Trelew is a city in the Chubut Province of Argentina. Located in Patagonia, the city is the largest and most populous in the low valley of the Chubut River, with 97,915 inhabitants as of 2010; the Trelew municipality is part of the Rawson Department, whose capital, Rawson, is the provincial capital. Trelew is an important commercial and industrial centre for the region and is the main hub for wool processing, accounting for 90 percent of activity in Argentina; the produce of this industry is shipped and exported through Puerto Madryn and Puerto Deseado. Trelew is home to the Museum of Paleontology Egidio Feruglio, showcasing the paleontological heritage of the Patagonic region, considered one of the most important of its kind in South America and the Astronomic and Planetary Observatory; the city is served by the Almirante Marcos A. Zar Airport, of both military use; the airport's runway is shared with the Almirante Zar Naval Base, home of the Lockheed P-3 Orion squadron of the Argentine Naval Aviation.
Trelew's foundation is linked with Welsh settlement in Argentina, the leaders of which were Captain Sir Love Jones-Parry of Madryn and Lewis Jones, who acted as spokesmen to deal with the Argentine government in the beginning of the 1860s. The town was named Trelew in honour of Jones, tre meaning "town" in Welsh and Lew being an apocope for Lewis. Trelew was established on 20 October 1886 as the starting point for the Central Chubut Railway line that would link the lower Chubut River Valley to Puerto Madryn. Railway building equipment and 400 settlers arrived on July 28 of that same year on the steamer Vesta; the line was opened in 1888 and extended from Trelew to Gaiman, Dolavon and to Las Plumas. In 1961, the line was closed. Trelew was the scene of a massacre in 1972. A breakout of political prisoners at the federal penitentiary resulted in the death of one guard and the attempted flight of about 100 individuals who opposed the military dictatorship which followed the overthrow of President Arturo Illia.
A small group of prisoners succeeded in flying to safety in Chile. The rest were returned to a military prison, where 19 were shot; the town of Trelew was searched by the military and locals were seized and taken to the Villa Devoto prison in Buenos Aires. The entire town went on strike and succeeded in securing the release of the prisoners at Villa Devoto; these incidents were documented in the book La Pasión según Trelew, by Tomás Eloy Martínez, published in 1973, but was suppressed by the dictatorship of the Proceso, reissued in 1997. Trelew is the centre of tourism in the Valley of the Chubut River and the coast. Punta Tombo, the biggest penguin reserve in South America, is accessible from the city. Racing de Trelew and Huracán de Trelew are the most important local football clubs. Patoruzú Rugby Club and Trelew Rugby Club are the local clubs practicing this sport. In boxing, the Matthysse brothers, Lucas Matthysse and Walter Matthysse are from Trelew, although most of their notable fights took place in the United States.
Trelew experiences a desert climate with cool winters and low precipitation year-round. Trelew is twinned with: Covilhã, Portugal Omega Tower Trelew Welsh settlement in Argentina La Pasión según Trelew, Espejo de la Argentina, 1997, Editorial Planeta Argentina S. A. I. C.. City home page Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Activities around Trelew Trelew Band which blends British folk music and South American sounds; the members are Uruguayan and Welsh and are based in Montevideo, Uruguay 43°15′25″S 65°18′41″W Geo Links for Trelew
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31
El Mundo (Spain)
El Mundo, formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain. The paper is considered one of the country's newspapers of record along with El País and ABC. El Mundo was first published on 23 October 1989; the best known of its founders was Pedro J. Ramírez, who served as editor until 2014. Ramirez had risen to prominence as a journalist during the Spanish transition to democracy; the other founders, Alfonso de Salas, Balbino Fraga and Juan González, shared with Ramírez a background in Grupo 16, the publishers of the newspaper Diario 16. Alfonso de Salas, Juan Gonzales and Gregorio Pena launched El Economista in 2006. El Mundo, along with Marca and Expansión, is controlled by the Italian publishing company RCS MediaGroup through its Spanish subsidiary company Unidad Editorial S. L, its former owner was Unedisa which merged with Grupo Recoletos in 2007 to form Unidad Editorial, current owner of the paper. The paper maintains several news bureaus in other cities.
The daily has a national edition and ten different regional editions, including those for Andalusia, Castile and León, the Balearic Islands and Bilbao. It is published in tabloid format. In 2005 El Mundo started a supplement for women, Yo Donna, modelled on IO Donna, a supplement of the Italian daily Corriere della Sera. In January 2014 Pedro J. Ramírez, editor of the paper, was fired from his post, he argued that reporting on corruption scandals involving Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy led to his sacking. Casimiro García-Abadillo served as editor until April 2015, when he was replaced in turn by David Jiménez. Editorially, El Mundo expresses the mainstream views of the centre-right with independent and liberal overtones. El Mundo has played a key role in uncovering a number of scandals, among them embezzlement by the commander of the Guardia Civil, accusations of insider trading and tax fraud by the governor of the Central Bank of Spain and aspects of the Bárcenas affair. Investigative reporting by the staff of El Mundo revealed connections between the terrorist Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación and the Socialist administration of Felipe González, revelations that contributed to his defeat in the 1996 elections.
