Muhammad is the prophet of Islam. From a secular historical perspective he was a religious, from an Islamic perspective, he was Gods Messenger sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Moses and other prophets. He is viewed as the prophet of God in all branches of Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and ensured that his teachings, born approximately 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age, he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib. Muhammad gained few early followers, and met hostility from some Meccan tribes, to escape persecution, Muhammad sent some followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, in Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent conflict with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts, the attack went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed.
In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill, before his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the Word of God and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammads teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld by Muslims. The name Muhammad means praiseworthy and appears four times in the Quran, Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address, thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73,1 and the shrouded in Quran 74,1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33,40 God singles out Muhammad as the Seal of the Prophets, the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad more praiseworthy. The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad, the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammads chronological biography, most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context.
An important source may be found in the works by writers of the 2nd. These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which additional information about Muhammads life. The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaqs Life of Gods Messenger written c.767 CE, although the work was lost, this sira was used verbatim at great length by Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari. Another early history source is the history of Muhammads campaigns by al-Waqidi, many scholars accept the earliest biographies as accurate, though their accuracy is unascertainable
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England bordering on Warwickshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire and Gloucestershire. The county has major education and tourist industries and is noted for the concentration of performance companies and facilities. Oxford University Press is the largest firm among a concentration of print and publishing firms, the main centre of population is the city of Oxford. The highest point is White Horse Hill, in the Vale of White Horse, oxfordshires county flower is the Snakes-head Fritillary. Historically the area has always had some importance, since it contains valuable agricultural land in the centre of the county, largely ignored by the Romans, it was not until the formation of a settlement at Oxford in the eighth century that the area grew in importance. Alfred the Great was born across the Thames in Wantage, Vale of White Horse, the University of Oxford was founded in 1096, though its collegiate structure did not develop until on. The university in the county town of Oxford grew in importance during the Middle Ages, the area was part of the Cotswolds wool trade from the 13th century, generating much wealth, particularly in the western portions of the county in the Oxfordshire Cotswolds.
Morris Motors was founded in Oxford in 1912, bringing industry to an otherwise agricultural county. The importance of agriculture as an employer has declined rapidly in the 20th century though, Oxfordshire remains a very agricultural county by land use, with a lower population than neighbouring Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, which are both smaller. The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, the army unit in the area, was based at Cowley Barracks on Bullingdon Green. Conversely, the Caversham area of Reading, now administratively in Berkshire, was part of Oxfordshire as was the parish of Stokenchurch. This is a chart of trend of gross value added of Oxfordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Oxfordshire has a comprehensive education system with 23 independent schools and 35 state secondary schools. Only eight schools do not have a form, these are mostly in South Oxfordshire. The county has two universities, the ancient University of Oxford and the modern Oxford Brookes University, both located in Oxford, in addition, Wroxton College, located in Banbury, is affiliated with Fairleigh Dickinson University of New Jersey.
The dreaming spires of the buildings of the University of Oxford are among the reasons for Oxford being the sixth most visited city in the United Kingdom for international visitors. Among many notable University buildings are the Sheldonian Theatre, built 1664–68 to the design of Sir Christopher Wren, Blenheim Palace close to Woodstock was built by the great architect John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, after he had won the battle of Blenheim. The gardens, which can be visited, were designed by the landscape gardener Capability Brown, in the palace, which can be visited by the public, Sir Winston Churchill was born in 1874
A myth is any traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon. The word myth is derived from the Greek word mythos, which means story. Mythology can refer either to the study of myths, or to a body or collection of myths, myth can mean sacred story, traditional narrative or tale of the gods. A myth can be a story to explain why something exists, human cultures usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses and heroines, or animals, most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings, a myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths contribute to and express a cultures systems of thought and values, myths are often therefore stories that are currently understood as being exaggerated or fictitious.
According to Albert A. Anderson, a professor of philosophy, in these works, the term had several meanings, narrative, story and word. Like the related term logos, mythos expresses whatever can be delivered in the form of words, Anderson contrasts the two terms with ergon, a Greek term for action and work. The term mythos lacks an explicit distinction between true or false narratives, in the context of the Theatre of ancient Greece, the term mythos referred to the myth, the narrative, the plot, and the story of a theatrical play. According to David Wiles, the Greek term mythos in this era covered an entire spectrum of different meanings, from undeniable falsehoods to stories with religious, according to philosopher Aristotle, the spirit of a theatrical play was its mythos. The term mythos was used for the material of Greek tragedy. The tragedians of the era could draw inspiration from Greek mythology, David Wiles observes that modern conceptions about Greek tragedy can be misleading. It is commonly thought that the ancient audience members were familiar with the mythos behind a play.
