MacFormat is the UK's biggest computer magazine aimed at Macintosh users. It published 13 issues per year, it is published by Future plc, has been since 1993. The main content of this magazine includes news from major Apple events such as the WWDC or the Macworld Expo, detailed tutorials and reviews of the latest accessories and apps; until 2012, the magazine included a free cover disc filled with Mac software mentioned in the magazine. In previous years, MacFormat came with programs on a free 3½-inch Floppy disk, CD or CD/DVD option as reflected the state of cheap removable media in that era. Editor: Alan Stonebirdge Commissioning Editor: Alex Blake Managing Art Editor: Paul Blachford Operations Editor: Jo Membery Official website
Guitarist is a British monthly music making magazine published by Future plc. It is the longest-established European guitar magazine, is the biggest-selling guitar magazine in the UK; the magazine's current editor is Jamie Dickson, in charge since late-2013. Each issue covers three areas: reviews and technique; this may include reviews of newly released guitars and other equipment. Guitarist's slogan was "The Guitar Player's Bible", before changing in 2012 to "The Guitar Magazine". In the June 2014 edition, Guitarist celebrated its 30th Anniversary. One of the key features of Guitarist is its large and in-depth gear reviews section, produced by some of the most respected and experienced guitar writers in the world, including Dave Burrluck, Neville Marten and Mick Taylor; the gear aspect of the magazine covers reviews of all the latest guitar equipment from major and boutique makers from around the world. As well as electric guitars and acoustic guitars, the magazine reviews guitar amplifiers, effects pedals, electric basses and various pro-audio and recording equipment applicable to guitar players.
Gear reviews within the magazine comprise two distinct elements. First Play reviews are located near the front of the magazine and focus on high-end products; these reviews place an emphasis on the high-quality, artistic photography the mag prides itself for, but will not go into the same level of forensic detail as reviews elsewhere in Guitarist. The second type of review featured in the magazine are the Feature Reviews, located in the back half of each issue; these reviews are designed to go in-depth on new and interesting gear, go behind the scenes, talking to the people involved in the creation of the instruments, or explore the history of that instrument in a more feature-like way. Where applicable, all the gear reviewed in Guitarist is accompanied by a video demo of that product, produced by the magazine's in-house team - the product will be demoed by the reviewer himself; these demos can be either a straight up demonstration of the product's features, a short piece of original music created using the product in question, or a talking-head discussion of the guitar on show between members of the Guitarist team, with playing examples interspersed throughout.
These video demos were accessed via the Guitarist CD/DVD, or the online Guitarist Vault download archive. From 2014, the video demos have been available as a private YouTube playlist, accessed via a direct link printed in each issue. In addition to gear reviews, each issue features an in-depth Q&A section, where reader's technical queries and problems are answered by Guitarist's experts, as well as a long-term test section, where members of the Guitarist team take reviewed products on a six-month trial to see how they feature in the real world. Guitarist has always focussed on blues and classic rock and metal when it comes to interviews and features. While that remains its core, in recent years the title has broadened its scope to include artists from a wide array of guitar-focussed genres, including alternative rock, modern metal, progressive rock, country, shred guitar and many others. Artist interviews in Guitarist are focussed on famous or noteworthy guitar players, interviews are conducted from a more'guitar' point of view than a regular music magazine interview - discussions of the artist in question's playing style, gear choices and general attitude to the guitar are commonplace.
Guitarist will get the artist in question to either demonstrate their gear or playing on video, available to view on the Guitarist YouTube channel. Recent artists who have been featured in Guitarist include: Joe Perry, Jimmy Page, Marc Ford, Joe Bonamassa, Charlie Hunter, Jackson Browne, Guthrie Govan, Jim Campilongo, Eric Johnson and Steve Vai. In addition to artist interviews, Guitarist features in-depth features relating to a specific guitarist, guitar or musical genre. Recent examples of these in-depth features include cover features a forensic examination and history of Brian May's guitar The Red Special, a similar treatment of David Gilmour's famous Black Stratocaster, historical features on blues legends, slide guitar, the Fender Stratocaster, the Gibson Les Paul and various others. Guitarist has included a large technique section at the rear of the magazine with columns reflecting a wide array of different guitar styles, this has in recent years been reduced to a single regular column, the long-running Blues Headlines with current Guitar Techniques editor and former "Guitarist" editor Neville Marten.
