Nikolaos Georgalis known as either Nikos Galis, or Nick Galis, is a retired Greek professional basketball player. He was named one of FIBA's 50 Greatest Players in 1991, is an inaugural member of the FIBA Hall of Fame and was chosen as one of the 50 Greatest EuroLeague Contributors in 2008. Galis is regarded as one of Europe's greatest scorers to play the game, as well as one of the all-time greatest players in FIBA international basketball history. In 2017, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Galis played the point guard position during his college basketball years at Seton Hall University, but turned into a shooting guard as a professional, he spent most of his career before having a late stint with Panathinaikos. He is the EuroLeague's all-time leader in points per game, leading the competition in scoring eight times. In the premier European club scene, he reached the EuroLeague Final Four on four occasions, three consecutive times with Aris, another one with Panathinaikos.
An eight-time Greek league champion, Galis is the Greek Championship's unofficial all-time leading scorer, in both career points scored and career scoring average, counting all league formats. Galis led the senior Greek national team to a EuroBasket gold medal in 1987, as well as to a EuroBasket silver medal in 1989, earning the tournament MVP honor in 1987, being elected to the All-EuroBasket Team four times. Among his myriad accomplishments, he holds the EuroBasket record for highest career scoring average, was the leading scorer of four EuroBasket tournaments in 1983, 1987, 1989, 1991. In addition to that, he holds the FIBA World Cup record for highest career scoring average, as well as for most points scored in a single tournament, which he set at the 1986 FIBA World Cup. Following the stunning success of the EuroBasket title in 1987, he won the Mr. Europa Player of the Year and the Euroscar awards the same year. Nicknamed "Iron Man", "Nick The Greek", "The Gangster", Galis is revered in Greece, where he is considered by many to be the greatest national athlete the country has seen.
His years at Aris lifted Greek basketball from relative obscurity, to global power status, with Galis being the figure that inspired thousands of Greeks to take up the game. Galis was born in New Jersey; the child of a poor immigrant family, from the Greek islands of Rhodes and Nisyros, Galis took up boxing in his early years, after his father, George Georgalis, a boxer in his youth. He was persuaded to give up boxing by his mother, Stella Georgalis, terrified after each time that her son would return home from boxing training with a new facial injury; as a result, Galis started playing the sport of basketball instead of boxing. He attended Union Hill High School, in Union City, where he played high school basketball. After high school, Galis enrolled at Seton Hall University, where he played college basketball as a member of the Seton Hall Pirates. In his senior season, Galis saw his scoring average reach 27.5 points per game, third in the nation, behind Idaho State's Lawrence Butler and Indiana State's Larry Bird, including a 48-point outburst against the University of Santa Clara.
In his senior year of college, Galis won the Haggerty Award, the Eastern College Athletic Conference Player of the Year award. The same year, he played in the Pizza Hut All-American game, alongside Bird and Vinnie Johnson. During his 4-year college career, Galis played in a total of 107 games and scored 1,651 points, for a career scoring average of 15.4 points per game. Galis' head coach at Seton Hall, Billy Raftery, would state that Galis was the best player he coached. While at Seton Hall, Galis was a good friend and roommate of Italian-American professional basketball player Dan Callandrillo. Galis was inducted into the Seton Hall Athletic Hall of Fame, in 1991. After finishing his collegiate career in 1979, Galis signed with agent Bill Manon, who managed Diana Ross. Manon did not have Galis work out with any NBA team. Galis was selected by the Boston Celtics in the 4th round of the 1979 NBA Draft, 68th overall. Due to a severe ankle injury that Galis suffered during the Celtics preseason training camp of the 1979–80 season, the franchise was no longer interested in offering him a contract because Gerald Henderson had taken his place on the team, his injury would keep him out for the foreseeable future.