However, the Greek dramatists were not expected to faithfully reproduce traditional myths when adapting them for the stage and they were instead recreating the myths and producing new versions. Storytellers like Euripides relied on suspense to excite their audiences, in one of his works, Merope attempts to kill her sons murderer with an axe, unaware that the man in question is actually her son. According to an ancient description of reactions to this work. They rose to their feet in terror and caused an uproar, David Wiles points that the traditional mythos of Ancient Greece, was primarily a part of its oral tradition
In cricket a boundary is the edge or boundary of the playing field, or a scoring shot where the ball is hit to or beyond that point. The boundary is the edge of the field, or the physical object marking the edge of the field. In low-level matches, a series of cones are often used. Since the early 2000s the boundaries at professional matches are often a series of padded cushions carrying sponsors logos strung along a rope, if it is moved during play the boundary is considered to remain at the point where that object first stood. When the cricket ball is inside the boundary, it is live and they return to the field to pick the ball up and throw it back to the bowler. A law change in 2010 declared that a fielder could not jump from behind the boundary and, while airborne, a boundary is the scoring of four or six runs from a single delivery with the ball reaching the boundary of the field. Occasionally there is an use of the term boundary as a synonym for a four. For example, sometimes commentators say such as There were seven boundaries, the correct terminology would be There were ten boundaries in the innings of which seven were fours and three were sixes.
Four runs are scored if the ball bounces before touching or going over the edge of the field and these events are known as a four or a six respectively. When this happens the runs are added to the batsmans and his teams score. Prior to 1910, six runs were awarded for hits out of the ground. Four runs can be scored by hitting the ball into the outfield, four runs scored in this way is referred to as an all run four and is not counted as a boundary. Four runs are scored as if a fielder gathers the ball. In this case, the batsman who hit the ball scores however many runs the batsmen had run up to time, plus four additional runs. If the ball has not come off the bat or hand holding the bat, the runs are classified as extras and are added to the teams score but not to the score of any individual batsman. The scoring of a four or six by an aggressive shot displays a certain amount of mastery by the batsman over the bowler. Fours resulting from a stroke, or from a shot that did not come off as the batsman intended, are considered bad luck to the bowler.
As a batsman plays himself in and becomes confident as his innings progresses
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital on 31 March 2010, before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services, BBC1, BBC2, and ITV. The Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, after some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982. Indeed, television sets throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare channel called ITV/IBA2. It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the commercial channel became a reality. The campaign was taken so seriously by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, the result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, since then, carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available.
The first programme to air on the channel was the game show Countdown. The first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second, the first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Carol Vorderman and was a lexicographer only ever identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words, On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashleys ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984. The channel often did not receive mass audiences for much of period, however. Channel 4 for many years had a poorer quality signal compared to other channels, Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in the documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Drivers Wife.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television Corporation in 1993, instead of aiming for the fringes of society, it began to focus on the edges of the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself. It began to show many US programmes in peak viewing time and it gave such shows as Friends and ER their UK premières. In the early 2000s, Channel 4 began broadcasting reality formats such as Big Brother and obtained the rights to broadcast mass appeal sporting events like cricket and this new direction increased ratings and revenues. In addition, the corporation launched a number of new channels through its new 4Ventures offshoot, including Film4, At the Races, E4
In the Shadow of the Sword (book)
In the Shadow of the Sword is a history book charting the origins of Islam. According to Holland, To understand the origins of Islam, and why it evolved in the way that it did, we must explore the empires and religions of late antiquity. Dan Jones, writing for the Telegraph, gave the book a review calling it a complex story which Holland made his own. Jones goes on to finish his review by asking, Is this Satanic Verses territory, Holland quotes Salman Rushdie at the very beginning of the book, wryly, another British author who ventured onto the sticky wicket of Islam’s origin myths. Ziauddin Sardar, writing for the New Statesman, was critical of the book. He says the aim of the book is to examine the validity of Muslim sources. Holland raises a number of legitimate questions and he says that the book is revisionist history based almost exclusively on the work of a largely discredited group of orientalists. In the process, he pours scorn on Muslim scholarship, which is declared unsound, if not totally worthless, innocent readers will no doubt conclude that Muslims know nothing about Muhammad or the Quran.
Apparently, our historians knew little about objectivity or criticism, which is the preserve of Holland. He finishes his critique with, I find Holland’s total dismissal of Muslim scholarship arrogant, sattin finishes his critique with, The lives of some people who have dared to question the historicity of the prophet Muhammad and the Quran have been ruined, even ended. We must hope that Holland is spared their wrath and that his excellent book will be lauded, as it should be, for doing what the best sort of books can do – examining holy cows. In the Shadow of the Sword seems like an attempt by author and publisher to create a different account of early Islam. Holland responded to this review by saying, Bowersock is a scholar for whom I have great admiration –. But this review, which is targeted not just at me, The Untold Story Seeing Islam as Others Saw It In The Shadow of the Sword. Great Britain, Brown Book Group, about the book, In the 6th century AD, the Near East was divided between two great empires, the Persian and the Roman.
A hundred years on, and one had vanished forever, while the other was a dismembered, in their place, a new superpower had arisen, the empire of the Arabs. So profound was this upheaval that it spelled, in effect, the end of the ancient world
An author is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus be described as a writer. More broadly defined, an author is the person who originated or gave existence to anything, in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of works of authorship. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, copyright is merely the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time its created, an interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon ones death. The person who inherits the copyright is not the author, questions arise as to the application of copyright law. How does it, for example, apply to the issue of fan fiction.
