Lori Elaine Lightfoot is an American politician, elected Mayor of Chicago in 2019. She has worked in private legal practice as a partner at Mayer Brown and held various government positions in the City of Chicago, most notably as former President of the Chicago Police Board and chair of the Chicago Police Accountability Task Force, she is a member of the Democratic Party. Lightfoot ran for Mayor of Chicago in 2019, advancing to a runoff election against Toni Preckwinkle in the February 2019 election, she defeated Preckwinkle in the runoff on April 2, 2019. Lightfoot is the first black female and first gay leader of the city, which will now be the largest in United States history to have an LGBTQ mayor, again the largest U. S. city to be headed by a woman. She is the second woman to be elected mayor of Chicago and the first woman to hold the office since the four-year term of Jane Byrne ended in 1983. Lightfoot was born in Massillon, the youngest of four children of a healthcare aide and school board member mother and a factory worker and janitor father.
She grew up in a white neighborhood on the west side of the city. She is a graduate of Washington High School in Massillon, where she was a trumpet player in the school band, point guard on the basketball team, yearbook editor, Pep Club member, she was elected high school class president three times. Her high school alumni association named her a "Distinguished Citizen" in 2013. While in high school, Lightfoot helped organize a boycott of her school's lunch program over the quality of its pizza. Lightfoot received her Bachelor of Arts in political science from University of Michigan in 1984, graduating with honors, she worked seven jobs to afford her education, including working as a resident assistant. She worked factory jobs at home during summers to help pay for her education. While Lightfoot was an undergraduate, her older brother was arrested in connection with a bank robbery. Lightfoot took jobs working for Congress members Ralph Regula and Barbara Mikulski before deciding to attend law school.
She has said she chose to attend law school not because of her brother's legal troubles, but because she wanted a job that offered financial independence. She matriculated at University of Chicago Law School; as president of the University of Chicago Law School's student body, she led a successful movement to ban a law firm from campus after the firm sent a recruiter who made racist and sexist remarks towards a student. Lightfoot quarterbacked an intramural flag football team while at Chicago Law School. Lightfoot served as a clerk for Justice Charles Levin of the Michigan Supreme Court, she graduated from University of Chicago with her Juris Doctor degree in 1989. After graduating law school, Lightfoot became a practicing attorney at the Mayer Brown law firm. During this time, she defended large corporate clients, Republican politicians, clients accused of racial discrimination against African-Americans. Lightfoot first entered the public sector as Assistant United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois.
During her mayoral campaign, Lightfoot cited several reasons for entering public service, including a desire to represent the African-American community, a sense of injustice based on the murder of a family member by a Ku Klux Klan member in the 1920s, her older brother's struggles with the law. While working as a federal prosecutor, Lightfoot helped to prosecute those accused of federal crimes, including drug crimes, she assisted with an FBI investigation into Chicago corruption. She helped to convict alderman Virgil Jones. In 1999, Lightfoot was issued a warning for misconduct by judge Richard Posner in a case in which she was found by the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit to have misled a United States Circuit Judge regarding a suspect's whereabouts, making it impossible for the judge to stay the suspect's extradition to Norway. Lightfoot and the Justice Department at the time disputed this characterization of her actions. In 2002, Lightfoot was appointed chief administrator of the Chicago Police Department Office of Professional Standards, a now-defunct governmental police oversight group, by Police Superintendent Terry Hillard.
She held the position for two years. In the position, she was charged with investigating possible cases of police misconduct, including police shootings of civilians. However, a Chicago Tribune report found that the Office of Professional Standards' investigations lacked thoroughness. Lightfoot says her recommendations for disciplinary action were rejected by the police department. In one notable case, Lightfoot went against Police Department orthodoxy by recommending the firing of officer Alvin Weems, who shot and killed an unarmed man, Michael Pleasance. Weems was believed to have accidentally shot Pleasance, but after video evidence contradicting the initial claims was revealed Weems himself expressed feeling that the shooting was unjustified. Weems was not fired by the Chicago Police Department, but the city was forced to pay a settlement to the Pleasance family. Weems committed suicide. In another controversial case where officer Phyllis Clinkscales shot and killed unarmed 17-year-old Robert Washington, the Chicago Tribune reported that Lightfoot determined that the shooting was justified.