Galis decided to pursue a professional career in Greece's top-tier level Basket League. While still playing in Greece, he would be offered NBA contracts by the Celtics and the New Jersey Nets. However, he turned the offers down, because at the time, until 1989, FIBA did not have professional status, did not allow NBA players to compete at the national team level. Since playing with the senior Greek national team meant so much to him, he stayed in Greece. Celtics then-president Red Auerbach said that the single biggest mistake he made in his career was not keeping Galis. After suffering an ankle injury in the Boston Celtics 1979–80 preseason training camp, which prevented him from receiving a contract with the Celtics, Galis made the move across the Atlantic, signed to play with Aris of Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1979. Panathinaikos and Olympiacos had shown some interest in sig
Raimondas Šarūnas Marčiulionis is a Lithuanian retired professional basketball player. Considered as one of the greatest international players, he was one of the first Europeans to become a regular in the National Basketball Association. On August 8, 2014, Marčiulionis was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. In the 1988 Summer Olympics, together with teammate Arvydas Sabonis, Marčiulionis led the senior USSR national team to the gold medal. With the senior Lithuanian national team, he won two Summer Olympics bronze medals, in 1992 and 1996, he was an All-Tournament Team member, the top scorer, the MVP of the EuroBasket 1995, he was elected to the All-EuroBasket Team in 1987. Marčiulionis is credited with bringing the Euro step move to the NBA. Marčiulionis was the second son of Laimutė, a geography teacher, Juozas, an engineer. Given that Laimutė aggravated her spinal injury, while giving birth to his sister Zita, her determination in having a son led to the middle name Šarūnas, invoking a legendary knight from Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius's works.
Growing up in Kaunas, Marčiulionis took up tennis while growing up, being an ambidextrous player, focused on forehands. Given his unorthodox technique, an bulky frame, he gave up on the sport. At the age of 13, following a hospitalization, caused by makeshift explosives, Marčiulionis changed to the sport of basketball. In the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, he and his friends had to build their own outdoor basketball court on a parking lot; as he moved to Vilnius, to study journalism at Vilnius State University of Vincas Kapsukas, try out for the Soviet junior national team, all Marčiulionis' parents could provide him was, "one bag containing a small amount of clothes, another full of apples.” While Marčiulionis attended college, he played basketball, but he attracted a scout from Statyba, of the USSR Premier League, in 1981. He would play with Statyba, in the USSR League, from 1981 to 1989. During a 1985 game against Athletes in Action, in Vilnius, Marčiulionis struck a friendship with one of the opponent players, Donnie Nelson, despite the language barrier.
Nelson's father, Don Nelson would be the head coach of the Golden State Warriors, what he said about Marčiulionis' skills led the Warriors to draft him, in the 6th round of the 1987 NBA draft. Stan Kasten and general manager of the Atlanta Hawks, managed to void the pick, by showing Marčiulionis was age 23, one year older than the age the draft rules limited for European players; the Hawks pursued Marčiulionis using then-owner Ted Turner's connections with the Soviet Union, inviting him and other Soviet players to their training camp, arranging for Hawks-USSR matches in Moscow, in 1988. While Marčiulionis signed a contract with Atlanta, the day after he won the gold medal in Seoul, the team wound up not submitting it to the National Basketball Association's offices, as the Soviets said they would not permit the player to leave. Nelson's influence helped Marčiulionis with his social projects in Vilnius, led him to remain with the Warriors, with whom he signed a three-year $3.8 million contract, in 1989.
Marčiulionis became the first Soviet player to join the North American league, played four years with the Warriors, finishing as the runner-up for the Sixth Man of the Year Award in 1992. Marčiulionis became one of the first Europeans to get significant playing time in the NBA, helping to lead the way for the internationalization of the league in the late 1990s. After missing a year-and-a-half with a leg injury, he was traded to the Seattle SuperSonics, in 1994 traded to the Sacramento Kings, in 1995, he finished his NBA career with the Denver Nuggets, in the 1996–97 season. In 1982 and 1983, Marčiulionis played sparingly with the Soviet juniors, he won a silver medal at the 1983 FIBA Under-19 World Cup, in Spain. Marčiulionis was the last man cut from the senior Soviet Union national basketball team training camps, until he got his chance with the senior team in 1987, having a breakout performance, while winning a silver medal at the EuroBasket 1987. Marčiulionis would be one of the standout players, as the Soviets won the gold medal at the 1988 Summer Olympics.
Following the restoration of Lithuanian independence, in 1990, Marčiulionis single-handed resurrected the senior Lithuanian national team. He contacted prospective players, encouraged several to join, selected the uniforms, negotiated a shoe deal, arranged for sponsorships, along with friend Donnie Nelson. Sponsor deals struck by him included Bank of America and the rock band Grateful Dead, who were interested in supporting Lithuania, after reading a story on Marčiulionis and the national team, in the San Francisco Chronicle; the Grateful Dead helped launch a line of tie-dyed jerseys, that would feature Lithuania's national colors, along with a slam dunking skeleton, created by New York artist Greg Speirs. Speirs became a major sponsor, when he donated 100% of his profits from his design, to fund the team, to Lithuanian children's charities, amounting to at least $450,000; the team went on to win a bronze medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Marčiulionis was again a bronze medalist with Lithuania, at the 1996 Summer Olympics.
