A coxless pair is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for two rowers; the crew consists of a pair of rowers, each having one oar, one on the stroke side and one on the bow side. As the name suggests, there is no coxswain on such a boat, the two rowers must co-ordinate steering and the proper timing of oar strokes between themselves or by means of a steering installation, operated by foot from one of the rowers; the equivalent boat when it is steered by a cox is referred to as a "coxed pair". Racing boats are long and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Made from wood, shells are now always made from a composite material for strength and weight advantages. Pairs have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent yaw; the riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. A coxless pair is considered the most difficult boat to row, as each rower must balance his/her side in cooperation with the other, apply equal power, place their catch and extract the blade in order to move the boat efficiently.
It requires excellent technique and experience. "Coxless pair" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and is competed in the Olympic Games. Rowing at the Summer Olympics World Rowing Championships Silver Goblets & Nickalls' Challenge Cup
Henley Royal Regatta
Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839, it differs from the three other regattas rowed over the same course, Henley Women's Regatta, Henley Masters Regatta and Henley Town and Visitors' Regatta, each of, an separate event. The regatta lasts for five days ending on the first weekend in July. Races are head-to-head knock out competitions, raced over a course of 1 mile 550 yards; the regatta attracts international crews to race. The most prestigious event at the regatta is the Grand Challenge Cup for Men's Eights, awarded since the regatta was first staged; as the regatta pre-dates any national or international rowing organisation, it has its own rules and organisation, although it is recognised by both British Rowing and FISA. The regatta is organised by a self-electing body of Stewards, who are former rowers themselves. Pierre de Coubertin modelled elements of the organisation of the International Olympic Committee on the Henley Stewards.
The regatta is regarded as part of the English social season. As with other events in the season, certain enclosures at the regatta have strict dress codes; the Stewards’ Enclosure has a strict dress code of lounge suits for men. Entries for the regatta close at 6:00 pm sixteen days before the Regatta. In order to encourage a high quality of racing, create a manageable race timetable and to ensure that most crews race only once a day, each event has a limited number of places. Qualifying races are held on the Friday before the regatta; the regatta's Committee of Management decides at its absolute discretion which crews are obliged to qualify. The qualifying races take the form of a timed processional race up the regatta course, with the fastest crews qualifying. Times are released for non-qualifying crews only; this does not stop an enthusiastic band of unofficial timers with synchronised watches working out how fast their first round opposition might be. If it is apparent that there are a number of outstanding crews in an event, they may be'selected' by the Stewards, to prevent them from meeting too early in the competition.
The regatta insists that selection is not the same as seeding, the main difference being that there is no'rank order' as is the case in, for example, a tennis tournament. The draw is a public event that takes place in the Henley town hall at 3 pm on the Saturday before the regatta. For each event the names of all selected crews are placed on pieces of paper which are drawn at random from the Grand Challenge Cup; these crews are placed on pre-determined positions on the draw chart, as far apart as possible. The remaining qualifying crews are drawn from the cup, filling in from the top of the draw chart downwards, until all places have been filled; each event in the regatta takes the form of a knockout competition, with each race consisting of two crews racing side by side up the Henley course. The course is marked out by two lines of booms, which are placed along the river to form a straight course 2,112 metres long; the course is wide enough to allow two crews to race down with a few metres between them.
As such it is not uncommon for inexperienced steersmen or coxswains to crash into the booms costing their crew the race. The race begins at the downstream end of Temple Island, where the crews attach to a pair of pontoons; the race umpire will call out the names of the two crews and start them when they are both straight and ready. Each crew is assigned to row on either the'Bucks' or'Berks' side of the race course; the coxswains or steersmen are expected to keep their crew on the allocated side of the course at all times during the race, else they risk disqualification. The only exception is when a crew leads by a sizeable margin and is not deemed by the umpire to be impeding the trailing crew. There are several progress markers along the course. Intermediate times are recorded at two of them – "the Barrier" and "Fawley", in addition to the time to the finish; the regatta has official commentary, announced at these points along the course. The commentary is renowned for being unemotional and factual, with the commentator only allowed to announce the rate of striking, which crew is leading, the distance between the crews, the progress marker which the crews are passing.
