabad to join his father's army at Erebor. Arriving with an advance force, he aids his father against Thorin Oakenshield's commando team on Ravenhill, nearly kills the Elf Tauriel, slays the dwarf Kíli when he comes to her defense. Soon afterwards, however, he is confronted and killed by Legolas, who drives one of his battle-knives into his head. Golfimbul was a chieftain of the Orcs of Mount Gram, he was defeated at the Battle of Greenfields by a force led by Bandobras Took, who knocked off Golfimbul's head with a club and it soared into the air falling into a rabbit hole.
According to Hobbit folklore, this inspired the game of golf. Golfimbul's name was specifically constructed for this pun. Gorbag was an Orc captain in the service of Minas Morgul, he and his company were based with the Nazgûl in the Dead City. During the War of the Ring they were ordered to patrol towards the fortress Tower of Cirith Ungol where the garrison was commanded by another Orc captain, an old acquaintance. Shagrat was leading a patrol back in the opposite direction. Gorbag, noticing the trail of slime between Frodo's body and a crack in the wall, reasoned that Shelob had been bested by an intended victim for the first time in living memory, that it was an Elvish blade that inflicted the wound and that this meant there must have been a trespasser in the area other than just Frodo, but imagined it must have been a warrior Elf with an axe rather than the comparatively unassuming figure of Sam Gamgee armed with the small dagger Sting; the two Orc captains took Frodo back to Cirith Ungol where Gorbag suggested torture, but Shagrat insisted that their prisoner be sent to Barad-dûr for
The Children of Húrin
The Children of Húrin is an epic fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien, he wrote the original version of the story in the late 1910s, revised it several times but did not complete it before his death in 1973. His son, Christopher Tolkien, edited the manuscripts to form a consistent narrative, published it in 2007 as an independent work; the book contains 33 illustrations in colour. The history and descent of the main characters are given as the leading paragraphs of the book, the back story is elaborated upon in The Silmarillion, it begins five hundred years before the action of the book, when Morgoth, a Vala and the prime evil power, escapes from the Blessed Realm of Valinor to the north-west of Middle-earth. From his fortress of Angband he endeavours to gain control of the whole of Middle-earth, unleashing a war with the Elves that dwell in the land of Beleriand to the south. However, the Elves manage to stay his assault, most of their realms remain unconquered.
In addition, after some time the Noldorin Elves forsake Valinor and pursue Morgoth to Middle-earth in order to take vengeance upon him. Together with the Sindar of Beleriand, they proceed to lay siege to Angband, establish new strongholds and realms in Middle-earth, including Hithlum ruled by Fingon, Nargothrond by Finrod Felagund and Gondolin by Turgon. Three centuries pass, during; these are the Edain, descendants of those Men who have rebelled against the rule of Morgoth's servants and journeyed westward. Most of the Elves welcome them, they are given fiefs throughout Beleriand; the House of Bëor rules over the land of Ladros, the Folk of Haleth retreat to the forest of Brethil, the lordship of Dor-lómin is granted to the House of Hador. Other Men enter Beleriand, the Easterlings, many of whom are in secret league with Morgoth. Morgoth manages to break the Siege of Angband in the Battle of Sudden Flame; the House of Bëor is destroyed and the Elves and Edain suffer heavy losses. Túrin, son of Húrin of the race of Men, lived in Dor-lómin with his father, his mother Morwen, his sister Urwen.
Urwen died as a child from a plague. Túrin's father was taken prisoner by Morgoth after the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. During Húrin's imprisonment Túrin was sent by his mother to live in the Elf-realm Doriath for protection. In his absence Morwen gave birth to her third child, a girl. Morgoth had placed a curse upon Húrin and all his family whereby evil would befall them for their whole lives. King Thingol of Doriath takes Túrin as a foster-son. During his time in Doriath Túrin befriends an Elf named Beleg, the two become close companions. Túrin accidentally causes the death of the Elf Saeros, who attempts to jump a ravine while fleeing but falls and is killed. Túrin refuses becoming an outlaw. Thingol tries Túrin in absentia and pardons him, he gives Beleg leave to bring him back to Doriath. Túrin meanwhile joins a band of outlaws in the wild, he renames himself Neithan, "the wronged" and becomes their captain. Beleg locates the band while Túrin is absent, the outlaws leave him tied to a tree until he agrees to give them information.
