The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Highway to Heaven
Highway to Heaven is an American television drama series that ran on NBC from 1984 to 1989. The series aired for five seasons, it was shot entirely in California. The series starred Michael Landon as Jonathan Smith, Victor French—Landon's co-star from Little House on the Prairie—as Mark Gordon. Jonathan Smith is an angel, stripped of his wings and is now "on probation", sent to Earth. In the pilot, he meets a retired policeman now bouncing from job to job. At first distrustful of Jonathan, Mark comes to realize the true nature of him and is given a job. Jonathan and Mark are given assignments by "The Boss", where they are required to use their humanity to help various troubled souls overcome their problems; these problems include families dealing with sick loved ones. Each episode begins with Jonathan and Mark arriving in a new city and assuming the identities of business employees or civil service workers. Due to Jonathan's angelic nature, the two are able to adopt positions such as police officers, medical personnel, social workers, or other skilled employees without any check of their background or verification of their employment history.
This allows for a variety of scenarios into which the two find themselves inserted. Both Jonathan and Mark faced the same difficulties as people on Earth trying to rectify these problems, had little to help them after the Boss' tutorial. Jonathan did have exceptional physical strength, but he only used it for manual labor or for self-defense when attacked by muggers. In certain times Jonathan would present gifts to others, such as decorating a drab nursing home with flowers or giving someone a bicycle; these material gifts came from the Boss or Jonathan's superiors, but when asked, he truthfully answered "A friend of mine provided them". However, in rare situations, The Boss would help the protagonists with "The Stuff", at times of extreme duress or a reward for making excellent progress on the mission; the series aimed to address contemporary social and emotional issues with sensitivity, with humor between Jonathan and Mark. Their personalities clash, but they always support each other. Jonathan's mission on Earth is to do enough good in order to regain his wings and ascend to heaven.
As Jonathan and Mark develop a close relationship and Jonathan is in better favor with his superiors, Mark was torn with himself between losing his best friend as opposed to being happy for Jonathan's reinstatement in Heaven, considered impeding the process. Guest stars Devon Odessa, Alyson Croft, Joshua John Miller all won Young Artist Awards for their appearances. Landon's Bonanza co-star Lorne Greene appeared in a 1985 episode. Landon's Little House on the Prairie co-star Matthew Laborteaux appeared in the season one episode "The Right Thing". Moses Gunn, who co-starred on Little House and starred on Father Murphy, appeared in the season two episode "Popcorn and Cracker Jacks". Barbara Stuart appeared as Carla in the 1986 two-part episode "Love and Marriage". In his last roles, Tyler McVey appeared in separate episodes in 1986 as a minister. Don Keefer portrayed Dr. Washburn in the 1986 episode "For the Love of Larry". Anthony Zerbe starred in the episode "The Devil and Jonathan Smith", playing a slave of the Devil whose mission was the exact opposite of Jonathan's.
In season one's two-part episode, "The Thoroughbred", Helen Hunt starred as a young and expectant mother with cancer, as did Richard Bull, who co-starred on "Little House". In season three's "Code Name: Freak", a young Jeff B. Davis, known for his appearances on Whose Line is it Anyway?, guest starred as a twelve-year-old child genius in college. The episode "Wally" guest stars Dick Van Dyke as a hobo with a puppet show who used all his money to help others; the season one episode "One Winged Angel" guest stars Wil Wheaton as Max. In season three a young Paul Walker starred in two episodes. Filming locations included Los Angeles, Simi Valley, Stanislaus National Forest, Tuolumne County, all in California. In addition, the pilot episode from 1984 was filmed along Dawn Road, south of Tucson, Arizona; the footage of Jonathan walking before being picked up by Mark was filmed in Tucson and along Soledad Canyon Road near Acton, California. The Second Season episode "To Bind The Wounds" was filmed at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Tucson, Arizona where the World War 2 B-25 Mitchell Bomber was located.
Mark's car, central to travel by Mark and Jonathan in the series, was a 1977 Ford LTD II. The theme for Highway to Heaven was composed by David Rose. In June 1988 in the midst of the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike, NBC decided that season five would be Highway to Heaven's last, since the show was falling in the ratings; the show's 5th-season premiere aired in the fall. A two-h
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Gimme a Break!