In 1995, he was named the MVP of the 1995 FIBA EuroBasket, after leading Lithuania to a silver medal in the tournament. In 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, he was voted the best sportsman in Lithuania. With language barriers, Marčiulionis was a devoted teammate, active in the communities he played in. In 1987, he helped a Panevėžys man get an artificial
United States men's national basketball team
The USA Basketball Men's National Team known as the United States Men's National Basketball Team, is the most successful team in international competition, winning medals in all eighteen Olympic tournaments it has entered, coming away with fifteen golds. In the professional era, the team won the Olympic gold medal in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2008, 2012, 2016. Two of its gold medal-winning teams were inducted to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in August 2010 – the 1960 team, which featured six Hall of Famers, the 1992 "Dream Team", featuring 14 Hall of Famers; the team is ranked first in the FIBA World Rankings. Traditionally composed of amateur players, the U. S. dominated the first decades of international basketball, winning a record seven consecutive Olympic gold medals. However, by the end of the 1980s, American amateurs were no longer competitive against seasoned professionals from the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. In 1989, FIBA modified its rules and allowed USA Basketball to field teams with National Basketball Association players.
The first such team, known as the "Dream Team", won the gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, being superior in all matches. With the introduction of NBA players, the team was able to spark a second run of dominance in the 1990s. Facing increased competition, the U. S. failed finishing sixth. The 2004 Olympic team, being depleted by a number of withdrawals, lost three games on its way to a bronze medal, a record that represented more losses in a single year than the country's Olympic teams had suffered in all previous Olympiads combined. Determined to put an end to these failures, USA Basketball initiated a long-term project aimed at creating better, more cohesive teams; the U. S. won its first seven games at the 2006 FIBA World Championship in Japan before losing against Greece in the semi-finals. The team won gold two years – at the 2008 Summer Olympics – in a dominant fashion; this success was followed up at the 2010 FIBA World Championship, where despite fielding a roster featuring no players from the 2008 Olympic team, the U.
S. did not lose a single game en route to defeating host Turkey for the gold medal. The Americans continued this streak of dominance in the 2010s by going undefeated and capturing gold at the 2012 Summer Olympics, 2014 FIBA World Cup. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, the team, led by Mike Krzyzewski for a record third time, won its fifteenth gold medal, making him the most decorated coach in USA Basketball history; the US men were dominant from the first Olympic tournament to hold basketball, held in Berlin in 1936, going 5–0 to win the gold, joined by continental neighbors Canada and Mexico on the medal platform. Through the next six tournaments, the United States went undefeated, collecting gold while not losing a single contest in the games held in London, Melbourne, Rome and Mexico City. Participation in these tournaments were limited to amateurs, but the US teams during this period featured players who would go on to become superstars in professional basketball, including all-time greats Bill Russell, Oscar Robertson, Jerry West, Jerry Lucas.
S. roster until the formation of the 1992 Dream Team. Alex Groza and Ralph Beard, both NBA stars, made the 1948 squad as Kentucky Wildcats, with 3-time Oklahoma State All-American and 6-time AAU All-American, Hall of Famer Bob Kurland leading the way; the 1952 team included big man Clyde Lovellette of the University of Kansas, a future Hall of Famer and NBA star. Kurland once again led the team to victory; the 1956 team was led by San Francisco Dons Bill Russell and K. C. Jones; the 1960 team included nine future NBA players, including not just Robertson and West, but Bob Boozer, Adrian Smith, Jay Arnette, Terry Dischinger, Rookie of the Year in 1963, another Hall of Famer in Walt Bellamy. The 1972 Olympic men's basketball gold medal game, marking the first loss for the USA in Olympic play, is arguably the most controversial in Olympic history; the United States rode their seven consecutive gold medals and 63–0 Olympic record to Munich for the 1972 Summer Olympics. The team won its first eight games in convincing fashion, setting up a final against the Soviet Union, holding a 6–0 advantage over the Soviets in Olympic play.
