Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Axel Alonso is an American comic book creator and former journalist, best known as the former Editor-in-Chief at Marvel Comics, a role which he held from January 2011 until November 2017. Alonso began his career as a journalist for New York's Daily News, he worked as an editor at DC Comics from 1994 to 2000, during which he edited a number of books published under their Vertigo line, such as Doom Patrol, Animal Man, Preacher and 100 Bullets. In 2000 he went to work for Marvel Comics as a Senior Editor, while there he edited Spider-Man and X-Men-related books before ascending to Vice President, Executive Editor in 2010, Editor-in-Chief in January 2011, replacing Joe Quesada, he has worked as a writer and inker. Alonso's father is from Mexico, his mother is from England. A native of San Francisco, Alonso earned a bachelor's degree in sociology and politics from University of California, Santa Cruz and a master's degree in journalism from Columbia University. Alonso began his career as a journalist for New York's Daily News.
He worked as a magazine editor before he entered the comic book industry. One day, he saw an ad in The New York Times for DC Comics editors and thought it would be fun to interview, never thinking he would be offered a job, though he ended up being hired by the publisher. Alonso's first published work for DC Comics was Doom Patrol #80 and Animal Man #73, which were published in July 1994, the latter of, part of the company's Vertigo line, which publishes books in genres such as horror and fantasy aimed at mature readers. Other Vertigo titles he edited until 1999 included Garth Ennis' Preacher, Black Orchid, Kid Eternity, Unknown Soldier, 100 Bullets and Human Target. In late September 2000 Alonso went to work at DC's main competition, Marvel Comics, as Senior Editor, where he worked on Spider-Man books such as The Amazing Spider-Man and Peter Parker: Spider-Man, his first published work as editor was The Amazing Spider-Man trade paperback that collected issues #30 - 32 of that title, was published in 2001.
Alonso spent more than a decade as an editor at Marvel, working on some of its most notable characters. In 2001, he began editing The Amazing Spider-Man, he would continue on the title during J. Michael Straczynski's critically acclaimed run on the title, which began in 2003, it was in 2001 that Alonso helped to create the a Marvel MAX line for mature readers. In 2002, Alonso a senior editor, had lured Frank Cho to Marvel on the basis of Cho's comic strip series Liberty Meadows. Alonso approached Cho to revamp the third-string character Shanna the She-Devil, a scantily clad jungle girl whom Cho recast in a seven-issue, 2005 miniseries as an Amazonian naïf, the product of a Nazi experiment with the power to kill dinosaurs with her bare hands but an unpredictable lack of morality. Alonso is credited with bringing crime writers to work on Marvel titles, such as Duane Swierczynski and Victor Gischler. Alonso edited stories featuring the Western character Rawhide Kid, the first of, the 2003 biweekly Marvel Max miniseries Rawhide: Slap Leather by Ron Zimmerman and John Severin, which drew controversy for its depiction of the titular character as a homosexual, albeit through the use of innuendo in the book's design and dialogue.
The series was labeled with a "Parental Advisory Explicit Content" warning on the cover. Alonso stated. Enigmatic cowboy rides into dusty little desert town victimized by desperadoes, saves the day, wins everyone's heart rides off into the sunset, looking better than any cowboy has a right to." Alonso would edit the 2010 miniseries Rawhide Kid: The Sensational Seven by Zimmerman and Howard Chaykin. Although an editor, Alonso wrote Spider-Man: One More Day Sketchbook, a 2007 tie-in book to the "Spider-Man: One More Day" storyline, inked issues 3 and 4 of the 2008 miniseries NYX: No Way Home. Alonso would oversee critically acclaimed runs on X-Men, such as "X-Men: Messiah Complex" and "Curse of the Mutants", he was promoted to Vice President, Executive Editor in early 2010, oversaw cross-promotional projects such an issue of the ESPN The Magazine, which depicted several NBA basketball players as Marvel superheroes. The issue was published in October 2010 by ESPN, which like Marvel, is owned by parent company Disney.
In July 2010 Alonso and fellow Marvel editor Tom Brevoort began a weekly column on Comic Book Resources called "Marvel T&A", a new installment of which appears every Friday, along with Joe Quesada's "Cup O' Joe" column. On January 4, 2011, Alonso was named Editor-in-Chief of Marvel Comics, replacing Joe Quesada, named Chief Creative Officer the previous June. In attaining the position of Editor-in-Chief, he became only the third person in 15 years to hold the position, one of the few in the company's history to gain it "without tumult or corporate bloodshed"; the last few years of Alonso's tenure as Editor in Chief saw Marvel deal with both dwindling sales and public controversies. In May 2015 a storyline that saw Captain America transformed by timeline manipulation into a double agent for the evil, Nazi-like organization Hydra prompted such criticism that Marvel released a statement indicating to readers the character would be reverted to his original benevolent, patriotic identity, which occurred in August 2017.