In October 2005, El Mundo revealed that Nazi Aribert Heim had been living in Spain for 20 years with help from the ODESSA network, in collaboration with Otto Skorzeny, who had helped set up one of the most important ODESSA bases of operation in Spain, during the rule of Francisco Franco. After the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings, the newspapers El Mundo and La Razón, the regional television channel Telemadrid and the COPE radio network alleged that there had been inconsistencies in the explanations given by the Spanish judiciary about the bombings. Other Spanish media, such as El País, ABC and the Cadena SER radio network, accused El Mundo and the other media of manipulation over this issue; the bombings and the results of the subsequent judicial inquiry are still debated in Spain today. The circulation of El Mundo rose in the 1990s, it was 209,992 copies in 1993 268,748 copies in 1994In 2001 El Mundo had a circulation of 291,000 copies and it was 312,366 copies next year. The paper had a circulation of 300,000 copies in 2003, making it the third best selling newspaper in the country.
Based on the findings of the European Business Readership Survey El Mundo had 11,591 readers per issue in 2006. Its circulation between June 2006 and July 2007 was 337,172 copies; the 2007 circulation of the paper was 337,000 copies. It was 338,286 copies in 2008 and had 200,000 readers for the printed edition in 2009; the circulation of the paper was 266,294 copies in 2011. El Mundo is the second digital newspaper in Spanish, it was in the lead after El País introduced a payment system for access to the contents of its electronic version. It had 24 million unique web visitors per month in 2009. Many online readers are in Latin America, the website has an edition for the Americas. However, digital expansion has done little to offset the decline in revenues from Spanish advertisers since 2008; the newspaper aims to increase digital profits via a subscription model. It launched a current affairs outlet only accessible to subscription customers, named ORBYT. Spanish newspapers Controversies about the 2004 Madrid train bombings Official website
Latin American literature
Latin American literature consists of the oral and written literature of Latin America in several languages in Spanish and the indigenous languages of the Americas as well as literature of the United States written in the Spanish language. It rose to particular prominence globally during the second half of the 20th century due to the international success of the style known as magical realism; as such, the region's literature is associated with this style, with the 20th Century literary movement known as Latin American Boom, with its most famous exponent, Gabriel García Márquez. Latin American literature has a rich and complex tradition of literary production that dates back many centuries. Pre-Colombian cultures were oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh. Moreover, a tradition of oral narrative survives to this day, for instance among the Quechua-speaking population of Peru and the Quiché of Guatemala.
From the moment when Europeans encountered the New World, early explorers and conquistadores produced written accounts and crónicas of their experience, such as Columbus's letters or Bernal Díaz del Castillo's description of the conquest of Mexico. At times, colonial practices stirred a lively debate about the ethics of colonization and the status of the indigenous peoples, as reflected for instance in Bartolomé de las Casas's Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Mestizos and natives contributed to the body of colonial literature. Authors such as El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Guaman Poma wrote accounts of the Spanish conquest that show a perspective that contrasts with the colonizers' accounts. During the colonial period, written culture was in the hands of the church, within which context Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz wrote memorable poetry and philosophical essays. Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento.
The "libertadores" themselves were often distinguished writers, such as Simón Bolívar and Andrés Bello. The 19th century was a period of "foundational fictions", novels in the Romantic or Naturalist traditions that attempted to establish a sense of national identity, which focused on the role and rights of the indigenous or the dichotomy of "civilization or barbarism", for which see, the Argentine Domingo Sarmiento's Facundo, the Colombian Jorge Isaacs's María, Ecuadorian Juan León Mera's Cumandá, or the Brazilian Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões; such works are still the bedrocks of national canons, mandatory elements of high school curricula. Other important works of 19th century Latin American literature include regional classics, such as José Hernández's epic poem Martín Fierro; the story of a poor gaucho drafted to fight a frontier war against Indians, Martín Fierro is an example of the "gauchesque", an Argentine genre of poetry centered around the lives of gauchos. The literary movements of the nineteenth century in Latin America range from Neoclassicism at the beginning of the century to Romanticism in the middle of the century, to Realism and Naturalism in the final third of the century, to the invention of Modernismo, a distinctly Latin American literary movement, at the end of the nineteenth century.
The next sections discuss prominent trends in these movements more thoroughly. The Latin American wars of Independence that occurred in the early nineteenth century in Latin America led to literary themes of identity and human rights. Writers followed and innovated popular literary movements, but many were exploring ideas such as nationalism and independence. Cultural independence spread across Latin America during this time, writers depicted Latin American themes and locations in their works. While literature that questioned the colonial order may have emerged during the seventeenth century in Latin America, it rose in popularity in the form of resistance against Spain, the United States, other imperialist nations in the nineteenth century. Latin American writers sought a Latin American identity, this would be tied with the Modernismo literary movement. Male authors dominated colonial literature, with the exception of literary greats such as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, but a shift began in the nineteenth century that allowed for more female authors to emerge.