With three seconds left in the gold medal game, American forward Doug Collins sank two free throws to put the Americans up 50–49. Following Collins' free throws, the Soviets inbounded the ball and failed to score. Soviet coaches claimed; the referees ordered the clock reset to three seconds and the game's final seconds replayed. The horn sounded as a length-of-the-court Soviet pass was being released from the inbounding player, the pass missed its mark, the American players began celebrating. Final three seconds were replayed for a third time; this time, the Soviets' Alexander Belov and the USA's Kevin Joyce and Jim Forbes went up for the pass, Belov caught the long pass from Ivan Edeshko near the American basket. Belov laid the ball in for the winning points as the buzzer sounded; the US players voted unanimously to refuse their silver medals, at least one team member, Kenny Davis, has directed in his will that his heirs are never to accept the medals posthumously. It was revealed that game officials might have been bribed by the Communist party.
After the controversial loss in Munich, 1976 saw Dean Smith coach the USA to a 7–0 record and its eighth Olympic gold medal in Montreal. The success at this tou
Richard Vincent Guerin is an American retired professional basketball player and coach. He played with the National Basketball Association's New York Knicks from 1956 to 1963 and was a player-coach of the St. Louis/Atlanta Hawks franchise where he spent nine years. On February 15, 2013, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame announced that Guerin had been elected as one of its 2013 inductees, he served in the Marine Corps Reserve from 1947 to 1954. While a reservist, Guerin attended Iona College from 1950 to 1954 where he scored 1,375 points in 67 games playing for coach Jim McDermott. After graduation, Guerin served on active duty at Marine Corps Schools, Virginia for two years; the Knicks drafted Guerin with the 8th pick in the second round of the 1954 NBA draft while still on active duty. After leaving the Marine Corps, Guerin would begin his professional basketball career in 1956; as a high-scoring point guard in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Richie Guerin was one of the most talented and best-loved players to wear a New York Knicks jersey.
His feisty on-court style and wisecracking off-court demeanor played well to Madison Square Garden crowds. Guerin was a machinelike scorer, a gifted passer, a smart playmaker, one of the best rebounding and driving guards of his era, he led the Knicks in assists for five consecutive seasons and in scoring three times during his seven full seasons in the Big Apple, he tallied more than 20 points per game in four consecutive years. The explosive Guerin set Knicks single-game records for scoring, with 57 points in 1959, assists, with 21 in 1958, his 57-point game stood as a Knicks record until Bernard King scored 60 on Christmas Day in 1984. A fan and media favorite, Guerin played in six consecutive NBA All-Star Games; as a team, New York struggled, reaching the playoffs only once during Guerin's tenure. He was traded to the St. Louis Hawks midway through the 1963–64 season and spent the next eight years as the team's player-coach and head coach. With St. Louis, Guerin played alongside such greats as Bob Pettit, Lou Hudson, Lenny Wilkens, Cliff Hagan.
Guerin helped the Hawks to nine consecutive playoff appearances and was named NBA Coach of the Year for 1967–68. Guerin grew up in the Bronx and stayed close to home when he enrolled at Iona College in 1950 where he played center for coach Jim McDermott. New York selected him in the 1954 NBA draft, but Guerin could not join the Knicks until he had completed two years of service in the Marines. New York was struggling through the mid-1950s near the bottom of the Eastern Division. Among the only bright spots during that period were high-scoring guard Carl Braun, point guard Dick McGuire, center Harry Gallatin. Turnover on the team was high. Guerin joined the club in 1956 and established himself. In only his second season he made the NBA All-Star Team for the first of six straight years. In his third year Guerin ranked second in scoring, he dished out a team-record 21 assists against St. Louis on December 12, 1958; the 21 assists he totaled were Madison Square Garden high until John Stockton broke the record 41 years later.
That year New York made its only postseason appearance with Guerin on the team, losing to the Syracuse Nationals in a first-round sweep. By Guerin's fourth year in the league he had established himself as a scoring machine, he threw in outside bombs and slashed inside for layups on his way to a team-leading 21.8 points per game in 1959–60. His 57 points against Syracuse on December 11 broke Braun's previous team record of 47. In 1960–61 Guerin again averaged 21.8 points, adding 7.9 rebounds and 6.4 assists per contest. He had his finest season in 1961–62, averaging 29.5 points and a career-high 6.9 assists in a remarkable 42.9 minutes per game. Guerin ranked sixth in the league in scoring and fourth in assists, he became the first Knicks player to score 2,000 points in a season. By the end of the campaign Guerin had established himself among the league's backcourt elite, he was named to the All-NBA Second Team for the third time in his first six seasons. Guerin had another fine season in 1962 -- 63.
