Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States. It is published by Fortune Media Group Holdings, owned by Thai businessman Chatchaval Jiaravanon; the publication was founded by Henry Luce in 1929. The magazine competes with Forbes and Bloomberg Businessweek in the national business magazine category and distinguishes itself with long, in-depth feature articles; the magazine publishes ranked lists, including the Fortune 500, a ranking of companies by revenue that it has published annually since 1955. Fortune was founded by Time co-founder Henry Luce in 1929 as "the Ideal Super-Class Magazine", a "distinguished and de luxe" publication "vividly portraying and recording the Industrial Civilization". Briton Hadden, Luce's business partner, was not enthusiastic about the idea – which Luce thought to title Power – but Luce went forward with it after Hadden's sudden death on February 27, 1929. In late October 1929, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 occurred, marking the onset of the Great Depression.
In a memo to the Time Inc. board in November 1929, Luce wrote: "We will not be over-optimistic. We will recognize that this business slump may last as long as an entire year." The publication made its official debut in February 1930. Its editor was Luce, managing editor Parker Lloyd-Smith, art director Thomas Maitland Cleland. Single copies of the first issue cost US$1. An urban legend says that Cleland mocked up the cover of the first issue with the $1 price because no one had yet decided how much to charge. In fact, there were 30,000 subscribers who had signed up to receive that initial 184-page issue. By 1937, the number of subscribers had grown to 460,000, the magazine had turned half million dollars in annual profit. At a time when business publications were little more than numbers and statistics printed in black and white, Fortune was an oversized 11"×14", using creamy heavy paper, art on a cover printed by a special process. Fortune was noted for its photography, featuring the work of Margaret Bourke-White, Ansel Adams, others.
Walker Evans served as its photography editor from 1945 to 1965. During the Great Depression, the magazine developed a reputation for its social conscience, for Walker Evans and Margaret Bourke-White's color photographs, for a team of writers including James Agee, Archibald MacLeish, John Kenneth Galbraith, Alfred Kazin, hired for their writing abilities; the magazine became an important leg of Luce's media empire. From its launch in 1930 to 1978, Fortune was published monthly. In January 1978, it began publishing biweekly. In October 2009, citing declining advertising revenue and circulation, Fortune began publishing every three weeks. Fortune is published 14 times a year. Marshall Loeb was named managing editor in 1986. During his tenure at Fortune, Loeb was credited with expanding the traditional focus on business and the economy with added graphs and tables, as well as the addition of articles on topics such as executive life and social issues connected to the world of business, including the effectiveness of public schools and on homelessness.
During the years when Time Warner owned Time Inc. Fortune articles were hosted at CNNMoney.com. In June 2014, after Time Inc. spun off from its corporate parent, Fortune launched its own website at Fortune.com. On November 26, 2017, it was announced that Meredith Corporation would acquire Time Inc. in a $2.8 billion deal. The acquisition was completed on January 31, 2018. On November 9, 2018, it was announced that Meredith Corporation was selling Fortune to Thai billionaire Chatchaval Jiaravanon for $150 million. Jiaravanon is affiliated with the Thailand-based conglomerate Charoen Pokphand Group, which has holdings in agriculture, telecommunications, retail and finance. Fortune publishes ranked lists. In the human resources field, for example, it publishes a list of the Best Companies to Work For. Lists include companies ranked in order of gross revenue and business profile, as well as business leaders: There have been 17 top editors since Fortune was conceived in 1929. Following the elimination of the editor-in-chief role at Time Inc. in October 2013, the top editor's title was changed from "managing editor" to "editor" in 2014.