An increase in women's education and writing brought some women writers to the forefront, including the Cuban Romantic author Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda with the novel Sab, a romantic novel offering subtle critique of slavery and the treatment of women in Cuba, the Peruvian Naturalist author Clorinda Matto de Turner who wrote what is considered one of the most important novels of "indigenismo" in the 19th century: Aves sin nido, the Argentinian Romantic writer Juana Manuela Gorriti, who penned a variety of novels and short stories, such as La hija del mashorquero and directed a literary circle in Peru. A Naturalist trail-blazer, Peruvian Mercedes Cabello de Carbonera penned Blanca Sol to critique women's lack of practical work options in her society. Women writers of the nineteenth century wrote about the inequalities in Latin America that were vestiges of colonialism such as the marginalization and oppression of Indigenous peoples and women. Many works by women in this period ch
San Miguel de Tucumán
San Miguel de Tucumán is the capital of the Tucumán Province, located in northern Argentina 1,311 kilometres from Buenos Aires. It is the fifth-largest city of Argentina after Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Mendoza and the most important of the northern region; the Spanish Conquistador Diego de Villarroel founded the city in 1565 in the course of an expedition from present-day Peru. Tucumán moved to its present site in 1685; the city is bordered on the north by Las Talitas, on the east by Banda del Río Salí and Alderetes, on the west by the city of Yerba Buena, on the south by Lules. The city is located on the slopes of the Aconquija mountains, the easternmost mountain range before the large Chaco-Pampean flats, it is the commercial center of an irrigated area that produces large quantities of sugarcane, rice and fruit, giving the province its nickname, the Garden of the Republic. The National University of Tucumán and the Saint Thomas Aquinas University of the North are in the city. On July 9, 1816, a congress gathered in Tucumán declared independence from Spain, which did not recognize it until 1862.
The meeting place of the congress, the House of Tucumán, has been reconstructed as a national monument. After the national government broke down in 1820, the town was capital of the short-lived Republic of Tucumán, its telephone code is 0381, its postal codes are T4000, T4001, T4002 and T4003. The first foundation of "San Miguel de Tucumán y Nueva Tierra de Promisión" was on May 31, 1565 by Diego de Villarroel in the Campos de Ibatín, 60 kilometres to the southwest from where the current city is located nowadays; the city was moved to "La Toma" in 1685, due to the low quality of Ibatín water. On September 24, 1812, the Battle of Tucumán took place near the city, when the Spanish army coming from the Alto Perú were defeated by the army led by Manuel Belgrano. Belgrano had been committed to step back to Córdoba by the government of Buenos Aires, but the Tucumán inhabitants requested him to resist another Spanish invasion. With his troops unarmed and tired but reinforced with local gauchos, Belgrano attacked the Spanish army from their backs, defeating them and ensuring the Independence of Argentina.
After the battle of Tucumán, the same army led by Belgrano would achieve another victory in Salta. After those battles, Belgrano established a circle-shaped fortress known as "La Ciudadela", located 1 kilometre from the current Plaza de la Independencia; because it had patriot barracks and was located on an intermediate point between the Río de la Plata and the Alto Perú and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, San Miguel de Tucumán was designated as city venue for the Congress of the Independence. On July 9, 1816, the Independence of Argentina was declared, not only of Spain but any other foreign domination; the act of the Independence was signed at the Casa de Tucumán named "Casa Histórica" or "Casa de la Independencia". By 1850 the city had increased its population overpassing the estimated registers; because of that, in 1870 it was proposed that the city be expanded. During those years, the first railway line reached the city, built by British-owned Córdoba Central Railway; the immigrants arriving in the region influenced the architectural style that adapted to those new cultures, leaving the original colonial style behind.
Therefore, new buildings in the city were made in Neoclassical and picturesque styles. During the first years of the 20th Century the city added 400 hectares for recreational uses, therefore the first great park was built. By 1930 the city doubled its population; the House of Government of Tucumán was built in Art Nouveau style at the end of 19th century. The White Room is used to receive notable people who visit the city. In the city downtown, the San Miguel de Tucumán Cathedral still preserves some colonial elements and other elements from Italian architecture; the Basílica de San Francisco, the Parroquia de San Roque, Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento, Basílica de Nuestra Señora de la Merced and the Iglesia Nuestra Señora de Lourdes are some of the most important churches of the city. The Casa de Tucumán, as the site of the declaration of independence of Argentina, is the most significant building in the city. After the Congress of Tucumán various people lived in the house and deterioration became visible over the years, evident in the famous photo taken by Angel Paganelli in 1869.
The Government of Argentina acquired the historic house in 1874 with a view to its serving as a post office. Starting in the 1880s celebrations took place in the building to commemorate Independence; the government did not remodel the house until 1903, when it was demolished completely due to its poor condition. The only room, preserved from demolition was the room where the Independence was declared by the congressists. In 1942 the house was rebuilt, based on the original plans and the picture taken by Paganelli in 1869. For that purpose, the same kind of bricks and baldosas were used. Other notable buildings of San Miguel include the Teatro San Martín, the Correo Central, made in a mix of styles and a tower inspired in the palaces of Florence (speciall
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close