In April 2017 Marvel was subject to substantial criticism on social media after statements made by Vice President of Sales David Gabriel in an interview with ICv2 were understood to mean that retailers attributed poor sales of Marvel books to the company's effort to promote diversity with prominent non-white and non-male characters in starring roles in its books. Gabriel cla
The Daily Bugle is a fictional New York City tabloid newspaper appearing as a plot element in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The Daily Bugle is a regular fixture in the Marvel Universe, most prominently in Spider-Man comic titles and their derivative media; the newspaper first appeared in Fantastic Four #2, its offices in The Amazing Spider-Man #1. The Daily Bugle was first featured on film in the 2002 film Spider-Man; the fictional newspaper is meant to be a pastiche of both the New York Daily News and the New York Post, two popular real-life New York City tabloids. The Daily Bugle is featured prominently in many Marvel Comics titles those in which Spider-Man is the lead character. In 1996, a three-issue limited series was printed. Since 2006, Marvel has published a monthly Daily Bugle newspaper reporting on the company's publications and authors. Marvel earlier used the newspaper format to promote Marvel's crossover events Civil War and House of M—reporting on storyline events as if the comic book Daily Bugle had come to life.
Marvel restored this promotional function for the 2007 death of Captain America. The Daily Bugle was founded in 1898 and has been published daily since; the Daily Bugle is printed in tabloid format like its rival The Daily Globe. The editor and publisher of the Bugle, J. Jonah Jameson, began his journalistic career as a reporter for the Bugle while still in high school. Jameson purchased the then-floundering Bugle with inheritance funds, from his deceased father-in-law and turned the paper into a popular success. Other magazines published from time-to-time include the revived Now magazine and the now-defunct Woman magazine, edited by Carol Danvers. J. Jonah Jameson, Inc. purchased the Goodman Building on 39th Street and Second Avenue in 1936 and moved its entire editorial and publishing facilities there. Now called the Daily Bugle Building, the office complex is forty-six stories tall, is capped by the Daily Bugle logo in 30-foot letters on the roof. There are loading docks in the rear of the building, reached by a back alley.
Three floors are devoted to the editorial office of the Bugle and two sub-basement levels to the printing presses, while the rest of the floors are rented. The newspaper is noted for its anti-superhero slant concerning Spider-Man, whom the paper smears as a part of its editorial policy. However, the Editor-in-Chief, "Robbie" Robertson, the only subordinate to Jameson, not intimidated by him, has worked to moderate it. More positively, the newspaper has published important exposés of political corruption and organized crime in the city, takes a strong stance in favor of mutant rights, which has led to its being targeted by various criminals and hate groups. Due to declining circulation, Jameson has conceded to Robertson's objections and has created a special feature section of the paper called The Pulse, which focuses on superheroes. In addition, the paper intermittently ran a glossy magazine called Now Magazine. Soon after the team's formation, the New Avengers decided to strike a deal with Jameson regarding exclusive content in exchange for removing the strong anti-Spider-Man sentiment from the newspaper, to which Jameson agreed.
One day Jameson broke the spirit of his agreement with Iron Man, using the headline "a wanted murderer, an alleged ex-member of a terrorist organization and a convicted heroin-dealer are just some of the new recruits set to bury the once good name of the Avengers," but refraining from attacking Spider-Man. This prompted Jessica Jones to sell the first pictures of her newborn baby to one of the Bugle's competitors instead. In the first issue of Runaways vol. 2, Victor Mancha states in an exchange about Spider-Man that "The only people who think he's a criminal are Fox News and the Daily Bugle. And the Bugle is, the least respected newspaper in New York City." The paper's major named competitors are the Daily Globe, which implicitly takes a more balanced look at the superhero, Front Line, run by EIC Ben Urich and Sally Floyd, The Alternative. After Peter Parker revealed he is Spider-Man and the Bugle planned to sue him for fraud, the paper itself was put on the defensive with front page accusations from The Globe of libeling the superhero.
