The Story of Kullervo
The Story of Kullervo is a prose version of the Kullervo cycle in the Karelian and Finnish epic poem Kalevala, written by J. R. R. Tolkien when he was an undergraduate at Exeter College, from 1914 to 1915; that was an unsettled period for the author and this is thought to be reflected in the story's dark subject matter. It marks "the first time that J. R. R. Tolkien, a poet until began writing prose". Known as a source for Túrin Turambar, "The Story of Kullervo" was the centre of Tolkien's efforts in 1914, as he was "trying to turn one of the stories —, a great story and most tragic – into a short story"; as well as Tolkien's treatment of the Kullervo cycle, the book contains three essays: two by Tolkien from the same period and the third by Flieger – the two essays by Tolkien are accompanied by notes and commentary by the editor. The first of Tolkien's essays was written in 1914 and was delivered as a talk to the Corpus Christi College'Sundial' club at Oxford in November 1914 and again at the Exeter College Essay Club in February 1915.
Flieger suggests a date of circa 1919 for the revised essay, though she notes Scull & Hammond's estimation to be 1921-24. The main parts of the book are: The Story of Kullervo Notes and commentary On'The Kalevela' or Land of Heroes Notes and commentary The Kalevela Notes and commentary Tolkien, The Kalevela, and'The Story of Kullervo' by Verlyn FliegerThe Story of Kullervo was edited by Verlyn Flieger, published in 2010 in Tolkien Studies, republished in book form in August 2015 by HarperCollins. Citations Works citedCarpenter, Humphrey, ed; the Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
Marquette University is a private research university in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Established by the Society of Jesus as Marquette College on August 28, 1881, it was founded by John Martin Henni, the first Bishop of Milwaukee; the university was named after 17th-century missionary and explorer Father Jacques Marquette, with the intention to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population. An all-male institution, Marquette became the first coed Catholic university in the world in 1909, when it began admitting its first female students. Marquette is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and has a student body of about 12,000. Marquette is one of the largest Jesuit universities in the United States, the largest private university in Wisconsin. Marquette is organized into 11 schools and colleges at its main Milwaukee campus, offering programs in the liberal arts, communications, engineering and various health sciences disciplines.
The university administers classes in suburbs around the Milwaukee area and in Washington, DC. While most students are pursuing undergraduate degrees, the university has over 68 doctoral and masters degree programs, a law school, a dental school, 22 graduate certificate programs; the university's varsity athletic teams, known as the Golden Eagles, are members of the Big East Conference and compete in the NCAA's Division I in all sports. In 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Marquette #89 among national universities. Forbes ranked Marquette #86 among American research universities and #173 on its top colleges list in 2017. Marquette University was founded 138 years ago on August 28, 1881, as Marquette College by John Martin Henni, the first Catholic bishop of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee, with the assistance of funding from Belgian businessman Guillaume Joseph DeBuey; the university was named after explorer Father Jacques Marquette. The highest priority of the newly established college was to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population.
The first five graduates of Marquette College received their bachelor of arts degrees in 1887. Between 1891 and 1906, the college employed one full-time lay professor, with many classes being taught by master's students. By 1906, Marquette had awarded 186 students the Bachelor of Arts, 38 the Master of Arts, one student Bachelor of Science. Marquette College became a university in 1907, after it became affiliated with a local medical school and moved to its present location. Johnston Hall, which now houses the university's College of Communication, was the first building erected on the new campus grounds. Marquette University High School the preparatory department of the university, became a separate institution the same year. In 1908, Marquette opened an engineering college and purchased two law schools, which would become the foundation of its current law program. An all-male institution, Marquette University became the first coed Catholic university in the world, when it admitted its first female students in 1909.
