Garrard County, Kentucky
Garrard County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,912, the county was formed in 1796 and was named for James Garrard, Governor of Kentucky from 1796 to 1804. It is a prohibition or dry county but Lancaster is wet, Lancaster was founded as a settlement of log cabins in 1776 at a springs that provided a constant source of water to early pioneers. It is one of the oldest citys in the Commonwealth, boonesborough,25 miles to the east, was founded by Daniel Boone in 1775. Lexington,28 miles to the north, was founded in 1775, originally known as St. Asaph, is 10 miles south of Lancaster. It too was founded in 1775, the oldest permanent settlemenet in Kentucky, was founded in 1774 and is 18 miles to the west. The present day courthouse is one of the oldest courthouses in Kentucky in continuous use, Garrard County was formed in 1796 from parts of Lincoln County, Madison County and Mercer County and was the 25th county of Kentucky out of 120.
It was named for Col. James Garrard, second Governor of Kentucky, the cabin of the inspiration for Uncle Tom stood behind the plantation house. County officials intend to recreate the slave cabin on the grounds of the Governor William Owsley House, Garrard County is historically a Whig and Republican County. Its early political leaders were outspoken supporters of Henry Clay and it was strongly pro-Union during the Civil War and has remained a Republican stronghold in the Bluegrass Region which was, until recently, largely Democratic. Histories from the Civil War era record that On August 6,1861, Union recruits marched into Camp Dick Robinson, Union military figures such as Col. George C. Kniffen stated the wisdom of President Lincoln commissioning. Gen, William Nelson to organize a military force on the soil of Kentucky prevented making the state a battle ground for many months and. Thereby changed the direction of the war. Six years later, Indiana Senator Daniel D. Pratt reported to the U. S. Senate that Camp Dick Robinson was one of the most noted military encampments of the war.
From its admirable locality and advantages, it was almost indispensable for the operations of the War. Correspondence from President Lincoln indicates the Camps importance militarily as well as sympbolically, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 234 square miles, of which 230 square miles is land and 3.9 square miles is water. Each member of the Fiscal Court is elected to a four-year term, the Fiscal Court is represented by the County Attorney. Judge Executive Hon. John Wilson Deputy Judge Executive Hon. James Bushnell County Attorney, Hon. Mark H. Metcalf County Magistrates, portions of John Michael Montgomerys 1997 hit I miss you a little were filmed in Garrard County
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Carter Caves State Resort Park
Carter Caves State Resort Park is located in Carter County, United States, along Tygarts Creek. It is formed by Carter Caves, and nearby Cascade Caves, on December 16,1981,146 acres of the park were designated as nature preserves. Bat Cave and Cascade Caverns State Nature Preserves were dedicated for the protection of the Indiana bat, mountain maple, the purchase of the caves and surrounding land was driven by Governor William Jason Fields, a native of Carter County. Carter Caves is a resort park that features a lodge, cottages, 18-hole putt-putt course, 9-hole golf course, full-service campground. It has various tours available year-round that displays and explains the wonders of the underground world. It has horse riding stables. It is well known for its splendor above and below ground, there are several different Cave Tours offered. Guided tours of Cascade Cave and X-Cave are available year-round, Cascade Cave is the name for three different caves in the same area and is together the largest cave in the park.
It features an underground room and an 30-foot underground waterfall. X Cave, named for the pattern of its passages, features some of the largest rock formations in the park. Saltpetre Cave was mined during the War of 1812 because saltpetre, historic activities are a major part of the Saltpetre Cave tour. Bat Cave is toured in the months, between Memorial Day and Labor Day, and is considered a wild cave tour since the cave has not been improved for walking tours. The cave is unique in that it is a hibernaculum for the endangered Indiana Bat in the winter months, Laurel Cave is the most visited of the non-commercial caves in the park, and contains some of the most interesting passages. Laurel Cave is open to the public during business hours in the summer months only. All that is required is a permit available at the Welcome Center/Gift Shop, the permit gives you legal access to Laurel Cave, Horn Hollow Caves and the connected Rimstone Cave. Over thirty miles of hiking trails encounter seven natural bridges throughout the park, the Cascade Trail is a three-quarter mile trail passing through Box Canyon.
The Three Bridges Trail winds three and a quarter miles and includes the parks largest natural bridge, the Smokey Bridge and this trail passes by Fern Bridge and Raven Bridge as it meanders through the park. The half-mile Natural Bridge Trail passes beneath a natural bridge
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States. They cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, approximately 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 16,1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest, the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28,1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22,1933, Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21,1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined, the border between the two forests roughly follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Roanoke, the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, which is separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest.
Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, virginias highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area that is part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire towers in the eastern U. S. Approximately 230,000 acres of old-growth forests, the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest. The Forests vast and mountainous terrain harbors a variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, the Ramseys Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are mostly old-growth. The black bear is relatively common, enough so there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, otter, the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, and hunting destinations.