While the magazine features less monthly technique columns, instead Guitarist now peppers its features section with'style files'. These style files are amended to an artist interview or history feature, are designed to allow the reader to learn the playing style of the artist or genre featured therein. An example of this is the regular'Aces' feature, which each month covers a different legendary guitar player from the early days of the electric guitar; the feature comprises a history of the artist's life and contribution to guitar music, followed by a style file encapsulating his key innovations and stylistic techniques. All tuition content in the magazine is accompanied by tablature of each lesson or example, as well as video and audio content, including backing tracks, to make learning easier; every month Guitarist produces pro-level video demos of all of the products reviewed in the magazine that month, as well as video interviews and f
Linux Format is the UK's first Linux-specific magazine, as of 2013 was the best-selling Linux title in the UK. It is exported to many countries worldwide, it is published by Future plc. Linux Format is abbreviated to LXF, issues are referred to with LXF as a prefix followed by the issue number, it began as a one-issue pilot in 1999 called Linux Answers, began full publication as Linux Format in May 2000 after being launched and produced by a small team consisting of Editor Nick Veitch, Art Editor Chris Crookes and staff writer Richard Drummond, who together created the magazines core values and initial design appearance. Linux Format has translated editions available in Italy and Russia. A large number of magazines are exported across the world, principally to the USA where they are sold in Barnes & Noble stores, as well as other large book stores. Articles within Linux Format feature at-length series and practical tutorials to teach and allow users to expand their skills in using the Linux operating system and its associated software applications.
Contributions are encouraged to be submitted by readers. Linux Format shares the UK market place with an English-language version of Linux Magazine and with Linux User and Developer which discontinued in September 2018. Linux Format includes similar content to that found in most computer magazines, but aimed at users of the Linux operating system. There are round-ups, technology features and tutorials aimed at all levels of users; the magazine comes with a DVD containing full Linux distributions, other free software. The magazine is edited by Neil Mohr with a team composed of Efraín Hernández-Mendoza as Art Editor, Jonni Bidwell as Technical Editor and Chris Thornett as Operations Editor. Previous staff members include Graham Morrison, Andrew Gregory, Mike Saunders and Ben Everard who have since gone on to produce a different magazine, Linux Voice; the magazine is published 13 times a year. Linux Format has a dedicated magazine website which contains forums for readers to interact with the editorial staff and writers, as well as an extensive reference section for the articles in the magazine.
In February 2009, the Linux Format editorial staff launched TuxRadar. TuxRadar has become the primary method of the editorial team getting Linux news on to the Internet, with the Linux Format webpage undergoing some modifications to become more community-focused. Linux Journal Linux Voice Linux User and Developer Linux Magazine Linux Magazine Official website TuxRadar Linux Format
T3 magazine is a UK-based technology magazine, which specialises in gadgets and other technology. T3 stood for Tomorrow's Technology Today, but this is not used anywhere in the magazine or on the website anymore except for on the side of the magazine, it is referred to as T3 or T3.com. The magazine is popular among UK gadget magazines. T3 magazine is available in most countries, has syndicated/localised versions in over 20 countries; the first issue of T3 magazine went on sale around September 1996. The magazine was a spin-off of a science magazine launched as Frontiers, but the publishers decided to have a look at future technology; the reasoning was that there wasn't an all-round consumer technology magazine in the UK market and that people love reading about technology and gadgets. The magazine started off as a celebration of the best new technologies that were appearing, to explain how it all works, how the technologies and products would impact the readers' lives, but evolved into a glossy entertainment magazine as well.