By 1916 its female students had increased to 375. Marquette acquired the Wisconsin College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1913, leading to the formation of the Marquette University School of Medicine. During the 1920s and again during the post-World War II years, Marquette expanded, opening a new library, athletics facilities, classroom buildings, residence halls; the student population increased markedly as well, met by the construction of buildings for the schools of law, business and the liberal arts. Marquette is credited with offering the first degree program specializing in hospital administration in the United States, graduated the first two students in 1927. Despite the promising growth of the university, financial constraints led to the School of Medicine separating from Marquette in 1967 to become the Medical College of Wisconsin. Marquette's Golden Avalanche football team was disbanded in December 1960, basketball became the leading spectator sport at the university. Graduate programs in the liberal arts and sciences, for which planning had begun in the preceding decade, were opened in the 1970s.
In 1977, the university celebrated the victory of their men's basketball team over the University of North Carolina to win the NCAA Championship title. In 1994, then-President Albert J. DiUlio made a controversial decision to discontinue the use of the "Warriors" nickname for the university's sports teams, citing growing pressure on schools to end the use of Native American mascots. Backlash from alumni and students ensued, though the administration and Marquette community settled on the nickname "Golden Eagles." The mascot controversy again boiled over in 2005 when the university's leadership changed the nickname to "the Gold," only to return to the "Golden Eagles" a week later. During the 1990s, the university invested in the neighborhood surrounding Marquette with its $50 million Campus Circle Project, it opened a Washington, D. C.-based study center called the Les Aspin Center for Government, named after the former Secretary of Defense. MBA programs and the College of Professional Studies, with programs aimed at adult education, were founded during the mid-1990s.
In 1996, Robert A. Wild was installed as the university's 22nd president and shortly thereafter began a fundraising campaign that culminated in a major campus beautification effort and the construction of
The Road Goes Ever On
The Road Goes Ever On is a song cycle, published as a book of sheet music, as an audio recording. The music was written by Donald Swann, the words are taken from poems in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth writings The Lord of the Rings; the title of this opus is taken from "The Road Goes Ever On". The songs form a song cycle, designed to fit together. With Tolkien's approval, Donald Swann wrote the music for this song cycle, much of the music resembles English traditional music or folk music; the sole exception is the Quenya song "Namárië", based on a tune by Tolkien himself and which has some affinities to Gregorian chant. This book has been valued by those uninterested in the music, since it helps Tolkien's readers to better understand the cultures of the various mythological beings presented in Middle-earth, helps linguists analyse Tolkien's poetry. For example, it contains one of the longest samples of the language Quenya, as well as the Sindarin prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel" with grammatical explanations.
In addition to the sheet music, the book includes an introduction that contains additional information about Middle-earth. Prior to the publication of The Silmarillion, this introduction was the only publicly available source for certain information about the First Age of Middle-earth; the first edition of The Road Goes Ever On: a Song Cycle was published on 31 October 1967, in the United States. An LP record of this song cycle was recorded on 12 June 1967, with Donald Swann on piano and William Elvin singing. Side one of this record consisted of Tolkien himself reading five poems from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the first track on side two was Tolkien reading the Elvish prayer "A Elbereth Gilthoniel". The remainder of side two contained the song cycle performed by Elvin; this LP record, entitled Poems and Songs of Middle Earth and released by Caedmon Records, is long out of print and difficult to find. The second edition of The Road Goes Ever On, published in 1978, added music for "Bilbo's Last Song."
This song was published separately. The third edition, published in 1993, added music for "Lúthien Tinúviel" from The Silmarillion, which had earlier appeared in The Songs of Donald Swann: Volume I; the third edition of The Road Goes Ever On was packaged with a CD that duplicated the song cycle from the 1967 LP record. The CD included two new recordings; the third edition was reprinted in hardcover in 2002 by Harper Collins. On 10 June 1995, the song cycle was performed in Rotterdam under the auspices of the Dutch Tolkien Society, by the baritone Jan Krediet together with the chamber choir EnSuite and Alexandra Swemer on the piano. A CD of this concert was published in a limited edition; the complete list of songs in this song-cycle is as follows: "The Road Goes Ever On". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 1 and Chapter 3. "Upon the Hearth the Fire Is Red". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 1, Chapter 3. "In the Willow-meads of Tasarinan".