In doing so, the Tribune said she reversed the order of her predecessor, who had called for Clinkscales' firing. Clinkscales' account of the events of the shooting had been found to contain untrue statements in an investigation. Lightfoot disputes this account of Clinkscales' case, saying that the police superintendent at the time was responsible for declining Lightfoot's predecessor's finding that the
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Joliet is a city in Will and Kendall counties in the U. S. state of Illinois, 30 miles southwest of Chicago. It is a major part of the southwest Chicago metropolitan area. At the 2010 census, the city was the fourth largest in Illinois, with a population of 147,433. A population estimate in 2018 put Joliet's population at 150,495, which would make it the 3rd largest city in Illinois if accurate. In 1673, Louis Jolliet, along with Father Jacques Marquette, paddled up the Des Plaines River and camped on a huge mound, a few miles south of present-day Joliet. Maps from Jolliet's exploration of the area, placed a large hill or mound on what is now the southwest corner of the city, since there is no point, farther southwest; that hill was named Mound Jolliet. The spot is now a depression. In 1833, following the Black Hawk War, Charles Reed built a cabin along the west side of the Des Plaines River. Across the river in 1834, James B. Campbell, treasurer of the canal commissioners, laid out the village of "Juliet", named after his daughter.
Just before the economic depression of 1837, Juliet incorporated as a village, but to cut tax expenses, Juliet residents soon petitioned the state to rescind that incorporation. In 1845, local residents changed the community's name from "Juliet" to "Joliet". Joliet was reincorporated as a city in 1852. Cornelius Covenhoven Van Horne was active in getting the city its first charter, because of this he was elected Joliet's first Mayor; when the city built a new bridge it was named The Van Horne Bridge. Joliet is located at 41°31′14″N 88°09′02″W. According to the 2010 census, Joliet has a total area of 62.768 square miles, of which 62.11 square miles is land and 0.658 square miles is water. It has a sprawling, irregular shape that extends into nine different townships, more than any other Illinois city, they are: Joliet, Troy, New Lenox, Jackson and Lockport in Will County, Na-Au-Say and Seward in Kendall County. Joliet is a Des Plaines River town, with the downtown located in the river valley; this is evident on Interstate 80 if one is coming from the east or the west where it has been flat for many miles and the land drops as one approaches the river.
This offers a great view looking north to see downtown Joliet. For most of its existence Joliet geographically has had its "west side" and "east side", referring to areas to the west or the east of the Des Plaines River, which runs through the city. Both sides were proportionate throughout most of its history until the 2nd half of the 20th century when westward expansion began. Many businesses moved from the downtown area to the expanding areas west of the river. Many stores relocated to the west side in new strip malls and shopping centers with more parking and easier access; this began the decline of the downtown shopping district, still felt today. Today Joliet has a "west side" and a "far west side"; this has given rise to a newly referenced "Central Joliet" portion of the city, all land west of the Des Plaines River and east of Interstate 55. This new reference may soon change the current meaning of "west side" to west of Interstate 55. While the heart and history of Joliet is centered around the Des Plaines River Joliet expands across both the Des Plaines River and the DuPage River.
There are several other waterways that traverse through the city limits including Hickory Creek, Spring Creek, the historic Illinois and Michigan Canal, Jackson Creek, Aux Sable Creek. Some small lakes and bodies of water include Chase Lake, Lake Juco, Michigan Beach, the Brandon Road Quarry, Leisure Lake. Joliet has a hot summer humid continental climate with hot, wet summers, cold winters with moderate to heavy snowfall. |source 2 = https://w2.weather.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=lot> As of July 2014, Joliet was the 169th most populous city in the United States. As of the census of 2010, there were 147,433 people, 48,019 households, 34,900 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,288.3 people per square mile. There were 51,285 housing units at an average density of 796 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 67.48% white, 15.98% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.93% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 11.32% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.84% of the population.
There were 48,019 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 14% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.56. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. For 2015, the median income for a household in the city was $60,976, the median income for a family was $69,386. Full-time, year-round working males had a median income of $51,082 versus $39,235 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,374. About 10.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
From April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, Joliet was the fastest-growing city in the Mi
Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County and the largest city on the Illinois River. Established in 1691 by the French explorer Henri de Tonti, Peoria is the oldest European settlement in Illinois, is named after the Peoria tribe; as of the 2010 census, the city was the seventh-most populated in Illinois, with a population of 115,007. The Peoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 373,590 in 2011; until 2018, Peoria was the global and national headquarters for Caterpillar Inc. one of the 30 companies composing the Dow Jones Industrial Average, listed on the Fortune 100. Peoria is one of the oldest settlements in Illinois, as explorers first ventured up the Illinois River from the Mississippi; the lands that would become Peoria were first settled by Europeans in 1680, when French explorers René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti constructed Fort Crevecoeur. This fort would burn to the ground, in 1813 Fort Clark, Illinois was built; when the County of Peoria was organized in 1825, Fort Clark was named Peoria.
