Whittier is a city at the head of the Passage Canal in the U. S. state of Alaska, about 58 miles southeast of Anchorage. The city is within the Valdez–Cordova Census Area. At the 2010 census the population was 220, up from 182 in 2000; the 2016 estimate was 214 people all of whom live in a single building. Whittier is a port for the Alaska Marine Highway; the region occupied by Whittier was once part of the portage route of the Chugach people native to Prince William Sound. The passage was used by Russian and American explorers, by prospecting miners during the gold rush; the nearby Whittier glacier was named for American poet John Greenleaf Whittier in 1915, the town took the name as well. During World War II, the United States Army constructed a military facility, complete with port and railroad near Whittier Glacier and named the facility Camp Sullivan; the spur of the Alaska Railroad to Camp Sullivan was completed in 1943 and the port became the entrance for United States soldiers into Alaska.
The two buildings that dominate the town were built after World War II. The 14-story Hodge Building was completed in 1957 and contains 150 two- and three-bedroom apartments plus bachelor efficiency units. Dependent families and Civil Service employees were moved into this high-rise; the Whittier School was connected by a tunnel at the base of the west tower so students could safely access school on days with bad weather. The building was named in honor of Colonel Walter William Hodge, a civil engineer and the commanding officer of 93rd Engineer Regiment on the Alcan Highway; the other main structure in town, the Buckner Building, was completed in 1953, was called the "city under one roof". The Buckner Building was abandoned. Buckner and Begich Towers were at one time the largest buildings in Alaska; the Begich Building became a condominium, along with the two-story private residence known as Whittier Manor, houses a majority of the town's residents. The port at Whittier was an active Army facility until 1960.
In 1962, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a petroleum products terminal, a pumping station and a 62-mile-long, 8-inch pipeline to Anchorage in Whittier. On March 28, 1964, Whittier suffered over $10 million worth of damage in what became known as the Good Friday earthquake; as of 2019, the earthquake remains the largest U. S. earthquake, measuring 9.2 on the moment magnitude scale, having caused tsunamis along the West Coast of the U. S; the tsunami that hit Whittier killed 13 people. Whittier was incorporated in 1969 and became a port of call for cruise ships, it is utilized about 100-passenger mid-sized cruise ships. When the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel opened to public access in 2000, it became the first highway to connect Whittier to Anchorage and inner Alaska—previously, the only ways to reach the town had been rail and plane. After the tunnel expanded access to Whittier, it began to be visited by larger cruise lines, it is the embarkation/debarkation point of one-way cruises from Anchorage to Vancouver by Princess Tours.
Whittier is popular with tourists, outdoor enthusiasts, hikers, sport fishermen, hunters because of its abundance of wildlife and natural beauty. Whittier is located within the Chugach National Forest, the second-largest national forest in the U. S. Whittier is in the Chugach School District and has one school serving 38 students from preschool through high school, according to the 2015–2016 enrollment numbers. Whittier is located at 60°46′27″N 148°40′40″W; the only land access is through the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, a mixed-use road and rail tunnel. The town is on the northeast shore of the Kenai Peninsula, at the head of Passage Canal, on the west side of Prince William Sound, it is 58 miles southeast of Anchorage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.7 square miles, of which, 12.5 square miles of it is land and 7.2 square miles of it is water. Whittier has a subarctic climate under the Köppen climate classification, it is the wettest city in Alaska and the United States, receiving more annual precipitation than Yakutat and Ketchikan which are the second- and third-wettest cities in Alaska, respectively.
Whittier is located at the northern tip of the northernmost temperate rainforest. Whittier first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1969. As of 2015, there were 214 people living with 288 available housing units; the entirety of this population lives within the 14-story Begich Towers. The racial makeup of the city was 78.38% White, 4.05% Asian, 4.96% Native American, 3.60% Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 5.41% Hispanic, 9.01% from two or more races. There are 124 households in the town and the average household size is 1.79 people, according to 2014 statistics. Of these households, 56 are family and 68 are non family. 40.30% of the population is married, 32.34% are divorced. 51.78% of the population has children. The age distribution within the city shows that 13.96 percent of the population is under the age of 18, 3.15 percent is between the ages of 18 and 24, 23.87 percent is between the ages of 25 to 44, 52.25 percent is between the ages of 45 and 64, 6.76 percent of the population is above the age of 65.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,250 in 2014. The per capita income for the city was $31,624. Unemployment in Whittier was at a rate of 9.2 percent. City government consists of a seven-member council
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
The Alaska Senate is the upper house in the Alaska Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alaska. It convenes in the Alaska State Capitol in Juneau, Alaska and is responsible for making laws and confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to the state cabinet and boards. With just twenty members, the Alaska Senate is the smallest state upper house legislative chamber in the United States, its members serve four-year terms and each represent an equal number of districts with populations of 35,512 people, per 2010 Census figures. They are not subject to term limits; the Alaska Senate shares the responsibility for making laws in the state of Alaska. Bills are developed by staff from information from the bill's sponsor. Bills undergo four readings during the legislative process. After the first reading, they are assigned to committee. Committees can hold legislation and prevent it from reaching the Senate floor. Once a committee has weighed in on a piece of legislation, the bill returns to the floor for second hearing and a third hearing, which happens just before the floor vote on it.