Many of the readers started buying the magazine to read about items that were outrageously expensive and outlandish, the magazine was seen as a'licence to drool' over bleeding-edge technology. The first issue of the magazine featured the first DVD player to be imported into the UK. Things started to become digital around 1996 - DECT telephones, digital cameras, PDAs, DVD and digital television technology. With most technology going digital and dropping in price, general interest for gadgets rose, as did sales of the magazine; the magazine started moving away from pure technology coverage, started writing about anything innovative. As the editor at the time said: "A bigger TV, for example, wouldn't go in the magazine unless it was sexy or had clever features". Around the same time, the magazine became less geeky in its approach to technology, became much more of a magazine for design-conscious gadget-loving men. However, the addition of attractive models has drawn some limited suggestion that the publication still relies on a core readership of "sexually repressed nerds".
The first editor of T3 magazine was Steve Jarratt, who launched Edge. He was followed by Paul Pettengale, Rob Mead, Mark Higham, James Beechinor-Collins, Michael Brook, Luke Peters, Matt Hill, Tom Dennis and Rob Carney; the current editor is Matt Bolton. T3 is a franchise; the localised versions vary from country to country: Some editions are new magazines, created by a local team of journalists and designers under the T3 brand. Other syndications are adaptations of the UK version for a local market, or region: In some countries or markets, for example, the T3 cover girls are unacceptable, so they might be replaced with a more family-friendly or religion-friendly version. In other markets, the covers are re-shot with local models. Most syndicated versions of T3 magazine are a hybrid of both T3 UK content, content geared towards local markets, with reviews of companies and items relevant to the national market. Per October 2009, syndicated editions included Australia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dubai, Indonesia, Lebanon, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey and United Arab Emirates.
Apart from separate magazines, T3's stories appear in major newspapers, the T3 staff are featured on Radio and Television as industry experts. Articles are syndicated in the technology section of the O2 Active portal; the T3 web site started off as a running advertisement for the magazine, but that has changed quite radically over time. The web site now has a number of staff members separate from T3 magazine, it operates as a publication in its own right. T3.com now creates a lot of reviews for the web site, in addition to staying on top of gadget and technology stories as they happen. Due to its links with the T3 brand and close ties with the industry it covers, the T3 web site breaks news stories before any other outlets, it relaunched in December 2007 as t3.com. The T3 Podcast is an audio podcast published weekly on Fridays via iTunes, it is hosted by presenter Dan Maudsley with T3 Operations Editor, Duncan Bell, T3.com's Rhi Morgan. The 200th episode was broadcast live via Mixlr from the Hospital Club, London on 16 September 2011.
Stuff - T3's biggest magazine competitor in the UK Engadget - Large gadget blog Gizmodo - Large gadget blog The Gadget Show - popular weekly TV show Official website T3 Middle East
All About Space
All About Space is a monthly scientific magazine, focusing on cosmological events, astronomical tips, astronautical exploration. All About Space was first published in June 2012. By the British publisher Imagine Publishing; the first issue was published on 28 June 2012. The magazine was taken over by Future Publishing on 21 October 2016. Dave Harfield was the launching editor-in-chief of All About Space, which has regular features on ongoing space missions, as well as having a "future tech" section that details the capabilities of space exploration under future technology; the magazine can be bought in standard print format, or digitally through Zinio, iTunes or Google Play. Previous publisher Imagine Publishing said that the demographic of the magazine is 80% male and 20% female; the average age group is 22-45 and the readers are affluent. Official website
Computer data storage
Computer data storage called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers; the central processing unit of a computer is. In practice all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away; the fast volatile technologies are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit; the former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory, while the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would be able to perform fixed operations and output the result, it would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior. This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators, digital signal processors, other specialized devices.
Von Neumann machines differ in having a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data. Such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions. Most modern computers are von Neumann machines. A modern digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. Text, pictures and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0; the most common unit of storage is the byte, equal to 8 bits. A piece of information can be handled by any computer or device whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or data. For example, the complete works of Shakespeare, about 1250 pages in print, can be stored in about five megabytes with one byte per character. Data are encoded by assigning a bit pattern to digit, or multimedia object.