He ranked seventh in the league in scoring, eighth in assists, second in free-throw percentage. But two games into the 1963–64 season the Knicks traded their 31-year-old star to the St. Louis Hawks for cash and a second-round draft choice; when he left the Knicks, Guerin ranked second on the team's all-time scoring list behind Carl Braun. In his first appearance at the Garden in a Hawks uniform, Knicks fans showed their gratitude by giving Guerin a five-minute standing ovation. Guerin joined a Hawks team loaded with offensive weapons, his production dropped accordingly to 13.1 points per game in 1963–64. Midway through the 1964–65 campaign, Guerin became the Hawks' 10th coach in nine years, replacing Harry Gallatin as player-coach. St. Louis had gone 17–16 under Gallatin, the team went 28–19 under Guerin; the Hawks earned a playoff spot but lost to the Baltimore Bullets in a hard-fought division semifinal series. Under Guerin's direction the Hawks reached the playoffs in each of the next seven seasons.
Guerin played two more full seasons, averaging 14.9 points in 1965–66 and 13.8 in 1966–67. After the Seattle expansion team drafted him in 1967, he announced his retirement as a player, preferring to direct all of his energies toward coaching, guiding the Hawks to a 56–26 record and the Western Division championship and being named NBA Coach of the Year for 1967–1968; the Hawks moved to Atlanta prior to the 1968–69 season, Seattle traded him back, allowing him to return to playing as a reserve player, guiding the Hawks to
Carlton is a city in Yamhill County, United States. The population was 2,007 at the 2010 census; the origin of Carlton's name is disputed. An ex-county commissioner claims that the name was derived from Wilson Carl, whereas A. E. Bones, postmaster at Carlton, stated in a 1925 letter that it was named for John Carl, Sr. at the request of R. R. Thompson; these men may have been part of the same family. Carlton post office was established with F. J. Fryer serving as its first postmaster. Actual history of Carlton, Oregon: Prior to the post office inside the city of Carlton, Wilson Carl, owned the original Post Office, Stagecoach stop, Blacksmith shop, for the area, about 7 miles West of Carlton, his home was known as Mountain House. Wilson Carl was the original postmaster. Wilson Carl traveled with Dr. Joel Knight, on the Oregon Trail, to the area, as witnessed in the diary of Amelia Stewart Knight. Wilson Carl negotiated with the railroad in Oregon, to build closer to his property. Since the original plot was over the mountain West of Carlton, it was a matter of convenience for the railroad to build where it presently is, because negotiating the mountain was not feasible.
The population of Carlton expanded to become the city of Carlton, around the railroad. The city is named after Wilson Carl, was called Carl's town, and, a few other variations of his name were used before the name became Carlton. Wilson Carl began as a pioneer carpenter/builder and shoemaker who became a wealthy land owner, who built a portion of what is now Linfield College, in McMinnville, was founder of the Republican Party in McMinnville, County Commissioner, and, at one time owned the property that the Yamhill County Courthouse presently sits on; the original post office still exists on his original homestead and plot of land, though it has since been used as a residence for his heirs and is unoccupied. There is further information about the name variations used for Carlton, in a former Oregon Blue Book. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.88 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,007 people, 702 households, 541 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,280.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 769 housing units at an average density of 873.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.6% White, 0.2% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 2.5% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.8% of the population. There were 702 households of which 43.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 22.9% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.22. The median age in the city was 34.3 years. 30.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.9% male and 50.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,514 people, 540 households, 412 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,745.1 people per square mile. There were 578 housing units at an average density of 666.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.81% White, 0.13% African American, 1.59% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 3.24% from other races, 2.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.62% of the population. There were 540 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.7% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.23. In the town the population was spread out with 31.3% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,827, the median income for a family was $45,972. Males had a median income of $35,577 versus $23,661 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,850. About 4.5% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. Residents are zoned to the Yamhill Carlton School District, headquartered in Yamhill. Yamhill Carlton Elementary School is located in Carlton, Yamhill Carlton Intermediate School and Yamhill Carlton High School are in Yamhill. Matt Marshall, golfer Peter Broderick, musician Media related to Carlton, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons Entry for Carlton in the Oregon Blue Book
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Allen Ezail Iverson, nicknamed "The Answer", is an American former professional basketball player. He played for fourteen seasons in the National Basketball Association at both the shooting guard and point guard positions. Iverson was an eleven-time NBA All-Star, won the All-Star game MVP award in 2001 and 2005, was the NBA's Most Valuable Player in 2001, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2016. Iverson attended Bethel High School in Hampton and was a dual-sport athlete, he earned the Associated Press High School Player of the Year award in both football and basketball, won the Division AAA Virginia state championship in both sports. After high school, Iverson played college basketball with the Georgetown Hoyas for two years, where he set the school record for career scoring average and won Big East Defensive Player of the Year awards both years. Following two successful years at Georgetown, Iverson declared eligibility for the 1996 NBA draft, was selected by the Philadelphia 76ers with the first overall pick.