Once passed by the Senate, a bill is sent to the opposite legislative house for consideration. If approved, without amendment, it is sent to the governor. If there is amendment, the Senate may either reconsider the bill with amendments or ask for the establishment of a conference committee to work out differences in the versions of the bill passed by each chamber. Once a piece of legislation approved by both houses is forwarded to the governor, it may either be signed or vetoed. If it is signed, it takes effect on the effective date of the legislation. If it is vetoed, lawmakers in a joint session may override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote; the Alaska Senate has the sole responsibility in the state's legislative branch for confirming gubernatorial appointees to positions that require confirmation. Current committees include: Past partisan compositions can be found on Political party strength in Alaska. Senators must be a qualified voter and resident of Alaska for no less than three years, a resident of the district from which elected for one year preceding filing for office.
A senator must be at least 25 years old at the time. Senators may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of the membership of the body; this has happened only once in Senate history. On February 5, 1982, the Senate of the 12th Legislature expelled Bethel senator George Hohman from the body. Hohman was convicted of bribery in conjunction with his legislative duties on December 24, 1981, had defiantly refused to resign from his seat. Expulsion was not a consideration during the 2003–2010 Alaska political corruption probe, as Ben Stevens and John Cowdery were the only Senators who were subjects of the probe and neither sought reelection in 2008. Legislative terms begin on the second Monday in January following a presidential election year and on the third Tuesday in January following a gubernatorial election; the term of senators is four years and half of the senators are up for election every two years. The President of the Senate presides over the body, appointing members to all of the Senate's committees and joint committees, may create other committees and subcommittees if desired.
Unlike many other states, the Lieutenant Governor of Alaska does not preside over the Senate. Instead, the Lieutenant Governor oversees the Alaska Division of Elections, fulfilling the role of Secretary of State. Only two other states and Utah, have similar constitutional arrangements for their lieutenant governors; the other partisan Senate leadership positions, such as the Majority and Minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses to head their parties in the chamber. ↑: Senator was appointed^a: Caucuses with the Republican-led majority Alaska House of Representatives Alaska State Capitol List of Alaska State Legislatures Alaska State Senate official government website Project Vote Smart – State Senate of Alaska
Area code 907
Area code 907 covers the state of Alaska, except for the small southeastern community of Hyder, which uses area codes 236, 250 and 778 of neighboring Stewart, British Columbia. Despite having telephone service to the contiguous US via a terrestrial line from Juneau since 1937, Alaska was not included in the North American Numbering Plan until after the Alaska submarine cable was opened for traffic in 1956; the Alaska numbering plan area was assigned the area code 907, entered service in 1957. The Alaska numbering plan area is geographically the largest of any in the United States, it is the second-largest on the NANP and on the entire North American continent behind 867, which serves Canada's northern territories. Because the Aleutian Islands of Alaska cross longitude 180, the Anti-Meridian, 907 may be considered to be both the farthest west and the farthest east of all area codes in the NANP. Due to Alaska's low population, 907 is one of only 12 remaining area codes serving an entire state.
It is not projected to be exhausted until 2029. Many calls within Alaska are long-distance calls and must be dialed with the leading 1-907, except for cellphone services. Local calls and cellphone calls for long-distance service within Alaska, only require seven-digit dialing. At the time of its creation, area code 907 was one of the two longest area codes to dial on a rotary phone, taking 26 pulses to dial out in an era before the first touch tone phones; this is the same number of pulses as Hawaii's area code 808, introduced the same year. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Alaska List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 907 Area Code
'Chitina is a census-designated place in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 126, up from 123 in 2000. Chitina is located on the west bank of the Copper River at its confluence with the Chitina River on the Edgerton Highway, junction with the McCarthy Road, it is 106 km southeast of Glennallen. It is outside the western boundary of the Wrangell - Preserve. In 1945, work had begun to convert the CR&NW railroad line, from Cordova to Kennicott, into a highway, but work halted with the 1964 Good Friday earthquake, leaving a significant gap between Chitina and the Million Dollar Bridge near Cordova; the rail route from Chitina to Kennicott is the McCarthy Road. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 95.8 square miles, of which, 84.6 square miles of it is land and 11.1 square miles of it is water. Chitina has a continental subarctic climate. Chitina first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980.
As of the census of 2000, there were 123 people, 52 households, 30 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1.5 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 0.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 51.22% White, 33.33% Alaskan Native, 15.45% from two or more races. There were 52 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.3% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.07. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,000, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $10,835. There were 3.3% of families and 12.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 15.4% of those over 64. Athabascans have lived in the area around Chitina for centuries as evidenced by the archaeological sites south and east of Chitina. Before 1900, Chitina was the site of large village whose population was decimated by the influx of people and conflicts. Copper ore was discovered in about 1900 along the northern edge of the Chitina River valley; this brought a rush of homesteaders to the area. Stephen Birch homesteaded the site in 1908; the Copper River and Northwestern Railway enabled Chitina to develop into a thriving community by 1914. It had a general store, a clothing store, a meat market, stables, a tinsmith, five hotels, several rooming houses, a pool hall, restaurants, dance halls and a movie theater.