Fortune Battle of the Corporate Bands, an annual music competition for amateur company-sponsored bands List of United States magazines James S. Miller, "White-Collar Excavations: Fortune Magazine and the Invention of the Industrial Folk," American Periodicals, vol. 13, pp. 84–104. In JSTOR Official website Fortune Latinamerica Fortune India Fortune China Fortune Turkey List of 100 Best Companies to Work For "Fortune Data Store". Fortune. Time.. Complete downloadable list of Fortune 500/1000 Companies – 1955–2008
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas. It is the world's largest telecommunications company, the second largest provider of mobile telephone services, the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States through AT&T Communications. Since June 14, 2018, it is the parent company of mass media conglomerate WarnerMedia, making it the world's largest media and entertainment company in terms of revenue; as of 2018, AT&T is ranked #9 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. AT&T began its history as Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880; the Bell Telephone Company evolved into American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which rebranded as AT&T Corporation. The 1982 United States v. AT&T antitrust lawsuit resulted in the divestiture of AT&T Corporation's subsidiaries or Regional Bell Operating Companies, resulting in several independent companies including Southwestern Bell Corporation.
In 2005, SBC purchased its former parent AT&T Corporation and took on its branding, with the merged entity naming itself AT&T Inc. and using its iconic logo and stock-trading symbol. In 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth, the last independent Baby Bell company, making their joint venture Cingular Wireless wholly owned and rebranding it as AT&T Mobility. The current AT&T reconstitutes much of the former Bell System, includes ten of the original 22 Bell Operating Companies along with the original long distance division. AT&T can trace its origin back to the original Bell Telephone Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell after his patenting of the telephone. One of that company's subsidiaries was American Telephone and Telegraph Company, established in 1885, which acquired the Bell Company on December 31, 1899, for legal reasons, leaving AT&T as the main company. AT&T established a network of subsidiaries in the United States and Canada that held a government-authorized phone service monopoly, formalized with the Kingsbury Commitment, throughout most of the twentieth century.
This monopoly was known as the Bell System, during this period, AT&T was known by the nickname Ma Bell. For periods of time, the former AT&T was the world's largest phone company. In 1982, U. S. regulators broke up the AT&T monopoly, requiring AT&T to divest its regional subsidiaries and turning them each into individual companies. These new companies were known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or more informally, Baby Bells. AT&T continued to operate long distance services, but as a result of this breakup, faced competition from new competitors such as MCI and Sprint. Southwestern Bell was one of the companies created by the breakup of AT&T Corp; the architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope; the company soon started a series of acquisitions. This includes the 1987 acquisition of Metromedia mobile business and the acquisition of several cable companies in the early 1990s. In the half of the 1990s, the company acquired several other telecommunications companies, including some Baby Bells, while selling its cable business.
During this time, the company changed its name to SBC Communications. By 1998, the company was in the top 15 of the Fortune 500, by 1999 the company was part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. In 2005, SBC purchased AT&T for $16 billion. After this purchase, SBC adopted the better-known AT&T name and brand, with the original AT&T Corp. still existing as the long-distance landline subsidiary of the merged company. The current AT&T claims the original AT&T Corp.'s history as its own, though its corporate structure only dates from 1983. It retains SBC's pre-2005 stock price history, all regulatory filings prior to 2005 are for Southwestern Bell/SBC, not AT&T Corp. In September 2013, AT&T Inc. announced it would expand into Latin America through a collaboration with América Móvil. In December 2013, AT&T announced plans to sell its Connecticut wireline operations to Stamford-based Frontier Communications. AT&T purchased the Mexican carrier Iusacell in late 2014, two months purchased the Mexican wireless business of NII Holdings, merging the two companies to create AT&T Mexico.
In July 2015, AT&T purchased DirecTV for $48.5 billion, or $67.1 billion including assumed debt, subject to certain conditions. AT&T subsequently announced plans to converge its existing U-verse home internet and IPTV brands with DirecTV, to create AT&T Entertainment. In an effort to increase its media holdings, on October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion. AT&T owns a 2% stake in Canadian-domiciled entertainment company Lionsgate. On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon. In October 2018, it was announced that the service Is set to launch in 2019On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T planned to launch a new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor's broadband network sometime next year. On November 20, 2017, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim filed a lawsuit for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division to block the merger with Time Warner, saying it "will harm competition, result in higher bills for consumers and less innovation."