From The Lord of the Rings vol. 2, The Two Towers, Book 3, Chapter 4. "In Western Lands". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 3, The Return of the King, Book 6, Chapter 1. "Namárië". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 8. "I Sit beside the Fire". From The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 3, including the text of "A Elbereth Gilthoniel", from The Lord of the Rings vol. 1, The Fellowship of the Ring, Book 2, Chapter 1. "Errantry". From The Adventures of Tom Bombadil; the following additional songs were added after the first edition, but do not form part of the song cycle itself: "Bilbo's Last Song". Given to Donald Swann after Tolkien's death. Only in the second and third editions of the book. On the CD but not the LP. "Lúthien Tinúviel". From The Silmarillion, Chapter 19. Only in the third edition of the book. On the CD but not the LP; the Donald Swann website
The Tolkien Society
The Tolkien Society is an educational charity and literary society devoted to the study and promotion of the life and works of the author and academic J. R. R. Tolkien. In the November 1969 issue of The Middle Earthworm, a letters of comment fanzine aimed at British members of the Tolkien Society of America, Vera Chapman announced "if not quite the birth, at least the hopeful conception of a Tolkien Society of Britain"; this was supplemented by a personal column by Chapman in the New Statesman published on 7 November which ran "TOLKIEN SOCIETY of Britain — write Belladonna Took, c/o Chapman, 21 Harrington House, Stanhope St. London NW1". Since this would have hit news-stands a day before publication, the Tolkien Society's informal beginning has been placed at Thursday 6 November 1969; the Tolkien Society took shape over the following years. December 1969 saw the publication of Belladonna's Broadsheet, which after three issues was replaced by The Mallorn in October 1970; this was conceived as a quarterly publication, the first issue was joined by The Tolkien Society Bulletin, to be produced on a six-weekly basis.
The Society's official bulletin was replaced in January 1972 with Anduril, but was supplanted by Henneth Annûn after three issues. This new publication changed its name to Amon Hen with the second issue for no particular reason. It, together with Mallorn, are still published by the Tolkien Society; the "inaugural" meeting of the Tolkien Society was hosted by the Hobbit Society of University College London on 29 January 1970, where the name of the new society was discussed and the first committee was appointed. A constitution was considered at the first general meeting of the Tolkien Society on 20 November 1970 at UCL, but was rejected; the Tolkien Society did not become a legal entity until a constitution was ratified on 15 January 1972. It obtained charitable status in England and Wales on 7 July 1977. An AGM has been held each year since 1972, since 1973 has featured a talk from a guest speaker, it is one of the three main annual Tolkien Society events, the largest and most popular being "Oxonmoot".
In the December 1973 issue of the fanzine Nazgul, contributor John Abbot asked, "hat do you think of the idea of Oxford Moot this year?" The 1974 AGM approved the idea, the first Oxonmoot met at The Welsh Pony 13–15 September that year. The first annual Tolkien Society "workshop" was held on 22 March 1986, morphing into the "Tolkien Society Seminar" from 1989 onward; the more informal "Summermoot" was held on an irregular basis in the 1980s and 1990s hosted by Joanna Tolkien and Hugh Baker at their farm in Wales. According to their son Royd Tolkien, As a family, we’ve always been involved with The Tolkien Society and when I was a kid they used to come up to our small farm in Wales for Summer Moots. They’d dress up as characters, camp in the field, sword flight, let off homemade fireworks and have huge campfires; the first awareness of the legacy came from those fun times. The Tolkien Society has organized a number of major conferences to celebrate significant Tolkienian anniversaries. "The J. R.
