In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area. Long-distance calls are charged a higher billing rate than local calls; the term is not synonymous with placing calls to another telephone area code. Long-distance calls are classified into two categories: national or domestic calls which connect two points within the same country, international calls which connect two points in different countries. Within the United States there is a further division into long distance calls within a single state and interstate calls, which are subject to different regulations. Not all interstate calls are long distance calls. Since 1984 there has been a distinction between intra-local access and transport area calls and those between different LATAs, whose boundaries are not state boundaries. Before direct distance dialing, all long distance calls were established by special switchboard operators in exchanges where calls within the local exchange were dialed directly.
Completion of long distance calls was time-consuming and costly as each call was handled by multiple operators in multiple cities. Recordkeeping was more complex, as the duration of every toll call had to be manually recorded for billing purposes. In many less-developed countries, such as Spain, Mexico and Egypt, calls were placed at a central office the caller went to, filled out a paper slip, sometimes paid in advance for the call, waited for it to be connected. In Spain these were known as locutorios "a place to talk". In towns too small to support a phone office, placing long distance calls was a sideline for some businesses with telephones, such as pharmacies. In some countries, such as Canada and the United States, long-distance rates were kept artificially high to subsidize unprofitable flat-rate local residential services. Intense competition between long-distance telephone companies narrowed these gaps in most developed nations in the late 20th century; the cost of international calls varies among countries.
The receiving country has total discretion in specifying what the caller should be charged for the cost of connecting the incoming international call with the destination customer anywhere in the receiving country. This has only a loose, in some cases no, relation to the actual cost; some less-developed countries, or their telephone company, use these fees as a revenue source. In 1892, AT&T built an interconnected long-distance telephone network, which reached from New York to Chicago, the technological limit for non-amplified wiring. Users did not use their own phone for such connections, but made an appointment to use a special long-distance telephone booth or "silence cabinet" equipped with 4-wire telephones and other advanced technology; the invention of loading coils extended the range to Denver in 1911, again reaching a technological limit. A major research venture and contest led to the development of the audion—originally invented by Lee De Forest and improved by others in the years between 1907 and 1914—which provided the means for telephone signals to reach from coast to coast.
Such transcontinental calling was made possible in 1914 but was not showcased until early 1915, as a promotion for the upcoming Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in the spring of the same year. On January 25, 1915, Alexander Graham Bell ceremonially sent the first transcontinental telephone call from 15 Dey Street in New York City, received by his former assistant Thomas A. Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco; this process involved five intermediary telephone operators and took 23 minutes to connect by manually patching in the route of the call. "On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston, it was the first wire conversation held. Yesterday afternoon the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago." On November 10, 1951, the first direct dial long-distance telephone call in North America was placed from Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, New Jersey to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California via AT&T's Bell System; the ten digit call was connected automatically within 18 seconds. The first subscriber trunk dialling in the United Kingdom was deployed December 5, 1958 with Elizabeth II placing a call from Bristol to Edinburgh. International calling After World War II, priority was given by AT&T in the USA and the various PTT entities in Europe to automating switching on the toll networks in their respective countries. Thus, when TAT-1 was opened for service, it was connected to international gateway offices at White Plains, NY and London that were automated for domestic calls; these were designed to be able to automatically switch outward and inward international circuits as soon as common signalling standards could be negotiated.
However, at the outset, to set up an international call, multiple operators were required: one to originate the call and
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Telephony is the field of technology involving the development and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is intimately linked to the development of the telephone. Telephony is referred to as the construction or operation of telephones and telephonic systems and as a system of telecommunications in which telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between points, with or without the use of wires; the term is used to refer to computer hardware and computer network systems, that perform functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment. In this context the technology is referred to as Internet telephony, or voice over Internet Protocol; the first telephones were connected directly in pairs. Each user had a separate telephone wired to the locations he or she might wish to reach; this became inconvenient and unmanageable when people wanted to communicate with more than a few people.
The inventions of the telephone exchange provided the solution for establishing telephone connections with any other telephone in service in the local area. Each telephone was connected to the exchange via the local loop. Nearby exchanges in other service areas were connected with trunk lines and long distance service could be established by relaying the calls through multiple exchanges. Switchboards were manually operated by an attendant referred to as the "switchboard operator"; when a customer cranked a handle on the telephone, it turned on an indicator on the board in front of the operator, who would plug the operator headset into that jack and offer service. The caller had to ask for the called party by name by number, the operator connected one end of a circuit into the called party jack to alert them. If the called station answered, the operator disconnected their headset and completed the station-to-station circuit. Trunk calls were made with the assistance of other operators at other exchangers in the network.
In modern times, most telephones are plugged into telephone jacks. The jacks are connected by inside wiring to a drop wire. Cables bring a large number of drop wires from all over a district access network to one wire center or telephone exchange; when a telephone user wants to make a telephone call, equipment at the exchange examines the dialed telephone number and connects that telephone line to another in the same wire center, or to a trunk to a distant exchange. Most of the exchanges in the world are interconnected through a system of larger switching systems, forming the public switched telephone network. After the middle of the 20th century and data became important secondary users of the network created to carry voices, late in the century, parts of the network were upgraded with ISDN and DSL to improve handling of such traffic. Today, telephony uses digital technology in the provisioning of telephone systems. Telephone calls can be provided digitally, but may be restricted to cases in which the last mile is digital, or where the conversion between digital and analog signals takes place inside the telephone.