Túrin returns in time to cut Beleg free and, horrified by the outlaws' actions, resolves to forsake the cruel habits he has fallen into. Beleg delivers the message of the king's pardon but Túrin refuses to return to Doriath. Beleg returns to aid Doriath's defence. Túrin and his men capture a Petty-dwarf, who leads them to the caves at Amon Rûdh. Beleg decides to return to Túrin; the outlaws resent disliking Elves, grows to hate him. Mîm betrays the outlaws to orcs, leading the orcs to the caves where Túrin's company is taken unawares; the entire band is killed, save for Túrin. They take Túrin off towards Angband. Mîm is about to kill Beleg after the orcs depart when one of the outlaws, mortally wounded, rouses himself before dying to drive Mîm away and release Beleg. Beleg follows the orcs. Beleg happens across a mutilated elf, Gwindor of Nargothrond, sleeping in the forest of Taur-nu-Fuin, they enter the orc camp at night and carry Túrin, from the camp. Beleg begins to cut Túrin's bonds with his sword Anglachel, but the sword slips in his hand and cuts Túrin.
Túrin, mistaking Beleg for an orc, kills Beleg with his own sword. When a flash of lightning reveals Beleg's face, Túrin falls into a frenzy, he refuses to leave Beleg's body until morning. Túrin remains witless with grief. Túrin and Gwindor proceed to Nargothrond. There Túrin gains the favour of King Orodreth, after leading the Elves to considerable victories, he becomes Orodreth's chief counsellor and commander of his forces. Against all counsel Túrin refuses to hide Nargothrond from Morgoth or to retract his plans for full-scale battle. Morgoth sends an orc-army under the command of the dragon and Nargothrond is defeated; the orcs, crossing over the bridge that Túrin had built, sack Nargothrond and capture its citizens. Túrin returns as the prisoners are to be led away by the orcs, encounters Glaurung; the dragon enchants and tricks him into returning to Dor-lómin to seek out Morwen and Niënor instead of rescuing the prisoners—among whom is Finduilas, Orodreth’s daughter, who loved him. In Dor-lómin Túrin learns that Morwen and Niënor
Aragorn II, son of Arathorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he is one of the main protagonists of The Lord of the Rings. Aragorn was a Ranger of the North, first introduced with the name Strider at Bree, as the Hobbits continued to call him throughout The Lord of the Rings, he was revealed to be the heir of Isildur and rightful claimant to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor. He was a confidant of Gandalf and an integral part of the quest to destroy the One Ring and defeat the Dark Lord Sauron. Aragorn led the Fellowship of the Ring following the loss of Gandalf in the Mines of Moria while fighting the Balrog; when the Fellowship was broken, he tracked the hobbits Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took with the help of Legolas the elf and Gimli the dwarf to Fangorn Forest. He fought in the battle at Helm's Deep and the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. After defeating Sauron's forces in Gondor, he led an army of Gondor and Rohan against the Black Gate of Mordor to distract Sauron's attention so that Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee could have a chance to destroy the One Ring.
At the end of The Lord of the Rings, Aragorn was crowned King Elessar Telcontar of Gondor. He married Elrond's daughter and assumed the Sceptre of Annúminas as King of Arnor, uniting the two kingdoms for the first time since the reign of Isildur; the son of Arathorn II and his wife Gilraen, Aragorn was born on 1'March', T. A. 2931. Through his ancestor Elendil Aragorn was a descendant of the first king of Númenor, Elros Tar-Minyatur; when Aragorn was two years old, his father was killed while pursuing orcs. Aragorn was afterwards fostered in Rivendell by Elrond. At the bidding of Elrond, his lineage was kept secret, as Elrond feared he would be killed like his father and grandfather if his true identity as Isildur's heir became known. Aragorn was renamed Estel to hide his existence from his servants, he was not told about his heritage until he came of age in 2951. Elrond revealed to Aragorn his true name and ancestry, delivered to him the shards of Elendil's sword Narsil, the Ring of Barahir, he withheld the Sceptre of Annúminas from him.