Gimme a Break! is an American sitcom that aired on NBC for six seasons from October 29, 1981 until May 12, 1987. The series starred Nell Carter as the housekeeper for a widowed police chief and his three daughters; the sitcom takes place in Glenlawn, a fictional suburb, located in either central or northern California. Nellie Ruth "Nell" Harper agrees to look after the Kanisky household as a special favor to her dying friend Margaret Huffman Kanisky, the wife of police chief Carl Kanisky, serving as a parental figure to the Chief's three teenage daughters, Katie and Samantha. A foster son, was added to the Kanisky household in Season 3. Five episodes into the sixth and final season, the show changed locales from Glenlawn to New York City, when Nell, concerned for Joey's welfare after he moved there with his absentee father, traveled there to check on him, she subsequently assumed guardianship of Joey and his younger brother Matthew at their father's request and was forced to permanently relocate there after Chief Kanisky's father Stanley sold the family's Glenlawn home.
Over the six-year run, a number of celebrities appeared on the show, including singers Whitney Houston, Andy Gibb, Sammy Davis, Jr. Ray Parker Jr. and The Pointer Sisters. More than not, the guest singers would perform a song with Nell on the episodes. During the third season, Pat Sajak guest-starred as himself when Nell and her friend Addy were contestants on Wheel of Fortune. Other notable guest stars included Milton Berle, Danny Glover, Rue McClanahan, Tony Randall, Helen Hunt, Don Rickles, Gwen Verdon, Dennis Haysbert, Ernie Hudson, Gary Collins, Elizabeth Berkley; the episode "Cat Story" was performed and broadcast live on March 2, 1985, as a promotional gimmick, which the cast performed without major incident. An earlier episode, "Baby of the Family," ranked No. 38 on TV Land's list of "The 100 Most Unexpected TV Moments. The location of Glenlawn is never clarified, various contradictory location information is presented during the series. Seaons 3 episode "James Returns" states that Glenlawn is "over 300 miles" from Santa Barbara, "The Mayor", an episode from the same season, shows the chief boasting that a new police car could make it to Sacramento in 23 minutes.
These would place Glenlawn somewhere near Stockton. However, another episode from Season 3, "Flashback", placed the town an hour away from Fresno, in the direction of Bakersfield. In another episode where exterior shooting took place, GlenLawn is on the ocean with palm trees; the proximity to the Bay Area is supported by season episodes where Katie moves to San Francisco and Julie moves to nearby San Jose. Nell Carter as Nellie Ruth "Nell" Harper. Nell was a singer from Tuscaloosa County, Alabama who ran away from home when she was 18, she met and became friends with Margaret Kanisky and promised to look after her family after she had died from cancer. In keeping her promise, Nell took on the role of housekeeper and mother to the kids and remained in the series for the entire 6-year run, she became a foster mother to Joey Donovan in Season 3. Nell moved to Greenwich Village in New York City in Season 6 with Joey and Addy and worked as an assistant editor for a publishing company. Dolph Sweet as Police Chief Carl "Chief" Kanisky.
Police Chief Carl Kanisky, known as "the Chief," was a widower with three teenage daughters. After Dolph Sweet's death on May 8, 1985, his character of the Chief was written out of the series as having died, the show continued with Nell taking over as head of the household. Kari Michaelsen as Kathleen "Katie" Kanisky; the Chief's eldest daughter, portrayed as being promiscuous. She opened a boutique called Katie's Korner. After her boutique went out of business, she was written out of the series as having obtained a job in San Francisco, her last appearance was the first episode of Season 6. Lauri Hendler as Julie Kanisky Maxwell; the Chief's middle daughter, portrayed as being intelligent. She married Jonathan Maxwell at the end of Season 4 and became pregnant in Season 5. In the Season 6 premiere, after Nell Maxwell had been born, the new three-member Maxwell family moved to San Jose and was therefore written out of the series. Lara Jill Miller as Samantha "Sam" Kanisky; the Chief's youngest daughter, portrayed as a typical tomboy in her preteen years but developed into a boy-crazy teenager.