In order for AT&T to acquire Time Warner, the Department of Justice stated that the company must
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the world by revenue and number of professionals. Deloitte provides audit, consulting, enterprise risk and financial advisory services with more than 286,200 professionals globally. In FY 2018, the network earned a record $43.2 billion USD in aggregate revenues. As of 2017, Deloitte is the 4th largest owned company in the United States; as of 2015, Deloitte has the highest market share in auditing among the top 500 companies in India. Deloitte has been ranked number one by market share in consulting by Gartner, for the fourth consecutive year, Kennedy Consulting Research and Advisory ranks Deloitte number one in both global consulting and management consulting based on aggregate revenue. In 1845, William Welch Deloitte opened an office in United Kingdom. Deloitte was the first person to be appointed an independent auditor of a public company, namely the Great Western Railway.
He went on to open an office in New York in 1880. In 1890, Deloitte opened a branch office on Wall Street headed by Edward Adams and P. D. Griffiths as branch managers; that was Deloitte's first overseas venture. Other branches were soon opened in Chicago and Buenos Aires. in 1898 P. D. Griffiths became a partner in the London office. In 1896, Charles Waldo Haskins and Elijah Watt Sells formed Sells in New York, it was described as "the first major auditing firm to be established in the country by American rather than British accountants". In 1898, George Touche established an office in London and in 1900, joined John Ballantine Niven in establishing the firm of Touche Niven in the Johnston Building at 30 Broad Street in New York. On 1 March 1933, Colonel Arthur Hazelton Carter, President of the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants and managing partner of Haskins & Sells, testified before the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Carter helped convince Congress. In 1947, Detroit accountant George Bailey president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, launched his own organization.
The new entity enjoyed such a positive start that in less than a year, the partners merged with Touche Niven and A. R. Smart to form Touche, Bailey & Smart. Headed by Bailey, the organization grew in part by creating a dedicated management consulting function, it forged closer links with organizations established by the co-founder of Touche Niven, George Touche: the Canadian organization Ross and the British organization George A. Touche. In 1960, the firm was renamed Touche, Bailey & Smart, becoming Touche Ross in 1969. In 1968 Nobuzo Tohmatsu formed Tohmatsu Aoki & Co, a firm based in Japan, to become part of the Touche Ross network in 1975. In 1972 Robert Trueblood, Chairman of Touche Ross, led the committee responsible for recommending the establishment of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. In 1952, Deloitte's firm merged with Sells to form Deloitte Haskins & Sells. In 1989, Deloitte Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross in the USA to form Touche; the merged firm was led jointly by Edward A. Kangas.
Led by the UK partnership, a smaller number of Deloitte Haskins & Sells member firms rejected the merger with Touche Ross and shortly thereafter merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte. Some member firms of Touche Ross rejected the merger with Deloitte Haskins & Sells and merged with other firms. In UK, Touche Ross merged with Spicer & Oppenheim in 1990. At the time of the US-led mergers to form Deloitte & Touche, the name of the international firm was a problem, because there was no worldwide exclusive access to the names "Deloitte" or "Touche Ross" – key member firms such as Deloitte in the UK and Touche Ross in Australia had not joined the merger; the name DRT International was therefore chosen, referring to Deloitte and Tohmatsu. In 1993, the international firm was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. In 1995, the partners of Deloitte & Touche decided to create Touche Consulting Group. In 2000, Deloitte acquired Eclipse to add Internet design-based solutions to its consulting capabilities.
Eclipse was separated into Deloitte Online and Deloitte Digital. In 2002, Arthur Andersen's UK practice, the firm's largest practice outside the US, agreed to merge with Deloitte's UK practice. Andersen's practices in Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Mexico and Canada agreed to merge with Deloitte; the spinoff of Deloitte France's consulting division led to the creation of Ineum Consulting. In 2005, Deloitte acquired Beijing Pan-China CPA to become the largest accountancy firm in China. Just prior to this acquisition Deloitte China had about 3,200 employees; this acquisition was part of a five-year plan to invest $150 million in China. Deloitte has had a presence in China since 1917. In 2007, Deloitte began hiring former employees of the Central Intelligence Agency for their competitive intelligence unit known as Deloitte Intelligence. In 2009, Deloitte purchased the North American public service practice of BearingPoint for $350 million after it filed for bankruptcy protection. Deloitte LLP took over the UK property consultants Drivers Jonas in January 2010.