Henley Royal Regatta has always been raced over a distance of ‘about one mile and 550 yards’ from Temple Island upstream towards Henley Bridge. However, four distinct courses have been used over the regatta's history, with smaller changes being made incrementally. Changes to the course have all been aimed at improving the prospects for safe racing; this ran from a point just upstream of Temple Island. At the first regatta in 1839, the finish line was Henley Bridge itself, but it was quickly realised that this had inherent problems. From 1840 onward the finish was moved downstream slightly. A grandstand was erected for their guests outside the Red Lion. Other spectators could watch from the adjacent roadway while those with carriages surveyed the scene from a vantage p
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv
St Thomas' Hospital
St Thomas' Hospital is a large NHS teaching hospital in Central London, England. It is one of the institutions that comprise the King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre. Administratively part of the Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, together with Guy's Hospital and King's College Hospital it provides the location of the King's College London GKT School of Medical Education. Located in Southwark, but based in Lambeth since 1871, the hospital has provided healthcare or under charitable auspices since the 12th century, it is one of London's most famous hospitals, associated with names such as Sir Astley Cooper, William Cheselden, Florence Nightingale, Linda Richards, Edmund Montgomery, Agnes Elizabeth Jones and Sir Harold Ridley. It is a prominent London landmark – due to its location on the opposite bank of the River Thames to the Houses of Parliament. St Thomas' Hospital is accessible from Westminster tube station, Waterloo station and Lambeth North tube station; the hospital was described as ancient in 1215 and was named after St Thomas Becket – which suggests it may have been founded after 1173 when Becket was canonised.
This date was when it was relocated from the precinct of St Mary Overie Priory to "Trenet Lane" later to St Thomas Street. However, it is possible it was only renamed in 1173 and that it there was an infirmary at the Priory when it was founded at Southwark in 1106; the hospital was run by a mixed order of Augustinian monks and nuns, dedicated to St Thomas Becket, provided shelter and treatment for the poor and homeless. In the 15th century, Richard Whittington endowed a lying-in ward for unmarried mothers; the monastery was dissolved in 1539 during the Reformation and the hospital closed but reopened in 1551 and rededicated to Thomas the Apostle. This was due to the efforts of the City of London who obtained the grant of the site and a charter from Edward VI and the hospital has remained open since; the hospital was the site of the first printed English Bible in 1537, commemorated by plaque on the surviving wing in Borough High Street. There were some twenty-four Priors, Wardens or Rectors who served between the foundation of the hospital and the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539.
At the end of the 17th century, the hospital and church were rebuilt by Sir Robert Clayton, president of the hospital and a former Lord Mayor of London. Thomas Cartwright was the architect for the work. A statue of Clayton now stands at the North Entrance to Ward Block of North Wing at St Thomas' Hospital and is Grade I listed. In 1721 Sir Thomas Guy, a governor of St Thomas', founded Guy's Hospital as a place to treat'incurables' discharged from St Thomas'; some parts of the old St Thomas Hospital survive on the north side of St Thomas Street, Southwark including the old St. Thomas' Church, now used as offices but including the Old Operating Theatre, now a museum; however the hospital left Southwark in 1862, when its ancient site was compulsorily purchased to make way for the construction of the Charing Cross Railway viaduct from London Bridge Station. The hospital was temporarily housed at Royal Surrey Gardens in Newington until new buildings on the present site in Lambeth near Lambeth Palace were completed in 1871.
The present-day St Thomas' Hospital is located at a site known as Stangate in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is directly across the River Thames from the Palace of Westminster on a plot of land reclaimed from the river during construction of the Albert Embankment in the late 1860s; the new buildings were designed by Henry Currey and the foundation stone was laid by Queen Victoria in 1868. There was a seventh pavilion at the north end of the site next to Westminster Bridge Road for the "Treasurer's House"; the hospital had 600 beds. This was one of the first new hospitals to adopt the "pavilion principle" – popularised by Florence Nightingale in her Notes on Nursing – by having six separate ward buildings at right angles to the river frontage set 125 feet apart and linked by low corridors; the intention was to improve ventilation and to separate and segregate patients with infectious diseases. As the Palace of Westminster is still technically a Royal Palace, a convention has been adopted that any commoner who dies within the Palace is recorded as having died at St Thomas' Hospital to remove the need to convene a jury of members of the Royal Household under the Coroner of the Queen's Household.
