A harbor or harbour is a sheltered body of water where ships and barges can be docked. The term harbor is used interchangeably with port, a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports include one or more harbors. Alexandria Port in Egypt is an example of a port with two harbors. Harbors may be artificial. An artificial harbor can have deliberately constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys or they can be constructed by dredging, which requires maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor, United States, an array of salt marshes and tidal flats too shallow for modern merchant ships before it was first dredged in the early 20th century. In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by prominences of land. Examples of natural harbors include Sydney Harbour and Trincomalee Harbour in Sri Lanka. Artificial harbors are built for use as ports; the oldest artificial harbor known is the Ancient Egyptian site at Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea coast, at least 4500 years old.
The largest artificially created. Other large and busy artificial harbors include: Port of Houston, United States. Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. A natural harbor is a landform where a part of a body of water is protected and deep enough to furnish anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and economic importance, many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor; some examples are: Port Hercules in Principality of Monaco. For harbors near the North and South Poles, being ice-free is an important advantage when it is year-round. Examples of these include: Hammerfest, Norway. Vardø, Norway. Although the world's busiest port is a hotly contested title, in 2006 the world's busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the Port of Shanghai; the following are large natural harbors: Harbor Maintenance Finance and Funding Congressional Research Service "Harbor".
New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Yim Tin Tsai (Tai Po)
For the island in Sai Kung, see Yim Tin Tsai. Yim Tin Tsai is an island of Hong Kong located in Tolo Harbour. Yim Tin Tsai forms part of the southern border of Plover Cove, it is connected to the mainland in the north by a road, leading next to The Beverly Hills, to the island of Ma Shi Chau in the east by a tombolo, only accessible when the tide is low. Sam Mun Tsai New Village and Luen Yick Fishermen Village are located in the north of the island; the two villages are facing the Shuen Wan Typhoon Shelter. While Yim Tin Tsai is not part of the Ma Shi Chau Special Area, a small unnamed island located about 100 m northeast of its shore belongs to the Area. A late Neolithic prehistoric site dating back to about 4,000 years ago has been identified on Yim Tin Tsai. Prehistoric sites have been discovered on two other islands of Tolo Harbour, namely Yuen Chau Tsai and Centre Island. Members of the Hakka Chan clan moved from today's Shenzhen and settled in Yim Tin Tsai during the 19th century. Other members of the clan settled in Yim Tin Tsai in Sai Kung and in Ping Yeung, in Ta Kwu Ling, North District.
Salt fields were operated on Yim Tin Tsai at that time. The fishermen now residing in Sam Mun Tsai New Village used to live on boats at the original Sam Mun Tsai, close to Tai Kau of Luk Heung, now at the northeastern shore of Plover Cove Reservoir, they were relocated to their current residence in 1966, as a result of the construction of the Plover Cove Reservoir. At the time, 36 families were moved to housing on land. Extensive renovation work was conducted at the village in 2006-2007. Map showing Yim Tin Tsai and surrounding features Map of Shuen Wan Typhoon Shelter showing Yim Tin Tsai on the right Film Services Offices - Pictures of Sam Mun Tsai Fishermen Village Film Services Offices - Luen Yick Fishermen Village thaiworldview.com Pictures of Sam Mun Tsai
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. It is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. After New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon; the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2. New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.
The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking. Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. With a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 and Kowloon south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island in 1860; the colony of Hong Kong attracted a large number of Chinese and Westerners to seek their fortune in the city. Its population increased and the city became overcrowded; the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 became a concern to the Hong Kong Government. There was a need to expand the colony to accommodate its growing population; the Qing Dynasty's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War had shown that it was incapable of defending itself. Victoria City and Victoria Harbour were vulnerable to any hostile forces launching attacks from the hills of Kowloon.