Many standards exist for encoding. By adding bits to each encoded unit, redundancy allows the computer to both detect errors in coded data and correct them based on mathematical algorithms. Errors occur in low probabilities due to random bit value flipping, or "physical bit fatigue", loss of the physical bit in storage of its ability to maintain a distinguishable value, or due to errors in inter or intra-computer communication. A random bit flip is corrected upon detection. A bit, or a group of malfunctioning physical bits is automatically fenced-out, taken out of use by the device, replaced with another functioning equivalent group in the device, where the corrected bit values are restored; the cyclic redundancy check method is used in communications and storage for error detection. A detected error is retried. Data compression methods allow in many cases to represent a string of bits by a shorter bit string and reconstruct the original string when needed; this utilizes less storage for many types of data at the cost of more computation.
Analysis of trade-off between storage cost saving and costs of related computations and possible delays in data availability is done before deciding whether to keep certain data compressed or not. For security reasons certain types of data may be kept encrypted in storage to prevent the possibility of unauthorized information reconstruction from chunks of storage snapshots; the lower a storage is in the hierarchy, the lesser its bandwidth and the greater its access latency is from the CPU. This traditional division of storage to primary, secondary and off-line storage is guided by cost per bit. In contemporary usage, "memory" is semiconductor storage read-write random-access memory DRAM or other forms of fast but temporary storage. "Storage" consists of storage devices and their media not directly accessible by the CPU hard disk drives, optical disc drives, other devices slower than RAM but non-volatile. Memory has been called core memory, main memory, real storage or internal memory. Meanwhile, non-volatile storage devices have been referred to as secondary storage, external memory or auxiliary/peripheral storage.
Primary storage referred to as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions executes them as required. Any data operated on is stored there in uniform manner. Early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums as primary storage. By 1954, those unreliable methods were replaced by magnetic core memory. Core memory remained dominant until the 1970s, when advances in integrated circuit technology allowed semiconductor memory to become economically competitive; this led to modern random-access memo
A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial form. A monitor comprises the display device, circuitry and power supply; the display device in modern monitors is a thin film transistor liquid crystal display with LED backlighting having replaced cold-cathode fluorescent lamp backlighting. Older monitors used a cathode ray tube. Monitors are connected to the computer via VGA, Digital Visual Interface, HDMI, DisplayPort, low-voltage differential signaling or other proprietary connectors and signals. Computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality; the common aspect ratio of televisions, computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9. Modern computer monitors are interchangeable with conventional television sets. However, as computer monitors do not include components such as a television tuner and speakers, it may not be possible to use a computer monitor as a television without external components.
Early electronic computers were fitted with a panel of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer. This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the'monitor'; as early monitors were only capable of displaying a limited amount of information and were transient, they were considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program's operation; as technology developed engineers realized that the output of a CRT display was more flexible than a panel of light bulbs and by giving control of what was displayed in the program itself, the monitor itself became a powerful output device in its own right. Computer monitors were known as visual display units, but this term had fallen out of use by the 1990s. Multiple technologies have been used for computer monitors.
Until the 21st century most used cathode ray tubes but they have been superseded by LCD monitors. The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes. Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a single large chassis; the display was monochrome and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern flat-panel monitor, necessitating the use of large text and limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for the specialized military and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use; some of the earliest home computers were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was a standard feature of the pioneering Apple II, introduced in 1977, the specialty of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800, introduced in 1979. Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality.
Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter, capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350. By the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could display 1024 x 768 pixels were available and affordable. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions increased and prices continued to fall. CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium because it was cheaper to produce and offered to view angles close to 180 degrees. CRTs still offer some image quality advantages over LCDs but improvements to the latter have made them much less obvious; the dynamic range of early LCD panels was poor, although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.
There are multiple technologies. Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT; the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color. As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines. TFT-LCD is a variant of LCD, now the dominant technology used for computer monitors; the first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo L66 in the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003, TFT-LCDs outsold CRTs for the first time, becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.
The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are that LC