The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest. The forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten people and thus receives large numbers of visitors. The George Washington National Forest is a destination for trail runners. It is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth
Jessamine County, Kentucky
Jessamine County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2014, the population was 50,815, the county was founded in December 1798. Jessamine County is part of the Lexington-Fayette, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is within the Inner Blue Grass region, long a center of farming and blooded stock raising, including thoroughbred horses. The legislature established a wine industry here in the late 18th century. Jessamine County was established in 1798 from land given by Fayette County, Jessamine was the 36th Kentucky county in order of formation. The county was named for Jessamine Douglass, the daughter of a pioneer settler, most of the early pioneers were from Virginia, who came through the mountains after the American Revolutionary War. Wine making based on European grapes became widespread in the United States, after the Prohibition era, which lasted from 1920 to 1933, the county voted to prohibit alcohol sales. As it allowed an exception for the wet city of Nicholasville, the Chrisman Mill Vineyards is authorized to operate and sell its product in the dry portion of the county.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 175 square miles. In 2000, nearly 129 square miles of the total area was dedicated to agriculture. The countys entire southern border is formed by the Kentucky River, Jessamine Countys river bank extends roughly 42 miles long due to meandering, and the rivers scenic Palisades feature heavily along this border. Fayette County Madison County Garrard County Mercer County Woodford County As of the census of 2000, there were 39,041 people,13,867 households, the population density was 226 per square mile. There were 14,646 housing units at a density of 85 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94. 44% White,3. 13% Black or African American,0. 20% Native American,0. 58% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 47% from other races, and 1. 14% from two or more races. 1. 31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,18. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.69 and the family size was 3.05. The age distribution was 26. 40% under the age of 18,11. 60% from 18 to 24,31. 10% from 25 to 44,21. 40% from 45 to 64, the median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males
Jefferson Davis State Historic Site
The Jefferson Davis Monument State Historic Site is a Kentucky state park commemorating the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederate States of America, in Fairview, Kentucky. The sites focal point is a 351-foot concrete obelisk, in 1973, it was believed to be the fourth-tallest monument in the United States and the tallest concrete-cast one. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. a Confederate general, first proposed the idea of a monument for Davis during a reunion of the Orphan Brigade of the Confederate Army in 1907. Construction began in 1917 but stopped in 1918 at a height of 175 feet due to building material rationing during World War I, construction resumed in January 1922 and was finished in 1924 at a cost of $200,000. The monuments base was set on bedrock and limestone was quarried on the site for use in its construction. The concrete walls are 8.5 feet thick at the base, the monument was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The obelisk was closed to the public from 1999 until May 2004 for renovations, at the top of the monument is an observation room with a window in each of the four walls.
Originally, this room could only be reached by climbing stairs which went around the interior of the monument, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site is one of eleven historic sites in Kentucky which include small parks and are maintained by the Kentucky Department of Parks. The park covers 19 acres and includes open and covered picnic areas, at the visitors center museum, visitors can watch a video describing Davis life and the construction of the monument. Guided elevator tours of the monument are available daily, the center sells books and memorabilia about Davis, the American Civil War, and the surrounding area, as well as Kentucky handcrafts. The park is open from May 1 until October 31, the monument is the tallest unreinforced concrete structure in the world. No steel was used to reinforce the walls below its pyramidal top. As one pour was completed, large chunks of limestone were left projecting up to connect it to the next pour above and it is the tallest concrete obelisk in the world.
It is the second tallest obelisk in the world after the Washington Monument, the Crazy Horse Memorial, not yet completed, has a planned height of 563 feet. Elsewhere in the world, the Great Pyramid of Giza, Khafres Pyramid, Spring Temple Buddha, and Ushiku Daibutsu are taller monuments
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Natural Bridge State Resort Park
Its namesake natural bridge is the centerpiece of the park. The natural sandstone arch spans 78 ft and is 65 ft high, the natural process of weathering formed the arch over millions of years. The park is approximately 2,300 acres of which approximately 1,200 acres is dedicated by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission as a nature preserve, in 1981 this land was dedicated into the nature preserves system to protect the ecological communities and rare species habitat. The first federally endangered Virginia big eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus, the park was founded as a private tourist attraction in 1895 by the Lexington and Eastern Railroad. In 1910, Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the land when it purchased the Lexingon, there are over 20 miles of trails over uneven terrain from moderate to strenuous difficulty, including trails to Whites Branch Arch, Hensons Cave Arch, and other scenic areas. Some of the most famous sites are the arch itself, Lovers Leap, the parks 0.
5-mile Original Trail to the natural bridge dates from the 1890s. Other trails include the 7. 5-mile Sand Gap Trail and the 0. 75-mile Balanced Rock Trail, five miles of the 307-mile Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail run through the park, including the Whittleton Trail which connects the park to the Red River Gorge Geologic Area. Activities such as hiking off-trails, disturbing wildlife, or collecting plants are not legal in any Kentucky State Park, Fat Mans Squeeze, a narrow passage in the rock formation, leads to the bottom of the arch. Natural Bridge has several unique sandstone formations, including the Balanced Rock. This is a block of sandstone balanced on the edge of a cliff near the Natural Bridge. The Balanced Rock, is located on Trail #2, not far above Hemlock Lodge, in the early days of the Park, it was called the Sphinx because, when viewed from the correct angle, it crudely resembles the Sphinx in Egypt. Although it is now called the Balanced Rock, it is in fact a pedestal rock - a single piece of stone that has weathered in such a fashion that its midsection is narrower than its cap or its base.
This formation is one of the biggest and most perfectly formed examples of a pedestal rock east of the Rocky Mountains, Natural Bridge State Park is a member of the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, and offers guided backpacking trips and natural history educational programs. Annual events open to the public include Herpetology Weekend each May, Natural Arches Weekend each February, the Kentucky Natives Societys Wildflower Weekend in April consists of Kentucky plants and how they are essential to the well-being of our natural ecosystems commonwealth. We incorporate research and support efforts to identify and protect endangered, the State Park is famous for hosting traditional Appalachian square dances. The traditional Appalachian style dances are held on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the warm starlit Ky summers on the dance floor. The dance draws hundreds of participants and spectators, showcasing dance groups and singer/performer talents from all over