Alarmed by the encroachment of other European powers in China, Britain feared for the security of Hong Kong. Using the most favoured nation clause that it had negotiated with Peking, the United Kingdom demanded the extension of Kowloon to counter the influence of France in southern China in June 1898. In July, it secured Weihaiwei in Shandong in the north as a base for operations against the Germans in Qingdao and the Russians in Port Arthur. Chinese officials stayed in the walled cities of Kowloon Weihaiwei; the extension of Kowloon was called the New Territories. The additional land was estimated to be 365 square miles or 12 times the size of the existing Colonial Hong Kong at the time. Although the Convention was signed on the 9 June 1898 and became effective on 1 July, the British did not take over the New Territories immediately. During this period, there was no Hong Kong Wilsone Black acted as administrator. James Stewart Lockhart, the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong, was sent back from England to make a survey of New Territories before formal transfer.
The survey found that the new frontier at Sham Chun River suggested by Wilsone Black was far from ideal. It excluded the town of Shenzhen, the boundary would divide the town. There was no mountain range as a natural border. Lockhard suggested moving the frontier to the line of hills north of Shenzhen; this suggestion was not received favourably and the Chinese official suggested the frontier be moved to the hill much further south of the Sham Chun River. It was settled in March 1899; the new Hong Kong Governor Henry Blake arrived in November 1898. The date for the takeover of the New Territories was fixed as 17 April 1899 and Tai Po was chosen as the administrative centre; however the transfer was not peaceful. Before the handover in early April, Captain Superintendent of Police, Francis Henry May and some policemen erected a flagstaff and temporary headquarters at Tai Po and posted the Governor's proclamation of the takeover date. Fearing for their traditional land rights, in the Six-Day War of 1899, a number of clans attempted to resist the British, mobilising clan militias, organised and armed to protect against longshore raids by pirates.
The militia men attempted a frontal attack against the temporary police station in Tai Po, the main British base but were beaten back by superior force of arms. An attempt by the clansmen at guerilla warfare was put down by the British near Lam Tsuen with over 500 Chinese men killed, collapsed when British artillery was brought to bear on the walled villages of the clansmen. Most prominent of the villages in the resistance Kat Hing Wai, of the Tang clan, was symbolically disarmed, by having its main gates dismounted and removed. However, in order to prevent future resistance the British made concessions to the indigenous inhabitants with regards to land use, land inheritance and marriage laws; some of the concessions with regard to land use and inheritance remain in place in Hong Kong to this day and is a source of friction between indigenous inhabitants and other Hong Kong residents. Lord Lugard was Governor from 1907 to 1912, he proposed the return of Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the leased New
Pearl hunting is the activity of recovering pearls from wild mollusks oysters or mussels, in the sea or fresh water. Pearl hunting used to be prevalent in the Persian Gulf region and Japan, but occurred in other regions. In most cases the pearl-bearing mulluscs live at depths where they are not manually accessible from the surface, diving or the use of some form of tool is needed to reach them; the mulluscs were retrieved by freediving, a technique where the diver descends to the bottom, collects what they can, surfaces on a single breath. The diving mask improved the ability of the diver to see while underwater; when the surface-supplied diving helmet became available for underwater work, it was applied to the task of pearl hunting, the associated activity of collecting pearl shell as a raw material for the manufacture of buttons and other decorative work. The surface supplied diving helmet extended the time the diver could stay at depth, introduced the unfamiliar hazards of barotrauma of ascent and decompression sickness.
Before the beginning of the 20th century, the only means of obtaining pearls was by manually gathering large numbers of pearl oysters or mussels from the ocean floor or lake or river bottom. The bivalves were brought to the surface and the tissues searched. More than a ton were searched. In order to find enough pearl oysters, free-divers were forced to descend to depths of over 100 feet on a single breath, exposing them to the dangers of hostile creatures, eye damage, drowning as a result of shallow water blackout on resurfacing; because of the difficulty of diving and the unpredictable nature of natural pearl growth in pearl oysters, pearls of the time were rare and of varying quality. The Great Depression in the United States made it hard to get good prices for pearl shell; the natural pearls found from harvested oysters were a rare bonus for the divers. Many fabulous specimens were found over the years. By the 1930s, overharvesting had depleted the oyster beds; the government was forced to regulate the harvest to prevent the oysters from becoming extinct, the Mexican government banned all pearl harvesting from 1942 to 1963.