If the media responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors, music. Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books, what powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or even stopping the fan fiction. In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting, in the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea that a text can be attributed to any single author and he writes, in his essay Death of the Author, that it is language which speaks, not the author. The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, with this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, and the limits formerly imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed.
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak. Michel Foucault argues in his essay What is an author and that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that a letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author. For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to certain standards upon the text which. Foucaults author function is the idea that an author exists only as a function of a work, a part of its structure
The Hay Festival of Literature & Arts is an annual literature festival held in Hay-on-Wye, Wales, for ten days from May to June. Devised by Norman and Peter Florence in 1988, the festival was described by Bill Clinton in 2001 as The Woodstock of the mind, tony Benn said, In my mind its replaced Christmas. Florence continues to be director of the Festival, Hay-on-Wye was already well known for its many bookshops before the festival was launched. Richard Booth opened his first shop there in 1962, and by the 1970s Hay had gained the nickname The Town of Books. From its inception, the festival was held at a variety of venues around Hay, including the local Primary School, the Guardian was the main sponsor of the festival from 2002 to 2010, succeeding The Sunday Times. The Daily Telegraph and its brands in Telegraph Media Group are the current 3-year sponsors. The New York Times is currently a sponsor, along with the Telegraph and many companies such as Cardiff University. The festival has expanded over the years to include musical performances, a childrens festival, Hay Fever, runs alongside the main festival.
In 2009 Hay Festival took on the ailing Brecon Jazz Festival and it is run by a not-for-profit company, and entrance is free to students. The Hay Festival was one of 11 Welsh winners of The Queens Awards for Enterprise for 2009. Barrow, Martin Rees, Simon Singh, and general speakers Harry Belafonte, William Dalrymple, Stephen Fry, A. C. Grayling, Germaine Greer, Michael Ignatieff, and David Starkey. Sessions at the Hay Festival have been recorded for television and radio such as The Readers and Writers Roadshow
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London. Founded as a review of politics and literature on 12 April 1913, it was connected with Sidney and Beatrice Webb. The magazine, which today is a hybrid, according to its present self-description. The longest-serving editor was Kingsley Martin, the current editor is Jason Cowley, who assumed the post at the end of September 2008. The magazine has recognized and published new writers and critics. Its contributors have included John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, Virginia Woolf, Christopher Hitchens, the magazine was sometimes affectionately referred to as The Staggers because of crises in funding and circulation. The nickname is now used as the title of its politics blog, Circulation peaked in the mid-1960s but has surged in recent years. The magazine had an average circulation of 34,025 in 2016. Traffic to the website reached a new record high in June 2016, with 27 million page views. In September 2014, as part of its expansion, the magazine launched two new websites, the urbanism-focused CityMetric and May2015. com, a data and polling site.
The New Statesman was founded in 1913 by Sidney and Beatrice Webb with the support of George Bernard Shaw and its first editor was Clifford Sharp, who remained editor until 1928. Desmond MacCarthy joined the paper in 1913 and became literary editor, J C Squire edited the magazine when Sharp was on wartime duties during the First World War. It sold a phenomenal 75,000 copies by the end of the year, the New York Times reprinted it as America began its lengthy debate on entering what was called the European War. During Sharps last two years in the post, from around 1926, he was debilitated by chronic alcoholism, Lloyd stood in after Sharps departure until the appointment of Kingsley Martin as editor in 1930 – a position Martin was to hold for 30 years. Although the Webbs and most Fabians were closely associated with the Labour Party, in 1931 the New Statesman merged with the Liberal weekly The Nation and Athenaeum and changed its name to the New Statesman and Nation, which it kept until 1964.
It absorbed The Week-end Review in 1934, the Competition feature, in which readers submitted jokes and often parodies and pastiches of the work of famous authors, became one of the most famous parts of the magazine. Most famously, Graham Greene won second prize in a challenge to parody his own work, during the 1930s, Martins New Statesman moved markedly to the left politically. It became strongly anti-fascist and pacifist, opposing British rearmament, after the 1938 Anschluss, Martin wrote, Today if Mr
Dinosaurs, Myths and Monsters
Dinosaurs and Monsters is a 2011 British documentary film produced by the BBC. The film premiered on BBC Four on 14 September 2011, and is presented, jamie Muir served as the programmes director and producer. The duration of the film is an hour, the concept of the Cyclopes may have been derived from Greek encounters with elephant skulls. The Greeks, unfamiliar with living elephants, could have misinterpreted the skulls nose cavity as an eye socket. The film was produced three other dinosaur programmes, Planet Dinosaur, How to Build a Dinosaur, and Survivors. All four programmes were commissioned by Kim Shillinglaw, the BBCs commissioning editor for Science, jonathan Wright of The Guardian praised the programme, calling it precisely the kind of off-kilter but insightful documentary that explains why we need BBC Four. Rachel Cookes review in the New Statesman was more mixed, is, I must admit, increasingly limited. Overall, Cooke considered the film uneven, consisting of too little interesting material being stretched too far