He was named the NBA Rookie of the Year in the 1996–97 season. Winning the NBA scoring title during the 1998–99, 2000–01, 2001–02, 2004–05 seasons, Iverson was one of the most prolific scorers in NBA history, despite his small stature, his regular season career scoring average of 26.7 points per game ranks seventh all-time, his playoff career scoring average of 29.7 points per game is second only to Michael Jordan. Iverson was the NBA Most Valuable Player of the 2000–01 season and led his team to the 2001 NBA Finals the same season. Iverson represented the United States at the 2004 Summer Olympics. In his career, Iverson played for the Denver Nuggets, Detroit Pistons, the Memphis Grizzlies, before ending his NBA career with the 76ers during the 2009–10 season, he was rated the fifth greatest NBA shooting guard of all time by ESPN in 2008. He finished his career in Turkey with Beşiktaş in 2011, he returned as a player-coach for 3's Company in the inaugural season of the BIG3. Allen Iverson was born on June 7, 1975 in Hampton, Virginia to a single 15-year-old mother, Ann Iverson, was given his mother's maiden name after his father Allen Broughton left her.
He grew up in the projects of Virginia where drugs and crime were the social norms. During his early childhood years, he was loved by the neighborhood kids and was given the nickname "Bubba Chuck." A childhood friend, Jaime Rogers, said that Iverson would always look out for the younger kids and that "He could teach anybody." At the age of thirteen his father figure in his life, Michael Freeman, was arrested in front of him for dealing drugs. He failed the eighth grade because of absences and moved to Hampton, Virginia to get out of the projects, he attended Bethel High School, where he started as quarterback for the school football team, while playing running back, kick returner, defensive back. He started at point guard for the school basketball team. During his junior year, Iverson was able to lead both teams to Virginia state championships, as well as earning The Associated Press High School Player of the Year award in both sports. Iverson played for the Boo Williams AAU basketball team and won the 1992 17-and-under AAU national championship.
On February 14, 1993, Iverson and several of his friends were involved in an altercation with several patrons at a bowling alley in Hampton, Virginia. Iverson's crowd was raucous and had to be asked to quiet down several times, a shouting duel began with another group of youths. Shortly after that, a huge fight erupted. During the fight, Iverson struck a woman in the head with a chair. He, three of his friends, who were black, were the only people arrested. Iverson, 17 at the time, was convicted as an adult of the felony charge of maiming by mob, a used Virginia statute, designed to combat lynching. Many people around the Virginian area believed the incident to be a product of racial prejudice; the brawl was with Poquoson High School white students who were known for "not liking black people." A videotape surfaced of the incident that shows Iverson leaving shortly after the fighting began. Iverson said of the incident:For me to be in a bowling alley where everybody in the whole place know who I am and be crackin' people upside the head with chairs and think nothin' gonna happen?
That's crazy! And what kind of a man would I be to hit a girl in the head with a damn chair? I rather have'em say, they waited eight months to try Iverson as an adult, the lead detective lied on the stand about telling Iverson "to take pictures" when he went down to the courthouse. The count said that Iverson maimed three people, a sixty-year sentence. Iverson drew a 15-year prison sentence, with 10 years suspended. After Iverson spent four months at Newport News City Farm, a correctional facility in Newport News, he was granted clemency by Virginia Governor Douglas Wilder, the Virginia Court of Appeals overturned the conviction in 1995 for insufficient evidence; this incident and its impact on the community is explored in the documentary film No Crossover: The Trial of Allen Iverson. "They wanted to make an example out of Iverson," said Iverson's high school basketball coach. "Only defendants not given bond are capital murderers" said James Elleson, Iverson's lawyer. Tom Brockaw and the public played a huge role in the release of Iverson.
There were rallies and marches for all four black men that were incarcerated, Tom Brockaw did a special interview with Iverson from the jail. In th