In Asia, some pearl oysters could be found on shoals at a depth of 5–7 feet from the surface, but more divers had to go 40 feet or up to 125 feet deep to find enough pearl oysters, these deep dives were hazardous to the divers. In the 19th century, divers in Asia had only basic forms of technology to aid their survival at such depths. For example, in some areas they greased their bodies to conserve heat, put greased cotton in their ears, wore a tortoise-shell clip to close their nostrils, gripped a large object like a rock to descend without the wasteful effort of swimming down, had a wide-mouthed basket or net to hold the oysters. For thousands of years, most seawater pearls were retrieved by divers working in the Indian Ocean, in areas such as the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, in the Gulf of Mannar. A fragment of Isidore of Charax's Parthian itinerary was preserved in Athenaeus's 3rd-century Sophists at Dinner, recording freediving for pearls around an island in the Persian Gulf. Pearl divers near the Philippines were successful at harvesting large pearls in the Sulu Archipelago.
In fact, pearls from the Sulu Archipelago were considered the "finest of the world" which were found in "high bred" shells in deep and rapid tidal waters. At times, the largest pearls belonged by law to the sultan, selling them could result in the death penalty for the seller. Nonetheless many pearls made it out of the archipelago by stealth, ending up in the possession of the wealthiest families in Europe. Pearling was popular in Qatar, Kuwait, Japan and some areas in Persian Gulf countries; the Gulf of Mexico was famous for pearling, found by the Spanish explorers. In a similar manner as in Asia, Native Americans harvested freshwater pearls from lakes and rivers like the Ohio and Mississippi, while others retrieved marine pearls from the Caribbean and waters along the coasts of Central and South America. In the time of colonial slavery in northern South America, a unique occupation amongst slaves was that of a pearl diver. A diver's career was short-lived because the waters being searched were known to be shark-infested, resulting in frequent attacks on divers.
However, a slave who discovered a great pearl could sometimes purchase his freedom. During the first half of the sixteenth century, Spaniards discovered the extensive pearl oyster beds that existed on the Caribbean coast of Venezuela in the vicinity of Margarita Island. Indigenous slavery was easy to establish in this area. Since violence could not protect the efficiency of the slave trade, coastal chieftains established a ransoming system known as the "rescate" system; as this system continued to grow and more oyster beds were discovered along the Latin American coast, including near Riohacha on Colombia's Guijara Peninsula. However, due to over-exploitation of both indigenous labor and the oyster beds, the Spanish pearl economy soon plummeted. By 1540, previous Spanish settlements along the coast had been abandoned as the Spanish looked elsewhere for more labor and newer markets; the pearl industry was revived in the late sixteenth century when Spaniards replaced indigenous labor with African slave la
Inner Port Shelter
Inner Port Shelter or Sai Kung Hoi is a harbour off the shore of Sai Kung Town, south of Sai Kung Peninsula, Hong Kong. Sharp Island is the major island in the harbour. Islands of Inner Port Shelter include: Cham Tau Chau Kiu Tau Kwun Tsoi Pai Lap Sap Chau Pak Sha Chau Sharp Island Siu Tsan Chau Tai Chau Tai Tsan Chau Yeung Chau Port Shelter Kiu Tsui Country Park
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states succeeded one another in the Central Plain, more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere in South China, it was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history. Traditionally, the era started with the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907 AD and ended with the founding of the Song dynasty in 960. Many states had been de facto independent kingdoms long before 907. After the Tang had collapsed, the kings who controlled the Central plain crowned themselves as emperors. War between kingdoms occurred to gain control of the central plain for legitimacy and over the rest of China; the last of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms states, the Northern Han, was not vanquished until 979. Towards the end of the Tang, the imperial government granted increased powers to the jiedushi, the regional military governors; the An Lushan and Huang Chao Rebellion weakened the imperial government, by the early 10th century the jiedushi commanded de facto independence from its authority.