The adventures of the staff of the newspaper beyond Peter Parker have been depicted in two series, Daily Bugle and The Pulse. After Jameson suffered a near-fatal heart attack, his wife sold the Bugle to rival newspaper man Dexter Bennett, who changed the name to The DB, transformed it into a scandal sheet. Since after Brand New Day no one knows the secret identity of Spider-Man anymore, the animosity between Jameson and Parker is retconned as a simple financial question, with Jameson's heart attack coming right after a monetary request from Peter; the reputation of the DB since the mention in Runaways has plummeted down because of the new, scandalistic angle Bennett gives it. Several reporters unwilling, or refusing the new course, like Peter himself, are forced to go away, finding a new safe haven in the Front Line, the only magazine willing to accept people fired by Bennett, pursuing a scorched earth policy over them; the villain Electro targeted Dexter Bennett because of a government bailout plan for the financially strapped p
Untold Tales of Spider-Man
Untold Tales of Spider-Man is an American comic book series starring Spider-Man published by Marvel Comics for 26 issues from September 1995 to October 1997. The comic was part of an experiment for Marvel where they published a number of new titles for only 99 cents, in the hope that they would attract new, young readers who might have been put off by the US$1.50/1.95 standard prices for comic books. Uniquely among those titles, Untold Tales' stories presented new stories set in Spider-Man's early super-hero career; the series was written by Kurt Busiek and pencilled by Pat Olliffe, though Roger Stern, Tom DeFalco, Ron Frenz contributed. Untold Tales of Spider-Man #1-25, #-1 Untold Tales of Spider-Man Annual'96-'97 Untold Tales of Spider-Man: Strange Encounter Untold Tales of Spider-Man Spider-Man Visionaries: Kurt Busiek Spider-Man/Fantastic Four: Classic Spider-Man: Saga Of The Sandman Untold Tales of Spider-Man Omnibus Untold Tales of Spider-Man at The Grand Comics Database Untold Tales of Spider-Man at The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators Untold Tales of Spider-Man on SpiderFan.org
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Comic Book Resources
CBR, known as Comic Book Resources until August 2016, is a website dedicated to the coverage of comic book-related news and discussion. Comic Book Resources was founded by Jonah Weiland in 1995 as a development of the Kingdom Come Message Board, a message forum that Weiland created to discuss DC Comics's then-new mini-series of the same name. Comic Book Resources features weekly columns written by industry professionals that have included Warren Ellis, Erik Larsen, Steven Grant, Robert Kirkman, Gail Simone, Rich Johnston, Scott Shaw, Rob Worley, Rik Offenberger, Keith Giffen and Mark Millar. Other columns are published by comic book historians and critics such as George Khoury and Timothy Callahan. On April 4, 2016, Jonah Weiland announced that Comic Book Resources had been sold to Valnet Inc. a company, known for its acquisition and ownership of other media properties such as Screen Rant. The site was relaunched as CBR.com on August 2016 with the blogs integrated into the site. The company has hosted a YouTube channel since 2008, with 1.3 million subscribers as of September 12, 2018.
Comic Book Idol known as CBI, is an amateur comic book art competition created and hosted by comics writer J. Torres, sponsored by Comic Book Resources and its participating advertisers. Inspired by the singing contest American Idol, CBI is a five-week and five-round competition in which each contestant is given one week to draw a script provided by guest judges; these invited comic book professionals comment on the artists' work in each round. The contestants to move on to subsequent rounds are selected by fans. Patrick Scherberger won CBI1 and has since worked on a number of Marvel Comics titles like Marvel Adventures: Spider-Man, Marvel Adventures: Hulk and GeNext. Jonathan Hickman was the runner-up in CBI1 and went on to work for Virgin Comics, Image Comics and Marvel Comics. Carlos Rodríguez won CBI2 and went on to work on Shadowhawk for Image and Batman and the Outsiders for DC Comics. Billy Penn competed in CBI2 and went on to work on Savage Dragon. Joe Infurnari, another CBI2 contestant, went on a couple of titles from Oni Press, including Wasteland and Borrowed Time, as well as on the back-up feature of Jersey Gods with Mark Waid.
Dan McDaid and artist on various Doctor Who comics for Panini and IDW and Jersey Gods for Image Comics, as well as strips for DC Comics, competed in CBI3. Nick Pitarra competed in CBI3 and went on to do work for Marvel Comics on books such as Astonishing Tales. Charles Paul Wilson III, artist on The Stuff of Legend, competed in CBI3; the University at Buffalo's research library described Comic Book Resources as "the premiere comics-related site on the Web."In April 2013, comics writer Mark Millar said he read the site every morning after reading the Financial Times. 1999: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2000: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2001: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2004: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2005: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2006: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2007: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics Related Website" Eagle Award.
2008: Nominated for the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2009: Won the "Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism" Eisner Award. 2010: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2011: Won the "Favourite Comics-Related Website" Eagle Award. 2011: Won the "Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism" Eisner Award. 2013: Won the "Best Biographical, Historical or Journalistic Presentation" Harvey Award for its Robot 6 blog. 2014: Won the "Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism" Eisner Award. In 2014, the site found itself at the center of a debate around the harassment of women trying to participate in the online comics community; the debate was sparked by the community's reactions to an article by guest author Janelle Asselin, which criticized the cover of DC Comics's Teen Titans. Following harassment and personal threats against the guest author, the site's main editor issued a statement condemning the way that some community members had reacted and rebooted the community forums in order to establish new ground rules.