Aragorn met and fell in love with Arwen, Elrond's daughter, when she returned from Lórien, her mother's homeland. Aragorn thereafter assumed his role as the sixteenth Chieftain of the Dúnedain, the Rangers of the North, went into the wild, living with the remnants of his people, whose kingdom had been destroyed through civil and regional wars centuries before. Aragorn met Gandalf the Grey in 2956, they became close friends; the Rangers help to guard the Shire, inhabited by the agrarian Hobbits. In the areas around the Shire and Bree he became known as "Strider". From 2957 to 2980, Aragorn undertook great journeys, serving in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan and of Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor, his tasks helped to raise morale in the West and to counter the growing threat of Sauron and his allies, he acquired experience that he would put to use in the War of the Ring. Aragorn served his lords during that time under the name Thorongil. With a small squadron of ships from Gondor, he led an assault on Umbar in 2980, burning many of the Corsairs' ships and slaying their lord during the Battle of the Havens.
After the victory at Umbar, "Thorongil" left the field, to the dismay of his men, went East. Aragorn travelled through the Dwarves' mines of Moria and to Rhûn and Harad, where "the stars are strange". In 2980, he visited Lórien, there again met Arwen, he gave her an heirloom of his House, the Ring of Barahir, and, on the hill of Cerin Amroth, Arwen pledged her hand to him in marriage, renouncing her Elvish lineage and accepting mortality, the "Gift of Men". Elrond withheld from Aragorn permission to marry his daughter until such time as his foster son should be king of Gondor and Arnor reunited. To marry a mortal, Arwen would be required to choose mortality and thus separate the immortal Elrond from his daughter. Gandalf grew suspicious of the ring belonging to the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, discovered to be Sauron's One Ring. Gandalf asked Aragorn to track Gollum, who had possessed the Ring; this hunt led Aragorn across Rhovanion, he captured Gollum in the Dead Marshes northwest of Mordor and brought him captive to King Thranduil’s halls in Mirkwood, where Gandalf questioned him.
In The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn joined Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's adopted heir, three of Frodo's friends at the Inn of the Prancing Pony in Bree. The four hobbits had set out from the Shire to bring the One Ring to Rivendell. Aragorn, going by the nickname "Strider", was aged 87, nearing the prime of life for one of royal Númenórean descent. With Aragorn's help the Hobbits reached Rivendell. There Frodo volunteered to destroy the Ring in the fires of Mount Doom, Aragorn was chosen as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring to accompany him, along with Gandalf, Legolas the elf, Gimli the dwarf, Boromir of Gondor, the hobbits Pippin and Frodo's faithful gardener Samwise Gamgee. Elven-smiths reforged the shards of Narsil into a new sword, setting into the design of the blade seven stars and a crescent moon, as well as many runes. Aragorn renamed the sword Andúril, it was said to have shone with the light of the
The Lays of Beleriand
The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkien's 12-volume book series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyzes the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien; the book contains the long heroic lays or lyric poetry Tolkien wrote: these are The Lay of the Children of Húrin about the saga of Túrin Turambar, The Lay of Leithian about Beren and Lúthien. Although Tolkien abandoned them before their respective ends, they are both long enough to occupy many stanzas, each of which can last for over ten pages; the first poem is in alliterative verse, the second is in rhyming couplets. Both exist in two versions. In addition to these two poems, the book gives three short, soon-abandoned alliterative poems, which are The Flight of the Noldoli from Valinor, The Lay of Eärendel, The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin; the first versions of the long lays fit chronologically in with Tolkien's earliest writings, as recounted in The Book of Lost Tales, but the version of The Lay of Leithian is contemporary with the writing of The Lord of the Rings.