As of 2013, this business unit was known as Deloitte Real Estate. In 2011, Deloitte acquired DOMANI Sustainability Consulting and ClearCarbon Consulting in orde
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009. Developed in response to the Great Recession, the ARRA's primary objective was to save existing jobs and create new ones as soon as possible. Other objectives were to provide temporary relief programs for those most affected by the recession and invest in infrastructure, education and renewable energy; the approximate cost of the economic stimulus package was estimated to be $787 billion at the time of passage revised to $831 billion between 2009 and 2019. The ARRA's rationale was based on the Keynesian economic theory that, during recessions, the government should offset the decrease in private spending with an increase in public spending in order to save jobs and stop further economic deterioration. Since its inception, the impact of the stimulus has been a subject of disagreement. Studies on its effects have produced a range of conclusions, from positive to negative and all reactions in between.
In 2012, the IGM Forum poll conducted by the University of Chicago Booth School of Business found 80% of leading economists agree unemployment was lower at the end of 2010 than it would have been without the stimulus. 46% "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that the benefits outweighed the costs, 27% were uncertain, 12% disagreed or disagreed. IGM Forum asked the same question to leading economists in 2014; this new poll found 82% of leading economists agreed or agreed that unemployment was lower in 2010 than it would have been without the stimulus. Revisiting the question about the benefits outweighing the costs, 56% agreed or agreed that it did, 23% were uncertain, 5% disagreed. Both the House and the Senate versions of the bills were written by Democratic Congressional committee leaders and their staffs; because work on the bills started before President Obama took office on January 20, 2009, top aides to President-Elect Obama held multiple meetings with committee leaders and staffers. On January 10, 2009, President-Elect Obama's administration released a report that provided a preliminary analysis of the impact to jobs of some of the prototypical recovery packages that were being considered.
The House version of the bill, H. R. 1, was introduced on January 26, 2009. It was sponsored by Democrat David Obey, the House Appropriations Committee chairman, was co-sponsored by nine other Democrats. On January 23, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi said that the bill was on track to be presented to President Obama for him to sign into law before February 16, 2009. Although 206 amendments were scheduled for floor votes, they were combined into only 11, which enabled quicker passage of the bill. On January 28, 2009, the House passed the bill by a 244–188 vote. All but 11 Democrats voted for the bill, 177 Republicans voted against it; the senate version of the bill, S. 1, was introduced on January 6, 2009, substituted as an amendment to the House bill, S. Amdt. 570. It was sponsored by Harry Reid, the Majority Leader, co-sponsored by 16 other Democrats and Joe Lieberman, an independent who caucused with the Democrats; the Senate began consideration of the bill starting with the $275 billion tax provisions in the week of February 2, 2009.
A significant difference between the House version and the Senate version was the inclusion of a one-year extension of revisions to the alternative minimum tax, which added $70 billion to the bill's total. Republicans proposed several amendments to the bill directed at increasing the share of tax cuts and downsizing spending as well as decreasing the overall price. President Obama and Senate Democrats hinted that they would be willing to compromise on Republican suggestions to increase infrastructure spending and to double the housing tax credit proposed from $7,500 to $15,000 and expand its application to all home buyers, not just first-time buyers. Other considered amendments included the Freedom Act of 2009, an amendment proposed by Senate Finance Committee members Maria Cantwell and Orrin Hatch to include tax incentives for plug-in electric vehicles; the Senate called a special Saturday debate session for February 7 at the urging of President Obama. The Senate voted, 61–36 on February 9 to end debate on the bill and advance it to the Senate floor to vote on the bill itself.
On February 10, the Senate voted 61–37 All the Democrats voted in favor, but only three Republicans voted in favor. Specter switched to the Democratic Party in the year. At one point, the Senate bill stood at $838 billion. Senate Republicans forced a near unprecedented level of changes in the House bill, which had more followed the Obama plan. A comparison of the $827 billion economic recovery plan drafted by Senate Democrats with an $820 billion version passed by the House and the final $787 billion conference version shows huge shifts within these similar totals. Additional debt costs would add about $350 billion or more over 10 years. Many provisions were set to expire in two years; the main funding differences between the Senate bill and the House bill were: More funds for health care in the Senate, renewable energy programs, for home buyers tax credit, new payments to the elderly and a one-year increase in AMT limits. The House had more funds appropriated for education and for aid to low income workers and the unemployed.