She moved to Warren County, New Jersey to go to Littlefield College and had a recurring role in Season 6. John Hoyt as Stanley "Grandpa" Kanisky; the Chief's crusty but lovable Polish immigrant father. After his wife died, Grandpa Kanisky came to live with his son and granddaughters in Season 3. In Season 6 he moved into the same building as Nell. Joey Lawrence as Joey Donovan, who became Nell's foster son. Joey became a key cast member, his father Tim Donovan appeared on the show in New York City. Joey met his little brother and moved in with Tim at the beginning of season 6 but soon afterwards was reunited with Nell and lived with her and Addy in New York City. Howard Morton as Office
Friday the 13th Part 2
Friday the 13th Part 2 is a 1981 American slasher film produced and directed by Steve Miner in his directorial debut, the second installment in the Friday the 13th film series. It is a direct sequel to Friday the 13th, picking up five years after that film's conclusion, where a new murderer stalks and begins murdering the camp counselors at a nearby training camp in Crystal Lake, it stars Amy Steel as Ginny Field and both Steve Daskawisz and Warrington Gillette as Jason Voorhees. The film features the return of Adrienne King, Betsy Palmer and Walt Gorney to the series, who portrayed Alice Hardy, Pamela Voorhees, Crazy Ralph in the prior installment. Friday the 13th Part 2 was not intended to be a direct sequel but rather part of an anthology series of films based on the Friday the 13th superstition. Like the original film, Friday the 13th Part 2 faced opposition from the Motion Picture Association of America, who noted its "accumulative violence" as problematic, resulting in numerous cuts being made to allow an R rating.
The film was released theatrically in North America on April 30, 1981. Although it did not gross as much as the original and still received negative reviews, the sequel grossed over $21.7 million in the United States on a budget of $1.25 million. Two months after the murders at Camp Crystal Lake, sole survivor Alice Hardy is recovering from her traumatic experience. In her apartment, she wakes up to take a shower; as Alice opens the refrigerator to get her cat some food, she finds the decapitated head of Pamela Voorhees in her refrigerator and is murdered by an unknown assailant with an ice pick to her temple. Five years camp counselor Paul Holt hosts a counselor training camp near Camp Crystal Lake; the camp is attended by Sandra, her boyfriend Jeff, troublemaker Scott, tomboy Terry, wheelchair-bound Mark, sweet-natured Vickie, jokester Ted, Paul's assistant Ginny Field, as well as many other trainees. Around the campfire that night, Paul tells the counselors about the legend of Jason Voorhees, of how he survived his drowning, grew up living in the woods, is now seeking to kill any intruders to avenge his mother's death.
As Ted appears with a mask and a spear, Paul reassures everyone that Jason is dead and that Camp Crystal Lake is off limits. That night, Crazy Ralph wanders onto the property to warn the group but is garroted from behind a tree; the following day and Sandra sneak off to Camp Crystal Lake upon finding a carcass, before getting caught by Deputy Winslow and returned to the camp. Winslow spots someone masked in a burlap sack running across the road and chases him into the woods and to a shack before he is killed with a hammer claw. Back at camp, Paul offers the others one last night on the town. At the bar, Ginny muses that if Jason were still alive and witnessed his mother's death, it may have left him with no distinction between life and death, right or wrong. Paul dismisses the idea. Meanwhile, the assailant kills the counselors one by one. Scott has his throat slit with a machete while caught in a rope trap, Terry is killed off-screen upon finding his dead body. Mark gets the machete falls down a flight of stairs.
The killer moves upstairs and impales Jeff and Sandra with a spear as they have sex, stabs Vickie with a kitchen knife. Ginny and Paul return to find the place in disarray. In the dark, the killer ambushes Paul and chases Ginny throughout the camp and into the woods, where she comes across the shack. After barricading herself inside, she finds an altar with Pamela Voorhees' head on it, surrounded by a pile of bodies. Realizing that Jason Voorhees is the killer, Ginny puts on Pamela's sweater and tries to psychologically convince Jason that she is his mother; the ruse fails. Paul appears and attacks Jason, but he is overwhelmed. Just as Jason is about to kill Paul with a pickaxe, Ginny picks up the machete and slams it down into his shoulder killing him. Paul and Ginny return to the cabin, they think that Jason has followed them, but when they open the door, they are greeted by Terry's dog, Muffin. An unmasked Jason bursts through the window from behind and grabs Ginny, she awakens to her being loaded into an ambulance and calls out for Paul, nowhere to be seen and his fate left ambiguous.