In the last decades of the dynasty, they were not appointed by the court any more, but developed hereditary systems, from father to son or from patron to protégé. They had their own armies rivalling the "palace armies" and amassed huge wealth, as testified by their sumptuous tombs, thus ensued the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. North China Zhu Wen at Bianzhou, precursor to Later Liang Li Keyong and Li Cunxu at Taiyuan, precursor to Later Tang Liu Rengong and Liu Shouguang at Youzhou, precursor to Yan Li Maozhen at Fengxiang, precursor to Qi Luo Shaowei at Weibo Wang Rong at Zhenzhou Wang Chuzhi at Dingzhou South China Yang Xingmi at Yangzhou, precursor to Wu Qian Liu at Hangzhou, precursor to Wuyue Ma Yin at Tanzhou, precursor to Chu Wang Shenzhi at Fuzhou, precursor to Min Liu Yin at Guangzhou, precursor to Southern Han Wang Jian at Chengdu, precursor to Former Shu During the Tang Dynasty, the warlord Zhu Wen held the most power in northern China. Although he was a member of Huang Chao's rebel army, he took on a crucial role in suppressing the Huang Chao Rebellion.
For this function, he was awarded the Xuanwu Jiedushi title. Within a few years, he had consolidated his power by destroying neighbours and forcing the move of the imperial capital to Luoyang, within his region of influence. In 904, he made his 13-year-old son a subordinate ruler. Three years he induced the boy emperor to abdicate in his favour, he proclaimed himself emperor, thus beginning the Later Liang. During the final years of the Tang Dynasty, rival warlords declared independence in the provinces they governed—not all of which recognized the emperor's authority. Li Cunxu and Liu Shouguang fiercely fought, he defeated Liu Shouguang in 915, declared himself emperor in 923. Thus began the Shatuo Later Tang — the first in a long line of conquest dynasties. After reuniting much of northern China, in 925 Cunxu conquered the Former Shu, a regime, set up in Sichuan; the Later Tang had a few years of relative calm, followed by unrest. In 934, Sichuan again asserted independence. In 936, Shi Jingtang, a Shatuo jiedushi from Taiyuan, was aided by the ethnic-Khitan Liao dynasty in a rebellion against the Later Tang.
In return for their aid, Shi Jingtang promised annual tribute and the Sixteen Prefectures to the Khitans. The rebellion succeeded. Not long after the founding of the Later Jin, the Khitans came to regard the emperor as a proxy ruler for China proper. In 943, the Khitans declared war and within three years seized the capital, marking the end of Later Jin, but while they had conquered vast regions of China, the Khitans were unable or unwilling to control those regions and retreated from them early in the next year. To fill the power vacuum, the jiedushi Liu Zhiyuan entered the imperial capital in 947 and proclaimed the advent of the Later Han, establishing a third successive Shatuo reign; this was the shortest of the five dynasties. Following a coup in 951, General Guo Wei, a Han Chinese, was enthroned, thus beginning the Later Zhou. However, Liu Chong, a member of the Later Han imperial family, established a rival Northern Han regime in Taiyuan and requested Khitan aid to defeat the Later Zhou.
After the death of Guo Wei in 951, his adopted son Chai Rong succeeded the throne and began a policy of expansion and reunification. In 954, his army defeated combined Khitan and Northern Han forces, ending their ambition of toppling the Later Zhou. Between 956 and 958, forces of Later Zhou conquered much of Southern Tang, the most powerful regime in southern China, which ceded all the territory north of the Yangtze in defeat. In 959, Chai Rong attacked the Liao in an attempt to recover territories ceded during the Later Jin. After many victories, he succumbed to illness. In 960, the general Zhao Kuangyin staged a coup and took the throne for himself, founding the Northern Song Dynasty; this is the official end of Ten Kingdoms period. During the next two decades, Zhao Kuangyin and his successor Zhao Kuan
Three Fathoms Cove
Three Fathoms Cove or Kei Ling Ha Hoi is a cove in Tai Po District, Hong Kong. It is surrounded by Kei Ling Ha, Yung Shue O, Wong Tei Tung and Sham Chung. Most of its east shore constitutes part of the Sai Kung West Country Park. To the north the cove is connected to the Tolo Channel; the islands of Sam Pui Chau and Wu Chau are located within the cove. Satellite image of Three Fathoms Cove by Google Maps