R. Tolkien Centenary Conference" at Keble College, marked one-hundred years since Tolkien's birth in 1992. "Tolkien 2005: The Ring Goes Ever On" celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of The Lord of the Rings at Aston University, Birmingham. "The Return of the Ring: Celebrating Tolkien in 2012" marked seventy-five years since the publication of The Hobbit at Loughborough University, received a special video message from director Peter Jackson and artists John Howe and Alan Lee. Vera Chapman first contacted J. R. R. Tolkien on behalf of the Tolkien Society upon the suggestion of Joy Hill, Tolkien's secretary during the 1960s. On 1 May 1970 she wrote Tolkien a letter introducing its aims. Following the announcement that Tolkien had been awarded a CBE in the New Year's Honours, the Society sent Tolkien a telegram on his eightieth birthday on 3 January 1972; the Society sent him a gift of tobacco in a green china jar, along with a congratulatory note. That evening, Joy Hill telephoned Chapman to say that "f all the tributes he received, this was the one that gave the greatest pleasure.
There was a chance he might write personally." And, on 6 February, he did: Dear Mrs. Chapman, May I thank you and the Tolkien Society for your good wishes and kind gift on my 80th birthday. I appreciated your generosity much indeed. Best wishes, Yours sincerely, J. R. R. Tolkien Later that year, Chapman met Tolkien in person. On 27 June, she was invited to a sherry party hosted by Tolkien's publishing firm George Allen & Unwin. During their brief exchange, she asked Tolkien if he would consent to become the Society's honorary president. "Certainly", he responded, "f I can help your society in any way, I will." Tolkien died the following year. Upon offering the presidency to Christopher Tolkien, he wrote back suggesting that his father could remain president in perpetuity; this was agreed at the following Annual General Meeting held at the Ivanhoe Hotel in London on 16 February 1974. The Tolkien Society organizes five events on an annual basis: The Birthday Toast is held on Tolkien's birthday on 3 January.
The Society asks fans across the world to raise a toast to "The Professor" at 9pm their local time. Many local groups hold their own Birthday Toast events. In recent years the event has become social media orientated, with fans sharing pictures of themselves raising a toast to Tolkien on platforms such as Facebook an
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance. It is one of the best known Arthurian stories, with its plot combining two types of folklore motifs, the beheading game and the exchange of winnings. Written in stanzas of alliterative verse, each of which ends in a rhyming bob and wheel, it draws on Welsh and English stories, as well as the French chivalric tradition, it is an important example of a chivalric romance, which involves a hero who goes on a quest which tests his prowess, it remains popular to this day in modern English renderings from J. R. R. Tolkien, Simon Armitage, others, as well as through film and stage adaptations, it describes how Sir Gawain, a knight of King Arthur's Round Table, accepts a challenge from a mysterious "Green Knight" who challenges any knight to strike him with his axe if he will take a return blow in a year and a day. Gawain accepts and beheads him with his blow, at which the Green Knight stands up, picks up his head and reminds Gawain of the appointed time.
In his struggles to keep his bargain, Gawain demonstrates chivalry and loyalty until his honour is called into question by a test involving Lady Bertilak, the lady of the Green Knight's castle. The poem survives in a single manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. which includes three religious narrative poems: Pearl and Patience. All are thought to have been written by the same unknown author, dubbed the "Pearl Poet" or "Gawain Poet", since all four are written in a North West Midland dialect of Middle English. In Camelot on New Year's Day, King Arthur's court is exchanging gifts and waiting for the feasting to start when the king asks first to see or hear of an exciting adventure. A gigantic figure green in appearance and riding a green horse, rides unexpectedly into the hall, he bears an axe in one hand and a holly bough in the other. Refusing to fight anyone there on the grounds that they are all too weak to take him on, he insists he has come for a friendly "Christmas game": someone is to strike him once with his axe on condition that the Green Knight may return the blow in a year and a day.