Back in the shack, Pamela Voorhees' head remains on the altar. Following the success of Friday the 13th in 1980, Paramount Pictures began plans to make a sequel. First acquiring the worldwide distribution rights, Frank Mancuso, Sr. stated, "We wanted it to be an event, where teenagers would flock to the theaters on that Friday night to see the latest episode." The initial ideas for a sequel involved the "Friday the 13th" title being used for a series of films, released once a year, that would not have direct continuity with one another but be a separate "scary movie" of their own right. Phil Scuderi—one of three owners of Esquire Theaters, along with Steve Minasian and Bob Barsamian, who produced the original film—insisted that the sequel have Jason Voorhees, Pamela's son though his appearance in the original film was only meant to be a joke. Steve Miner, associate producer on the first film, believed in the idea and would go o
Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins
Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins released as Remo: Unarmed and Dangerous, is a 1985 American action-adventure-thriller film directed by Guy Hamilton. The film featured Joel Grey, Wilford Brimley and Kate Mulgrew; the character is based on The Destroyer pulp paperback series. The movie was the only adaptation featuring the character Remo Williams, fared poorly in theaters, it received mixed reviews from critics. The film and a Remo Williams television pilot both credited Dick Clark as executive producer; the film was supposed to be the first of a series based on The Destroyer series of novels. A significant setpiece within the film takes place at the Statue of Liberty, surrounded by scaffolding for its restoration during this period. Sam Makin is a tough New York City street cop and Vietnam-era Marine Corps veteran, he is unwillingly recruited as an assassin for a secret United States organization, CURE. The recruitment is through a bizarre method: his death is faked and he is given a new face and a new name.
Rechristened "Remo Williams", his face is surgically altered and he is trained to be a human killing machine by his aged and impassive Korean martial arts master Chiun. Though Remo's training is rushed by Chiun's standards, Remo learns such skills as dodging bullets, running on water and wet cement. Chiun teaches Remo the Korean martial art named "Sinanju". Remo's instruction is interrupted when he is sent by CURE to investigate a corrupt weapons procurement program within the US Army. Orion Pictures, who had launched the James Bond series at United Artists was open about their vision for the film, seeing it as the first in a series that would create "a red and blue-collar Bond", they signed Ward to star in three movies in the envsioned series. Orion hired veterans of the Bond series to work on the film, English director Guy Hamilton and screenwriter Christopher Wood; the LA Times noted that Hamilton and Wood's end result while "downplaying the violence and uplifting the humor, have delivered a welcome and breezy alternative to the mayhem and genocide of Rambo and Commando."
Hopes for a series were dashed when the box office results were disappointing, earning only $3.4 million in 1,170 theaters in its first four days. On the casting of the white actor Joel Grey, who went through four and a half hours of make-up everyday to look like an elderly Korean, producer Larry Spiegel claimed "We assumed, of course, that we would be using an oriental actor. We couldn`t find one and I thought of Grey."Ward performed most of the stunts himself including the scene on the giant ferris wheel shot on Deno's Wonder Wheel located at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park at Coney Island, in Brooklyn. In an interview screenwriter Christopher Wood expressed his opinion of why the film did not succeed at the box office, he questioned the choice of Fred Ward whom he thought was a good actor but not leading man material, saying he thought Ed Harris, up for the role might have had more appeal. He went on to say "I had written a slam bang action finale, cut for budgetary reasons; that didn’t help."
For the Statue of Liberty scenes, a replica of the Statue's torso and arm was built in Mexico. The shots of the replica were intercut with footage shot at the real Statue of Liberty; the soundtrack features an instrumental score written by composer Craig Safan, released by Perseverance Records on CD on August 7, 2006 and reissued by Intrada Records. However, the title song, Remo's Theme and sung by Styx member Tommy Shaw, is not included on that album. Shaw released the song as a solo artist on his 1985 album. Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins... opened on October 11, 1985 and earned $3,376,971 in its opening weekend, ranking #4 at the United States box office. By the end of its run, the film grossed $14,393,902 in the domestic box office; the film received mixed responses from critics. It holds a raitng of 41% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 17 reviews; the film was nominated for the Academy Award for Academy Award for Best Makeup at the 58th Academy Awards, but lost to Mask. Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins... on IMDb Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins at Rotten Tomatoes