The mines closed in 1938 and the remaining support activities moved to what is now the Glennallen area. Chitina became a virtual ghost town. Otto Adrian Nelson, a surveying engineer for the Kennecott Mines bought up much of the town, he built a unique hydroelectric system. He supplied much of the town center with hot and cold running water. Current activity in Chitina revolves around the dipnet fishing for salmon. Alaskans are allowed to dip a large number of salmon during their spawning runs and Chitina is an accessible and popular place for this activity. In late 1977, jeweler Art Koeninger purchased the "Chitina Tin Shop" with the intention of turning it into a residence. In 1979, the site known as "Fred's Place" and "Schaupp's," was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and has won two historic preservation grants, it houses the Spirit Mountain Artworks
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
McCarthy is a census-designated place in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, United States. The population was 28 at the 2010 census, down from 42 in 2000. McCarthy is 120 mi northeast of Cordova at the foot of the Wrangell Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP of McCarthy has a total area of 148.3 square miles. None of the area is covered with water, it is connected to the outside world via the McCarthy Road spur of the Edgerton Highway from Chitina, must be passed through to reach Kennecott, a destination of tourists seeking access to Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. From the end of the road one had to cross the Kennecott River and a smaller stream using manually propelled ropeways, but a footbridge was built in the 1990s. Visitors can walk to McCarthy in about 15 minutes, although shuttle vans and buses are available during the tourist season from the bridge to both McCarthy and Kennecott. McCarthy has a subarctic climate. McCarthy first reported on the 1920 U.
S. Census as an unincorporated village. With the closure of the post office in 1943, it did not report on the census from 1950-80, it returned again beginning in 1990. As of the census of 2000, there were 42 people, 26 households, 6 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 0.3 people per square mile. There were 47 housing units at an average density of 0.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 100.00% White. There were 26 households out of which 15.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 15.4% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 73.1% were non-families. 53.8% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.62 and the average family size was 2.14. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 9.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 47.6% from 45 to 64, 4.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 147.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 153.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $17,188, the median income for a family was $20,000; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,045. There were no families and 15.2% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 65. For centuries, Athabascans hunted in the area of McCarthy. Chief Nikolai and his band of Athabaskan Natives had a summer camp at Dan Creek, 15 miles east of McCarthy, where they collected copper nuggets from Dan Creek, their permanent camp was on the Copper River at the village of Taral near Chitina where they fished for salmon. Copper was discovered between the Kennicott Glacier and McCarthy Creek in 1900, after which Kennicott Mine, Kennecott Mining Company, company town of Kennecott were created. Due to a clerical error, the corporation and town used the spelling of Kennecott instead of Kennicott, named for Kennicott Glacier in the valley below the town.
The glacier was named after a naturalist who explored in Alaska in the mid-1800s. Because alcoholic beverages and prostitution were forbidden in Kennecott, McCarthy grew as an area to provide illicit services not available in the company town, it grew into a major town with a gymnasium, a hospital, a school, a bar and a brothel. The Copper River and Northwestern Railway reached McCarthy in 1911. In 1938, the copper deposits were gone and the town was abandoned; the railroad discontinued service that year. Over its 30-year operation, U. S. $200 million in ore was extracted from the mine, making it the richest concentration of copper ore in the world. The population of McCarthy and Kennecott fell to zero until the 1970s, when the area began to draw young people from the many who came to Alaska in the'70s for adventure and the big money of the Trans Alaska Pipeline project. In the'80s, after the area was designated Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, it began to draw some adventurous tourists to the new national park.
The few people that lived there began to provide a variety of tourist services. There has always been at least one family living in the McCarthy area since 1953; the old mine buildings and colorful history attract visitors during the summer months. The Kennecott and McCarthy area ranks as one of the United States' most endangered landmarks by the National Trust for Historic Places. Emergency stabilization of the old buildings more will be required. In 2014, the TV show Edge of Alaska premiered on Discovery Channel; the show has caused controversy though, as many town residents feel the town is portrayed in a bad light due to the troublesome incidents that have occurred there. In an attempt to disrupt the Alaska pipeline, 39-year-old Louis D. Hastings, armed with a.223-caliber Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic rifle, murdered six of the 22 citizens of McCarthy on March 1, 1983. The victims were Maxine Edwards, Harley King and Flo Hegland, Tim and Amy Nash, he wounded two people. In July 1984, Hastings was sentenced to 634 years in prison.
This case, the town of McCarthy, were showcased on the Discovery Channel's Alaska Ice Cold Killers episode "Frozen Terror". Https://books.google.com/books?id=DIG_9oBssrAC&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=mccarthy+alaska+murders&source=bl&ots=fdAGDpJope&sig=iYT244SPoiVH9sluH17FIaybBLE&hl=en&ei=U0uxS4q1FpLYsQOs0KCiAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CBsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=&f=false/ McCarthy/Kennecott history Weather conditions from a remote weather station in McCarthy