Aid to low income worke
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline, diesel fuel and propane/LPG. CNG combustion produces fewer undesirable gases than the aforementioned fuels. In comparison to other fuels, natural gas poses less of a threat in the event of a spill, because it is lighter than air and disperses when released. Biomethane – cleaned-up biogas from anaerobic digestion or landfills – can be used. CNG is made by compressing natural gas, to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure, it is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 20–25 MPa in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in traditional gasoline/internal combustion engine automobiles that have been modified or in vehicles which were manufactured for CNG use, either alone, with a segregated gasoline system to extend range or in conjunction with another fuel such as diesel. Natural gas vehicles are used in Iran Pakistan, the Asia-Pacific region, Indian capital of Delhi, other large cities like Ahmedabad, Pune, Kolkata—as well as cities such as Lucknow, Varanasi, etc.
Its use is increasing in South America and North America because of rising gasoline prices. In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used in tuk-tuks and pickup trucks and school buses, trains; the cost and placement of fuel storage tanks is the major barrier to wider/quicker adoption of CNG as a fuel. It is why municipal government, public transportation vehicles were the most visible early adopters of it, as they can more amortize the money invested in the new fuel. In spite of these circumstances, the number of vehicles in the world using CNG has grown steadily. Now, as a result of the industry's steady growth, the cost of such fuel storage tanks has been brought down to a much more acceptable level. For the CNG Type 1 and Type 2 tanks, many countries are able to make reliable and cost effective tanks for conversion need. CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42 percent that of liquefied natural gas, 25 percent that of diesel fuel. Worldwide, there were 14.8 million natural gas vehicles by 2011, led by Iran with 2.86 million, Argentina and India.
With the Asia-Pacific region leading with 5.7 million NGVs, followed by Latin America with four million vehicles. Several manufacturers sell bi-fuel cars. In 2006, Fiat introduced the Siena Tetrafuel in the Brazilian market, equipped with a 1.4L FIRE engine that runs on E100, E25, Ethanol and CNG. Any existing gasoline vehicle can be converted to a dual-fuel vehicle. Authorized shops can do the retrofitting and involves installing a CNG cylinder, plumbing, a CNG injection system and the electronics; the cost of installing a CNG conversion kit can reach $8,000 on passenger cars and light trucks and is reserved for vehicles that travel many miles each year. CNG costs emits up to 90 % fewer emissions than gasoline. CNG locomotives are operated by several railroads; the Napa Valley Wine Train retrofit a diesel locomotive to run on compressed natural gas before 2002. This converted locomotive was upgraded to utilize a computer controlled fuel injection system in May 2008, is now the Napa Valley Wine Train's primary locomotive.
Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru, has run a CNG locomotive on a freight line since 2005. CNG locomotives are diesel locomotives that have been converted to use compressed natural gas generators instead of diesel generators to generate the electricity that drives the traction motors; some CNG locomotives are able to fire their cylinders only when there is a demand for power, theoretically, gives them a higher fuel efficiency than conventional diesel engines. CNG is cheaper than petrol or diesel. Natural gas vehicle have lower maintenance costs than other hydrocarbon-fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed. Increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not dilute the crankcase oil. Being a gaseous fuel, CNG mixes and evenly in air. CNG is less to ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature, a narrow range of flammability. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles. Less pollution and more efficiency: CNG emits less pollution directly than gasoline or oil when combusted.
For example, an engine running on petrol for 100 km emits 22 kilograms of CO2, while covering the same distance on CNG emits only 16.3 kilograms of CO2. Due to lower carbon dioxide emissions, switching to CNG can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, natural gas leaks represent an increase in greenhouse gas emissions; the ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuel lifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas and the fuel it is replacing. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for CNG compressed from California's pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams of CO2-equivalent per megajoule by CARB (the California Air Resource