This advancement has reduced costs in communication, improved the quality of voice services. The first implementation of this, ISDN, permitted all data transport from end-to-end speedily over telephone lines; this service was made much less important due to the ability to provide digital services based on the IP protocol. Since the advent of personal computer technology in the 1980s, computer telephony integration has progressively provided more sophisticated telephony services and controlled by the computer, such as making and receiving voice and data calls with telephone directory services and caller identification; the integration of telephony software and computer systems is a major development in the evolution of office automation. The term is used in describing the computerized services of call centers, such as those that direct your phone call to the right department at a business you're calling. It's sometimes used for the ability to use your personal computer to initiate and manage phone calls.
CTI is not a new concept and has been used in the past in large telephone networks, but only dedicated call centers could justify the costs of the required equipment installation. Primary telephone service providers are offering information services such as automatic number identification, a telephone service architecture that separates CTI services from call switching and will make it easier to add new services. Dialed Number Identification Service on a scale is wide enough for its implementation to bring real value to business or residential telephone usage. A new generation of applications is being developed as a result of standardization and availability of low cost computer telephony links. Starting with the introduction of the transistor, invented in 1947 by Bell Laboratories, to amplification and switching circuits in the 1950s, through development of computer-based electronic switching systems, the public switched telephone network has evolved towards automation and digitization of signaling and audio transmissions.
Digital telephony is the use of digital electronics in the operation and provisioning of telephony systems and services. Since the 1960s a digital core network has replaced the traditional analog transmission and signaling systems, much of the access network has been digitized. Digital
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises. An exchange consists of electronic components and in older systems human operators that interconnect telephone subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital systems to establish telephone calls between subscribers. In historical perspective, telecommunication terms have been used with different semantics over time; the term telephone exchange is used synonymously with central office, a Bell System term. A central office is defined as a building used to house the inside plant equipment of several telephone exchanges, each serving a certain geographical area; such an area has been referred to as the exchange. Central office locations may be identified in North America as wire centers, designating a facility from which a telephone obtains dial tone. For business and billing purposes, telephony carriers define rate centers, which in larger cities may be clusters of central offices, to define specified geographical locations for determining distance measurements.
In the United States and Canada, the Bell System established in the 1940s a uniform system of identifying central offices with a three-digit central office code, used as a prefix to subscriber telephone numbers. All central offices within a larger region aggregated by state, were assigned a common numbering plan area code. With the development of international and transoceanic telephone trunks driven by direct customer dialing, similar efforts of systematic organization of the telephone networks occurred in many countries in the mid-20th century. For corporate or enterprise use, a private telephone exchange is referred to as a private branch exchange, when it has connections to the public switched telephone network. A PBX is installed in enterprise facilities collocated with large office spaces or within an organizational campus to serve the local private telephone system and any private leased line circuits. Smaller installations might deploy a PBX or key telephone system in the office of a receptionist.
In the era of the electrical telegraph, post offices, railway stations, the more important governmental centers, stock exchanges few nationally distributed newspapers, the largest internationally important corporations and wealthy individuals were the principal users of such telegraphs. Despite the fact that telephone devices existed before the invention of the telephone exchange, their success and economical operation would have been impossible on the same schema and structure of the contemporary telegraph, as prior to the invention of the telephone exchange switchboard, early telephones were hardwired to and communicated with only a single other telephone. A telephone exchange is a telephone system located at service centers responsible for a small geographic area that provided the switching or interconnection of two or more individual subscriber lines for calls made between them, rather than requiring direct lines between subscriber stations; this made it possible for subscribers to call each other at businesses, or public spaces.
These made telephony an available and comfortable communication tool for everyday use, it gave the impetus for the creation of a whole new industrial sector. As with the invention of the telephone itself, the honor of "first telephone exchange" has several claimants. One of the first to propose a telephone exchange was Hungarian Tivadar Puskás in 1877 while he was working for Thomas Edison; the first experimental telephone exchange was based on the ideas of Puskás, it was built by the Bell Telephone Company in Boston in 1877. The world's first state-administered telephone exchange opened on November 12, 1877 in Friedrichsberg close to Berlin under the direction of Heinrich von Stephan. George W. Coy designed and built the first commercial US telephone exchange which opened in New Haven, Connecticut in January, 1878; the switchboard was built from "carriage bolts, handles from teapot lids and bustle wire" and could handle two simultaneous conversations. Charles Glidden is credited with establishing an exchange in Lowell, MA. with 50 subscribers in 1878.
In Europe other early telephone exchanges were based in London and Manchester, both of which opened under Bell patents in 1879. Belgium had its first International Bell exchange a year later. In 1887 Puskás introduced the multiplex switchboard.. Exchanges consisted of one to several hundred plug boards staffed by switchboard operators; each operator sat in front of a vertical panel containing banks of ¼-inch tip-ring-sleeve jacks, each of, the local termination of a subscriber's telephone line. In front of the jack panel lay a horizontal panel containing two rows of patch cords, each pair connected to a cord circuit; when a calling party lifted the receiver, the local loop current lit a signal lamp near the jack. The operator responded by inserting the rear cord into the subscriber's jack and switched her headset into the circuit to ask, "Number, please?" For a local call, the operator inserted the front cord of the pair into the called party's local jack and started the ringing cycle. For a long distance call, she plugged into a trunk circuit to connect to another operator in another bank of boards or at a remote central office.
In 1918, the average time to complete the connection for a long-distance call was 15 minutes. Early manual switchboards required the operator to operate listening keys and ringing keys, but by the late 1910s and 1920s, advances in switchboard technology led to features which allowed the call to be automatic
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin