Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1 depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403. From the start, it has been an popular play both with the public and critics. Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign, his personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland and Wales prevent that. Moreover, he is at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions.
This calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince; the play features three groups of characters that interact at first, come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is his immediate council, he is the engine of the play, but in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester; the Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower join. At the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal and his companions Falstaff, Poins and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy; as the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon.
Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke." By Act II, rebellion is brewing. Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking and thieving with Falstaff and his associates, he makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of hearing Falstaff lie about it after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some noble exploits.
Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys quickly gives him his chance to do just that; the high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, orders Falstaff to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury; the battle is crucial because if the rebels achieve a standoff their cause gains as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here, he outnumbers the rebels. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet, they will fight – for glory, for their lives, for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails killing Hotspur in single combat.
On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably", not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle. Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill. Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do"; the play ends after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels, the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies.
Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour.
The Voyage of the Beagle
The Voyage of the Beagle is the title most given to the book written by Charles Darwin and published in 1839 as his Journal and Remarks, bringing him considerable fame and respect. This was the third volume of The Narrative of the Voyages of H. M. Ships Adventure and Beagle, the other volumes of which were written or edited by the commanders of the ships. Journal and Remarks covers Darwin's part in the second survey expedition of the ship HMS Beagle. Due to the popularity of Darwin's account, the publisher reissued it in 1839 as Darwin's Journal of Researches, the revised second edition published in 1845 used this title. A republication of the book in 1905 introduced the title The Voyage of the "Beagle", by which it is now best known; the Beagle sailed from Plymouth Sound on 27 December 1831 under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy. While the expedition was planned to last two years, it lasted five—the Beagle did not return until 2 October 1836. Darwin spent most of this time exploring on land.
The book is a vivid travel memoir as well as a detailed scientific field journal covering biology and anthropology that demonstrates Darwin's keen powers of observation, written at a time when Western Europeans were exploring and charting the whole world. Although Darwin revisited some areas during the expedition, for clarity the chapters of the book are ordered by reference to places and locations rather than by date. Darwin's notes made during the voyage include comments hinting at his changing views on the fixity of species. On his return, he wrote the book based on these notes, at a time when he was first developing his theories of evolution through common descent and natural selection; the book includes some suggestions of his ideas in the second edition of 1845. Darwin was invited by FitzRoy to contribute the natural history section to the captain's account of the Beagle's voyage. Using his field notes and the journal which he had been sending home for his family to read, he completed this section by September 1837.
FitzRoy had to edit the notes of the previous captain of the Beagle, as well as write his own account of the voyage and the previous expeditions of two ships. The account was completed and published as a four-volume set in May 1839 as the Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle. Volume one covers the first voyage under Commander Phillip Parker King, volume two is FitzRoy's account of the second voyage. Darwin's Journal and Remarks, 1832—1835 forms the third volume, the fourth volume is a lengthy appendix. FitzRoy's account includes Remarks with reference to the Deluge in which he recanted his earlier interest in the geological writings of Charles Lyell and his remarks to Darwin during the expedition that sedimentary features they saw "could never have been effected by a forty days' flood", asserting his renewed commitment to a literal reading of the Bible, he had married on the ship's return, his wife was religious. Darwin's contribution proved remarkably popular and the publisher, Henry Colburn of London, took it upon himself to reissue Darwin's text in August with a new title page as Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the various countries visited by H.
M. S. Beagle without seeking Darwin's permission or paying him a fee; the second edition of 1845 incorporated extensive revisions made in the light of interpretation of the field collections and developing ideas on evolution. This edition was commissioned by the publisher John Murray, who paid Darwin a fee of £150 for the copyright; the full title was modified to Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle round the world. In the first edition, Darwin remarks in regard to the similarity of Galápagos wildlife to that on the South American continent, "The circumstance would be explained, according to the views of some authors, by saying that the creative power had acted according to the same law over a wide area". Darwin notes the gradations in size of the beaks of species of finches, suspects that species "are confined to different islands", "But there is not space in this work, to enter into this curious subject." Editions hint at his new ideas on evolution: Considering the small size of these islands, we feel the more astonished at the number of their aboriginal beings, at their confined range... within a period geologically recent the unbroken ocean was here spread out.
Hence, both in space and time, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that great fact – that mystery of mysteries – the first appearance of new beings on this earth. Speaking of the finches with their gradations in size of beaks, he writes "one might fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends." In 1890 John Murray published an illustrated edition of the book, at the suggestion of the artist Robert Taylor Pritchett, known for accompanying voyages of the RYS Wanderer and Sunbeam, producing pictures used in books on these cruises. In his foreword to this edition of Journal and Researches, Murray said that most "of the views given in this work are from sketches made on the spot by Mr. Pritchett, with Mr. Darwin's book by his side", the illustrations had been "chosen and verified with the utmost care and pains". For readability, the chapters of the book are arranged geographically rather than in an exact chronological sequence of places Darwin visited or revisited.
The main headings of each chapter give a good idea of where he went, but not the e
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, consciousness or self-consciousness, being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility. The defining features of personhood and what makes a person count as a person differ among cultures and contexts. In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity and self: both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, about what makes a person at one time the same person as they were or will be at another time despite any intervening changes; the common plural of "person", "people", is used to refer to an entire nation or ethnic group. The plural "persons" is used in philosophical and legal writing; the criteria for being a person... are designed to capture those attributes which are the subject of our most humane concern with ourselves and the source of what we regard as most important and most problematical in our lives.
Personhood is the status of being a person. Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law, is tied to legal and political concepts of citizenship and liberty. According to common worldwide general legal practice, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, privileges and legal liability. Personhood continues to be a topic of international debate, has been questioned during the abolition of slavery and the fight for women's rights, in debates about abortion, fetal rights, in animal rights advocacy. Various debates have focused on questions about the personhood of different classes of entities; the personhood of animals and slaves has been a catalyst of social upheaval. In most societies today, living adult humans are considered persons, but depending on the context, theory or definition, the category of "person" may be taken to include or not children or such non-human entities as animals, artificial intelligences, or extraterrestrial life, as well as legal entities such as corporations, sovereign states and other polities, or estates in probate.
Personal identity is the unique identity of persons through time. That is to say, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a person at one time and a person at another time can be said to be the same person, persisting through time. In the modern philosophy of mind, this concept of personal identity is sometimes referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity; the synchronic problem is grounded in the question of what features or traits characterize a given person at one time. Identity is an issue for analytic philosophy. A key question in continental philosophy is in what sense we can maintain the modern conception of identity, while realizing many of our prior assumptions about the world are incorrect. Proposed solutions to the problem of personal identity include continuity of the physical body, continuity of an immaterial mind or soul, continuity of consciousness or memory, the bundle theory of self, continuity of personality after the death of the physical body, proposals that there are no persons or selves who persist over time at all.
In ancient Rome, the word persona or prosopon referred to the masks worn by actors on stage. The various masks represented the various "personae" in the stage play; the concept of person was further developed during the Trinitarian and Christological debates of the 4th and 5th centuries in contrast to the word nature. During the theological debates, some philosophical tools were needed so that the debates could be held on common basis to all theological schools; the purpose of the debate was to establish the relation and differences between the Λóγος/Verbum and God. The philosophical concept of person arose; therefore and God were defined as different "persons". This concept was applied to the Holy Ghost, the angels and to all human beings. Since a number of important changes to the word's meaning and use have taken place, attempts have been made to redefine the word with varying degrees of adoption and influence. Cornelia J. de Vogel. The Concept of Personality in Greek and Christian Thought. In Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Vol. 2. Edited by J. K. Ryan, Washington: Catholic University of America Press. Pp. 20–60 Lukes, Steven. The Category of the Person: Anthropology, History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27757-4. Puccetti, Roland. Persons: A Study of Possible Moral Agents in the Universe. London: Macmillan and Company. Stephens, William O.. The Person: Readings in Human Nature. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ISBN 978-0-13-184811-5. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Person". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Korfmacher, Carsten. "Personal Identity". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2011-03-09. Rights of Non-Human Persons Program
Stalag Luft III
Stalag Luft III was a Luftwaffe-run prisoner of war camp during the Second World War, which held captured Western Allied air force personnel. The camp was established in March 1942 in the German province of Lower Silesia near the town of Sagan, 160 kilometres south-east of Berlin; the site was selected. It is best known for two escape plots by Allied POWs, one in 1943 that became the basis of a fictionalised film, The Wooden Horse, based on a book by escapee Eric Williams; the second breakout—the so-called Great Escape—of March 1944, conceived by Royal Air Force Squadron Leader Roger Bushell, was authorised by the senior British officer at Stalag Luft III, Herbert Massey. A fictionalised version of the escape was depicted in a film, The Great Escape, based on a book by former prisoner Paul Brickhill; the camp was liberated by Soviet forces in January 1945. The German military followed a practice whereby each branch of the military was responsible for the POWs of equivalent branches. Hence the Luftwaffe was responsible for any Allied aircrew taken prisoner.
This included captured naval aviators, such as members of the British Fleet Air Arm. In a few cases, other non-air force personnel were held at Stalag Luft III. Stammlager Luft was Luftwaffe nomenclature for a POW camp. While the camp held only POWs who were officers, it was not known by the usual terms for such camps – Offizier Lager or Oflag, and camp expansions added compounds for non-commissioned officers. The first compound of the camp was completed and opened on 21 March 1942; the first POWs, or kriegies, as they called themselves, to be housed at Stalag Luft III were British and other Commonwealth officers, arriving in April 1942. The Centre Compound was opened on 11 April 1942 and held British and other Commonwealth NCOs; the North Compound for British airmen, opened on 29 March 1943. A South Compound for Americans was opened in September 1943 and USAAF prisoners began arriving at the camp in significant numbers the following month and the West Compound was opened in July 1944 for U. S. officers.
Each compound consisted of fifteen single-story huts. Each 3.0-by-3.7-metre bunkroom slept fifteen men in five triple-deck bunks. The camp grew to 24 hectares in size and housed about 2,500 Royal Air Force officers, about 7,500 U. S. Army Air Forces, about 900 officers from other Allied air forces, for a total of 10,949 inmates, including some support officers; the prison camp had a number of design features that made escape difficult. The digging of escape tunnels, in particular, was made difficult by several factors: the barracks housing the prisoners were raised 60 centimetres off the ground to make it easier for guards to detect tunnelling; the loose, collapsible sand meant the structural integrity of any tunnel would be poor. A third defence against tunnelling was the placement of seismograph microphones around the perimeter of the camp, which were expected to detect any sounds of digging. A substantial library with schooling facilities was available, where many POWs earned degrees such as languages, engineering or law.
The exams were supplied by the Red Cross and supervised by academics such as a Master of King's College, a POW in Luft III. The prisoners built a theatre and put on high-quality bi-weekly performances featuring all the current West End shows; the prisoners used the camp amplifier to broadcast a news and music radio station they named Station KRGY, short for Kriegsgefangener and published two newspapers, the Circuit and the Kriegie Times, which were issued four times a week. POWs operated a system whereby newcomers to the camp were vetted, to prevent German agents from infiltrating their ranks. Any POW who could not be vouched for by two POWs who knew the prisoner by sight was interrogated and afterwards escorted continually by other prisoners, until such time as he was deemed to be a genuine Allied POW. Several infiltrators were discovered by this method and none is known to have escaped detection in Luft III; the German guards were referred to by POWs as "goons" and, unaware of the Allied connotation, willingly accepted the nickname after being told it stood for "German Officer Or Non-Com".
German guards were followed everywhere they went by prisoners, who used an elaborate system of signals to warn others of their location. The guards' movements were carefully recorded in a logbook kept by a rota of officers. Unable to stop what the prisoners called the "Duty Pilot" system, the Germans allowed it to continue and on one occasion the book was used by Kommandant von Lindeiner to bring charges against two guards who had slunk away from duty several hours early; the camp's 800 Luftwaffe guards were either too old for combat duty or young men convalescing after long tours of duty or from wounds. Because the guards were Luftwaffe personnel, the prisoners were accorded far better treatment than that granted to other POWs in Germany. Deputy Commandant Major Gustav Simoleit, a professor of history and ethnology before the war, spoke several languages, including English, Russian and Czech
3rd Rock from the Sun
3rd Rock from the Sun is an American sitcom that aired from 1996 to 2001 on NBC. The show is about four extraterrestrials who are on an expedition to Earth, which they consider to be a insignificant planet; the extraterrestrials pose as a human family to observe the behavior of human beings. The premise of the show revolves around an extraterrestrial research expedition attempting to live as a normal human family in the fictional city of Rutherford, said to be 52 mi outside of Cleveland, where they live in an attic apartment; the show's humor is principally derived from the aliens' attempts to study human society and understand the human condition while living as humans on Earth, reflecting on human life from the perspective of aliens. Most of the episodes are named after Dick. In episodes, they have become more accustomed to Earth and are more interested in their human lives than in their mission; the show takes humor from its mirroring of all human anthropological expeditions and their assumptions of superiority to the "natives", as well as their inability to distinguish themselves from the natives.
Dr. Mary Albright is a professor of anthropology at fictional Pendelton State University, many of the issues with which the four aliens struggle appear in her conversation and work. Furthermore, these four alien researchers end up looking more or less like joyriders as they get drawn further and further into human life. Dick Solomon, the High Commander and leader of the expedition, is the family provider and a physics professor at Pendelton. Information officer and oldest member of the crew Tommy has been given the body of a teenager and is forced to enroll in high school, leaving security officer Sally and "the one with the transmitter in his head", Harry to spend their lives as 20-somethings hanging out at home and bouncing through short-term jobs; the show involves their relationships with humans their love interests. The family communicates through Harry with their off-world boss, the Big Giant Head, when he visits Earth, appears in the body of William Shatner. Harry unexpectedly stands up, his arms stiff, proclaims: "Incoming message from the Big Giant Head."
John Lithgow as Dick Solomon Kristen Johnston as Sally Solomon French Stewart as Harry Solomon Joseph Gordon-Levitt as Tommy Solomon Jane Curtin as Mary Albright Simbi Khali as Nina Campbell Elmarie Wendel as Mamie Dubcek Wayne Knight as Officer Don Orville David DeLuise as Bug Pollone, one of Dick's students Ian Lithgow, John Lithgow's eldest son, as Leon, one of Dick's students Danielle Nicolet as Caryn, one of Dick's students Chris Hogan as Aubrey Pitman, one of Dick's students Ileen Getz as Dr. Judith Draper, professor at Pendelton and colleague of Mary Shay Astar as August Leffler, Tommy's first girlfriend Larisa Oleynik as Alissa Strudwick, Tommy's second girlfriend Ron West as Dr. Vincent Strudwick, Alissa's father and rival to Dick William Shatner as The Big Giant Head, the aliens' boss Jan Hooks as Vicki Dubcek, daughter of Ms. Dubcek, Harry's on-and-off girlfriend and the wife of the Big Giant Head and the mother of his child John Cleese as Dr. Liam Neesam, a professor who has a relationship with Mary, is revealed to be an evil alien Chyna as Janice, a muscular female police officer, Harry's girlfriend Michael Milhoan as Coach Strickland, a high school physical education teacher at Tommy's high school The show's opening theme music was composed by Ben Vaughn, for the first three seasons, it was a 1950s-style rock-and-roll instrumental piece.
For Christmas episodes, jingle bells were added to the theme. For the sixth and final season, a modern jazz underline version of the theme was used during that season; the only major change to the theme was in season four through five, when the original Ben Vaughn version was replaced by a big band cover of the theme, performed by the group Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, was only used during that season. During season one, James Earl Jones provided a voice introduction describing the crew; the opening title sequence, produced by the London graphic design firm SVC Television, opens with computerized shots of planets and celestial bodies, some either with the planets dancing or moving in warp speed. It closes with a shot of Earth. For the sixth and final season only, the typeface of the cast and creators' names was altered; the six seasons had 139 episodes in the series. Of 139 episodes of the series, 108 contained "Dick" in the title. While some of the episode titles with "Dick" in them are innocent, others are more risque and are double entendres, due to the fact that the word "Dick" is both a short form of Richard and a slang term for penis.
One episode from season six used an abbreviation for a title, "B. D. O. C.", since the full title was deemed too risq
"John Doe" and "Jane Doe" are multiple-use names that are used when the true name of a person is unknown or is being intentionally concealed. In the context of law enforcement in the United States, such names are used to refer to a corpse whose identity is unknown or unconfirmed. Secondly, such names are often used to refer to a hypothetical "everyman" in other contexts, in a manner similar to "John Q. Public" or "Joe Public". There are many variants to the above names, including "John Roe", "Richard Roe", "Jane Roe" and "Baby Doe", "Janie Doe" or "Johnny Doe". In other English-speaking countries, unique placeholder names, numbers or codenames have become more used in the context of police investigations; this has included the United Kingdom. However, the legal term John Doe injunction or John Doe order has survived in English law and other legal systems influenced by it. Other names such as "Joe Bloggs" or "John Smith" have sometimes been informally used as placeholders for an everyman in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.
Well-known legal cases named after placeholders include: the landmark 1973 US Supreme Court decision regarding abortion: Roe v. Wade and. John Hurrell Luscombe v Yates and Mudge 5 B. & Ald. 544, McKeogh v. John Doe and Uber Technologies, Inc. v. Doe I. Use of "John Doe" in the sense of an everyman, includes: the 1941 film Meet John Doe and. Use of "Jane Doe" in the sense of an unidentified corpse, includes: the 2016 film The Autopsy of Jane Doe. Under the legal terminology of Ancient Rome, the names "Numerius Negidius" and "Aulus Agerius" were used in relation to hypothetical defendants and plaintiffs; the name "John Doe", "Richard Roe," along with "John Roe", were invoked in English legal instruments to satisfy technical requirements governing standing and jurisdiction, beginning as early as the reign of England's King Edward III. Though the rationale behind the choice of Doe and Roe are still unknown with many suggested folk etymologies. Other fictitious names for a person involved in litigation in medieval English law were "John Noakes" and "John-a-Stiles".
The Oxford English Dictionary states that John Doe is "the name given to the fictitious lessee of the plaintiff, in the mixed action of ejectment, the fictitious defendant being called Richard Roe". This usage is mocked in the 1834 English song "John Doe and Richard Roe": This particular use became obsolete in the UK in 1852: As is well known, the device of involving real people as notional lessees and ejectors was used to enable freeholders to sue the real ejectors; these were replaced by the fictional characters John Doe and Richard Roe. The medieval remedies were abolished by the Real Property Limitation Act of 1833. Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs v Meier and another and others and another and another. In the UK, usage of "John Doe" survives in the form of John Doe Injunction or John Doe Order.8.02 If an unknown person has possession of the confidential personal information and is threatening to disclose it, a'John Doe' injunction may be sought against that person. The first time this form of injunction was used since 1852 in the United Kingdom was in 2005 when lawyers acting for JK Rowling and her publishers obtained an interim order against an unidentified person who had offered to sell chapters of a stolen copy of an unpublished Harry Potter novel to the media.
Unlike the United States, the name "John Doe" does not appear in the formal name of the case, for example: X & Y v Persons Unknown HRLR 4. Well-known cases of unidentified corpses include "Cali Doe" and "Princess Doe"; the baby victim in a 2001 murder case in Kansas City, was referred to as Precious Doe. In 2009, the New York Times reported the difficulties and unwanted attention experienced by a man named John Doe, suspected of using a pseudonym, he had been questioned by airport security staff. Another man named John Doe was suspected of being an incognito celebrity. In cases where a large number of unidentified individuals are mentioned, numbers may be appended, such as "Doe #2" or "Doe II". Operation Delego, which targeted an international child sexual abuse ring, cited 21 numbered "John Does", as well as other people known by the surnames "Doe", "Roe", "Poe". "John Stiles", "Richard Miles" have been used for the fourth participants in an action. "Mary Major" has been used in some federal cases in the US.
"James Doe" and "Judy Doe" are among other common variants. Less other surnames ending in -oe have been used when more than two unknown or unidentified persons are named in U. S. court proceedings, e.g. Poe v. Snyder, 834 F. Supp.2d 721, whose full style is Jane Poe, John Doe, Richard Roe, Robert Roe, Mark Moe, Larry Loe, Degage Ministries, Mel Trotter Ministries, Plaintiffs, v. Rick Snyder, Governor of the State of Michigan, Bill Schuette, Attorney General of the State of Michigan, Kriste Etue, Director of the Michigan State Police, William Forsyth, Kent County Prosecutor, in their official capacities, Defendants and. 87-3758, unpublished disposition, 850 F.2d 689 (4th Cir