The northern part of the hospital site was damaged during the Second World War, with three ward blocks destroyed. Limited reconstruction began in the 1950s including the building now known as East Wing. Complete rebuilding to a more ambitious plan to designs by Yorke Rosenberg Mardall was agreed on in the 1960s requiring the realignment of Lambeth Palace Road further away from the river to enlarge the hospital campus; the new buildings have white-tiled cladding, a characteristic of several other university and hospital buildings designed by that practice. As construction of the thirteen storey block was completed by John Laing & Sons in 1975 there was a widespread public reaction against the scale and appearance of this building – most notably from MPs who could see it from the river terrace of the Palace of Westminster; the southern part of the redevelopment, which would have included a second tall block, was never constructed. The three remaining Victorian ward pavilion blocks were refurbished in the 1980s.
They are now Grade II listed buildings. In November 1949, in an operating theatre in St Thomas Hospital hospital, Harold Ridl
Westminster Hospital was a hospital in London, founded in 1719. In 1834 a medical school attached to the hospital was formally founded. In 1939 a newly built hospital and medical school opened in Westminster. In 1994 the hospital closed, its resources were moved to the new Chelsea and Westminster Hospital at the old St Stephen's Hospital site in Fulham Road; the Westminster Hospital was established in 1719 as a charitable society "for relieving the sick and needy at the Public Infirmary in Westminster", promoted by Mr Henry Hoare, otherwise "Henry the Good", son of Sir Richard Hoare and a Partner in the bank C. Hoare & Co, his associates the writer William Wogan, a vintner called Robert Witham, the Reverend Patrick Cockburn. In 1719, a house was rented in Petty France, to accommodate the new Infirmary for the Sick and Needy, which opened in 1720 with 10 beds; the following document, which may be styled the first annual report of this institution, dated 1720, hung framed and glazed on the wall of the secretary's room as at about 1878: "Whereas a charitable proposal was published in December last, for relieving the sick and needy, by providing them with lodging, with proper food and physick, nurses to attend them during their sickness, by procuring them the advice and assistance of physicians or surgeons, as their necessities should require.
The hospital grew to 31 beds by 1724. In 1733, a disagreement between the Governors and the medical staff led to a mass exodus of medical staff, who went on to set up what became St George's Hospital. Meanwhile, the Infirmary continued with its existing Governors and moved to new premises in Buckingham Gate in 1735, where it was known as the Westminster Infirmary for the Sick and Infirm. By 1757 there were 98 beds and the site was expanded with building work and the acquisition of neighbouring property. By 1760, it was known as the Westminster Hospital, as it remained for the rest of its existence. In 1831, a new site at the Broad Sanctuary opposite Westminster Abbey was acquired, a new and spacious hospital building was completed and opened in 1834, of an embattled quasi-Gothic character, erected by Messrs. Inwood at a cost of £40,000; the hospital was situated by the Broad Sanctuary and the northern side of the nave of Westminster Abbey, between the Sessions House and Victoria Street, accommodated about 200 in-patients, the total number of patients relieved annually, in an 1878 account, was about 20,000.
According to the same 1878 description, "Patients are admitted by order from a governor, except in cases of accident, which are received, without recommendation, at all hours of the day or night". It was the first subscription hospital erected in London, was incorporated in 1836; the original building was rebuilt in 1895, a clinical laboratory was opened by Lord Lister in 1899. In 1924, the Westminster Hospital closed for one year while the building was refurbished. In 1938, the Westminster Hospital moved again; the new building was in St John's Gardens and included The Queen Mary Nurses' Home and a Training School, both opened in 1938, followed in 1939 by the opening of the new Westminster Hospital building opposite, in Horseferry Road. The new building was hit by bombs in 1940 and suffered from a nearby landmine explosion in 1941, but continued to operate. Upon the foundation of the National Health Service in 1948, the Westminster Hospital was placed in a new "Westminster Group of Hospitals", which included the Gordon Hospital, the Westminster Children's Hospital and the All Saints' Hospital.
In 1950, they were joined by Queen Mary's Hospital, bringing the total number of beds in the Westminster Group to 1,090. A new Nurse's Home was built in Vincent Square in 1960, a new wing for the hospital building, linked by a bridge, was opened in 1966. In 1990, the Westminster Hospital had 403 beds. In 1992, the Westminster Hospital closed, in 1993 re-opened, as the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, in a new purpose-built building in Fulham Road; as well as the name, continuity is provided by portraits from the old building which hang in the Board Room of the new. Meanwhile, the old buildings were converted into luxury flats called Westminster Green, which preserve the façade of the original hospital building; the previous buildings in Broad Sanctuary survived until destroyed by a fire in 1950. Malvina Longfellow, a silent movie actress of the 1920s, died at the Hospital on 2 November 1962, having been admitted from her flat in South Stre