The splendid axe will belong to. Arthur himself is prepared to accept the challenge when it appears no other knight will dare, but Sir Gawain, youngest of Arthur's knights and his nephew, begs for the honour instead; the giant bends and bares his neck before him and Gawain neatly beheads him in one stroke. However, the Green Knight neither falls nor falters, but instead reaches out, picks up his severed head and remounts, holding up his bleeding head to Queen Guinevere while its writhing lips remind Gawain that the two must meet again at the Green Chapel, he rides away. Gawain and Arthur admire the axe, hang it up as a trophy and encourage Guinevere to treat the whole matter lightly; as the date approaches, Sir Gawain sets off to find the Green Chapel and keep his side of the bargain. Many adventures and battles are alluded to until Gawain comes across a splendid castle where he meets Bertilak de Hautdesert, the lord of the castle, his beautiful wife, who are pleased to have such a renowned guest.
Present is an old and ugly lady, unnamed but treated with great honour by all. Gawain tells them of his New Year's appointment at the Green Chapel and that he only has a few days remaining. Bertilak laughs, explains that the start of the path that will take him to the Green Chapel is less than two miles away and proposes that Gawain rest at the castle till then. Relieved and grateful, Gawain agrees. Before going hunting the next day Bertilak proposes a bargain: he will give Gawain whatever he catches on the condition that Gawain give him whatever he might gain during the day. Gawain accepts. After Bertilak leaves, Lady Bertilak visits Gawain's bedroom and behaves seductively, but despite her best efforts he yields nothing but a single kiss in his unwillingness to offend her; when Bertilak returns and gives Gawain the deer he has killed, his guest gives a kiss to Bertilak without divulging its source. The next day the lady comes again, Gawain again courteously foils her advances, that day there is a similar exchange of a hunted boar for two kisses.
She comes once more on this time offering Gawain a gold ring as a keepsake. He but steadfastly refuses but she pleads that he at least take her belt, a girdle of green and gold silk which, the lady assures him, is charmed and will keep him from all physical harm. Tempted, as he may otherwise die the next day, Gawain accepts it, they exchange three kisses; that evening, Bertilak returns with a fox, which he exchanges with Gawain for the three kisses – but Gawain says nothing of the girdle. The next day, Gawain binds the belt twice around his waist, he finds the Green Knight sharpening an axe and, as promised, Gawain bends his bared neck to receive his blow. At the first swing Gawain flinches and the Green Knight belittles him for it. Ashamed of himself, Gawain doesn't flinch with the second swing; the knight explains. Angrily Gawain tells him to deliver his blow and so the knight does, causing only a slight wound on Gawain's neck; the game is over. Gawain seizes his sword and shield, but the Green Knight, reveals himself to be the lord of the castle, Bertilak de Hautdesert, transformed by magic.
He explains that the entire adventure was a trick of the'elderly lady' Gawain saw at the castle, the sorceress Morgan le Fay, Arthur's sister, who intended to test Arthur's knights and frighten Guinevere to death. Gawain is ashamed to have behaved deceitfully but the Green Knight laughs and professes him t
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962; the book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring. The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well; the book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium. The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem, it is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval'dream vision' poetry and Irish'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion; the book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth, not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
There is some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers. The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin, a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil Bombadil Goes Boating Errantry Princess Mee The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late* The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon The Stone Troll* Perry-the-Winkle The Mewlips Oliphaunt* Fastitocalon Cat Shadow-bride The Hoard The Sea-Bell The Last Ship*Poems featured in The Lord of the Rings The Adventures of Tom Bombadil was first published as a stand-alone book in 1962. Some editions, such as the Unwin Paperbacks edition and Poems and Stories, erroneously state that it was first published in'1961'. Tolkien's letters confirm. Beginning with The Tolkien Reader in 1966, it was included in a number of anthologies of Tolkien's shorter works; this trend continued after his death with Tales from the Perilous Realm.
In 2014 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond edited a new stand-alone edition, which includes for each poem detailed commentary, original versions and their sources. Barrow-wight Farmer Maggot Goldberry Old Forest Old Man Willow The Adventures of Tom Bombadil