Civil War (comics)
"Civil War" is a 2006–07 Marvel Comics crossover storyline consisting of a seven-issue limited series of the same name written by Mark Millar and penciled by Steve McNiven, various other tie-in books published by Marvel at the time. The storyline builds upon the events that developed in previous Marvel storylines "Avengers Disassembled", "House of M", "Decimation"; the tagline for the series is, "Whose Side Are You On?"The plot of the series follows a framework story line in which the U. S. government passes a Superhero Registration Act, ostensibly designed to have super powered individuals act under official regulation, somewhat akin to law enforcement. However, superheroes opposed to the act, led by Captain America, find themselves in conflict with those supporting the act, led by Iron Man, with Spider-Man caught in the middle; the superheroes in support of the law, such as Iron Man, Mister Fantastic and Ms. Marvel, become authoritarian. In the aftermath of the war, Captain America is imprisoned.
The conflict between freedom and security is an underlying theme in the story line, with real-life events and discussions, such as the U. S. government's increased surveillance of its citizens, serving as a backdrop for the events in Civil War. A sequel, Civil War II, debuted in June 2016; the series polarized critics but it was a commercial success. The film Captain America: Civil War in the Marvel Cinematic Universe was made as a loose adaptation of the same storyline; the premise of "Civil War" involves the introduction of a Superhuman Registration Act in the United States. Mark Millar, writer for the story, has said: The act requires any person in the United States with superhuman abilities to register with the federal government as a "human weapon of mass destruction," reveal their true identity to the authorities and undergo proper training; those who sign have the option of working for S. H. I. E. L. D. Earning a salary and benefits such as those earned by other American civil servants. Characters within the superhero community in the Marvel Universe split into two groups: one advocating the registration as a responsible obligation, the other opposing the law on the grounds that it violates civil liberties and the protection that secret identities provide.
While arguing directly with Iron Man about the law, Luke Cage, an African American, compared the mandatory registration to slavery. A number of villains have chosen to take sides, some choosing to side with the registration, others against it. Marvel announced in August 2006 that some issues of the main Civil War series would be pushed back several months to accommodate artist Steve McNiven; the schedule had issue #4 being released one month late, in September, while issue #5 was released two months in November. Furthermore, various tie-in books including the Civil War: Front Line miniseries and tie-in issues of other comics were delayed several months so as not to reveal any plot developments. In late November 2006, Marvel announced another delay. Civil War #6 scheduled for release on December 20, was pushed back two weeks and released on January 4. Unlike the previous instance, only The Punisher War Journal #2 was delayed. In a final act of rescheduling, Civil War #7 was pushed back two weeks, pushed back again until February 21.
After the publication of Civil War #7, Mark Millar was interviewed by Newsarama and described the event as "a story where a guy wrapped in the American flag is in chains as the people swap freedom for security", agreeing that a "certain amount of political allegory" was present but that the real focus of the book was on superheroes fighting each other. Contrasting it with The Ultimates, Millar stated that Civil War was "accidentally political because I just cannot help myself." The New Warriors battle a group of villains in Stamford, Connecticut while filming a reality television show. Nitro explodes; the rest of the superheroes appear in Stamford to search for survivors. Public opinion turns against superhumans; the inactive members of the New Warriors are branded as "baby killers". Hindsight releases their secret identities online, several are attacked. She-Hulk forces Hindsight to shut down the site, Hindsight is arrested by John Jameson. Angry civilians attack the Human Torch outside a club.
Guided by Iron Man, Congress passes the Superhuman Registration Act, 6 U. S. C. § 558, requiring the registration of all persons with superhuman abilities with the U. S. government, the enlistment and training of those wishing to operate as superheroes. The law applies to those with naturally-occurring superhuman abilities, those humans using exotic technology, or anyone who wants to challenge the superhumans. Enactment of the federal law led to revisions of state criminal codes. Captain America refuses to join a S. H. I. E. L. D. Strike force hunting superhumans in violation of the act, is attacked by S. H. I. E. L. D.'s "Cape-Killers" though the Act has not been passed yet. Afterwards, he becomes a fugitive and forms an underground resistance movement calling itself the "Secret Avengers"; this team includes Hercules, Danny Rand, Luke Cage, the Young Avengers. Iron Man, Reed Richards, Henry Pym, She-Hulk come down in favor of the Act. Spider-Man unm