The book is split into these main sections: The Lay of the Children of Húrin First version Second version Poems Early Abandoned: The Flight of the Noldoli Fragment of an alliterative Lay of Earendel The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin The Lay of Leithian: The Gest of Beren son of Barahir and Lúthien the Fay called Tinúviel the Nightingale or the Lay of Leithian - Release from Bondage Unwritten cantos Appendix: Commentary by C. S. Lewis The Lay of Leithian RecommencedIn the book Christopher Tolkien mentions a third Túrin poem, this time in rhyming couplets and incomplete called The Children of Húrin and is only 170 lines long. There is an inscription in the Fëanorian characters in the first pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book; the inscription in Book III reads: In the first part of this Book is given the Lay of the Children of Húrin by John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, in, set forth in part the Tale of Túrin. In the second part is the Lay of Leithian, the quest of Beren and Lúthien as far as the encounter of Beren with Carcharoth at the gate of Angband Beren and Lúthien Narn i Chîn Húrin The Children of Húrin The Lay of Leithian The Lay of the Children of Húrin The Silmarillion More in-depth information on The Lays of Beleriand by JRR Tolkien
The Road Goes Ever On
The Road Goes Ever On is a song cycle, published as a book of sheet music, as an audio recording. The music was written by Donald Swann, the words are taken from poems in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings The Lord of the Rings; the title of this opus is taken from "The Road Goes Ever On". The songs form a song cycle, designed to fit together. With Tolkien's approval, Donald Swann wrote the music for this song cycle, much of the music resembles English traditional music or folk music; the sole exception is the Quenya song "Namárië", based on a tune by Tolkien himself and which has some affinities to Gregorian chant. This book has been valued by those uninterested in the music, since it helps Tolkien's readers to better understand the cultures of the various mythological beings presented in Middle-earth, helps linguists analyse Tolkien's poetry. For example, it contains one of the longest samples of the language Quenya, as well as the Sindarin prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel" with grammatical explanations.
In addition to the sheet music, the book includes an introduction that contains additional information about Middle-earth. Prior to the publication of The Silmarillion, this introduction was the only publicly available source for certain information about the First Age of Middle-earth; the first edition of The Road Goes Ever On: a Song Cycle was published on 31 October 1967, in the United States. An LP record of this song cycle was recorded on 12 June 1967, with Donald Swann on piano and William Elvin singing. Side one of this record consisted of Tolkien himself reading five poems from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the first track on side two was Tolkien reading the Elvish prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel". The remainder of side two contained the song cycle performed by Elvin; this LP record, entitled Poems and Songs of Middle Earth and released by Caedmon Records, is long out of print and difficult to find. The second edition of The Road Goes Ever On, published in 1978, added music for "Bilbo's Last Song."
This song was published separately. The third edition, published in 1993, added music for "Lúthien Tinúviel" from The Silmarillion, which had earlier appeared in The Songs of Donald Swann: Volume I; the third edition of The Road Goes Ever On was packaged with a CD that duplicated the song cycle from the 1967 LP record. The CD included two new recordings; the third edition was reprinted in hardcover in 2002 by Harper Collins. On 10 June 1995, the song cycle was performed in Rotterdam under the auspices of the Dutch Tolkien Society, by the baritone Jan Krediet together with the chamber choir EnSuite and Alexandra Swemer on the piano. A CD of this concert was published in a limited edition; the complete list of songs in this song-cycle is as follows: "The Road Goes Ever On". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 1 and Chapter 3. "Upon the Hearth the Fire Is Red". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 3. "In the Willow-meads of Tasarinan".
From The Lord of the Rings vol. 2, The Two Towers, Book 3, Chapter 4. "In Western Lands". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 3, The Return of the King, Book 6, Chapter 1. "Namárië". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 8. "I Sit beside the Fire". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 3, including the text of "A Elbereth Gilthoniel", from The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 1. "Errantry". From The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the following additional songs were added after the first edition, but do not form part of the song cycle itself: "Bilbo's Last Song". Given to Donald Swann after Tolkien's death. Only in the second and third editions of the book. On the CD but not the LP. "Lúthien Tinúviel". From The Silmarillion, Chapter 19. Only in the third edition of the book. On the CD but not the LP; the Donald Swann website