Peoria was named after a member of the Illinois Confederation. The original meaning of the word is uncertain. A 21st-century proposal suggests a derivation from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning "to dream with the help of a manitou."Peoria was incorporated as a village on March 11, 1835. The city did not have a mayor, though they had a village president, Rudolphus Rouse, who served from 1835 to 1836; the first Chief of Police, John B Lishk, was appointed in 1837. The city was incorporated on April 21, 1845; this was the end of a village president and the start of the mayoral system, with the first mayor being William Hale. Peoria, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix, was named after Peoria, Illinois because the two men who founded it in 1890 − Joseph B. Greenhut and Deloss S. Brown − wished to name it after their hometown. For much of the twentieth century, a red-light district of brothels and bars known as the Merry-Go-Round distinguished Peoria. Betty Friedan recalled driving through the neighborhood on dares during her high school years.
Richard Pryor got his start as a performer on North Washington Street in the early 1960s. According to the 2010 census, Peoria has a total area of 50.23 square miles, of which 48.01 square miles is land and 2.22 square miles is water. Peoria has a humid continental climate, with cold, snowy winters, hot, humid summers. Monthly daily mean temperatures range from 22.5 °F to 75.2 °F. Snowfall is common in the winter, averaging 26.3 inches, but this figure varies from year to year. Precipitation, averaging 36 inches, peaks in the spring and summer, is the lowest in winter. Extremes have ranged from −27 °F in January 1884 to 113 °F in July 1936; the city of Peoria is home to the Peoria Civic Center. The world headquarters for Caterpillar Inc. was based in Peoria for over 110 years until announcing their move to Deerfield, Illinois in late 2017. Medicine has become a major part of Peoria's economy. In addition to three major hospitals, the USDA's National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research called the USDA Northern Regional Research Lab, is located in Peoria.
This is one of the labs. Grandview Drive, which Theodore Roosevelt purportedly called the "world's most beautiful drive" during a 1910 visit, runs through Peoria and Peoria Heights. In addition to Grandview Drive, the Peoria Park District contains 9,000 acres of trails; the Illinois River Bluff Trail connects four Peoria Park District parks: Camp Wokanda, Robinson Park, Green Valley Camp, Detweiller Park, the Rock Island Greenway connects to the State of Illinois Rock Island trail traveling north to Toulon, IL and connects southeast to East Peoria, IL and to the Morton Community Bikeway. Other parks include the Forest Park Nature Center, which features seven miles of hiking trails through prairie openings and forested woodlands, Glen Oak Park, Bradley Park, which features Frisbee golf as well as a dog park. Peoria has five public golf courses as well as several semi-private golf courses; the Peoria Park District, the first and still largest park district in Illinois, was the 2001 Winner of the National Gold Medal Award for Excellence in Parks and Recreation for Class II Parks.
Museums in Peoria include the Pettengill-Morron House, the John C Flanagan House of the Peoria Historical Society, the Wheels o' Time Museum. A new Museum Square, opened on October 12, 2012, houses the Peoria Riverfront Museum, a planetarium, the Caterpillar World Visitors Center; the Peoria Art Guild hosts the Annual Art Fair, continually rated as one of the 100 top art fairs in the nation. Three cultural institutions are located in Glen Oak Park; the Peoria Zoo Glen Oak Zoo, was expanded and refurbished in recent years. Finished in 2009, the new zoo improvements more than triple the size of the zoo and feature a major African safari exhibit. Luthy Garden, established in 1951, encompasses five acres and offers over a dozen theme gardens and a Conservatory; the Peoria PlayHouse Children's Museum opened in June 2015 in the Glen Oak Pavilion. The Steamboat Classic, held every summer, is the world's largest four-mile running race and draws international runners; the Peoria Santa Claus Parade, which started in 1888, is the oldest running holiday parade in the United States.
Peoria's sister cities include Friedrichshafen, G
Aurora, a suburb of Chicago, is a city in DuPage, Kane and Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Located in DuPage and Kane counties, it is an outer suburb of Chicago and the second most populous city in the state, the 114th most populous city in the country; the population was 197,899 at the 2010 census, was estimated to have increased to 200,965 by 2017. Once a mid-sized manufacturing city, Aurora has grown since the 1960s. Founded within Kane County, Aurora's city limits and population have expanded into DuPage and Kendall counties. Between 2000 and 2003, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked Aurora as the 34th fastest-growing city in the United States. From 2000 to 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked the city as the 46th fastest growing city with a population of over 100,000. In 1908, Aurora adopted the nickname "City of Lights", because in 1881 it was one of the first cities in the United States to implement an all-electric street lighting system. Aurora's historic downtown is located on the Fox River, centered on Stolp Island.
The city is divided into three regions, the West Side, on the west side of the Fox River, the East Side, between the eastern bank of the Fox River and the Kane/DuPage County line, the Far East Side/Fox Valley, from the County Line to the city's eastern border with Naperville. The Aurora area has some significant architecture, including structures by Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Bruce Goff and George Grant Elmslie. Aurora is home to a large collection of Sears Catalog Homes and Lustron all-steel homes; the Hollywood Casino Aurora, a dockside gaming facility with 53,000 square feet and 1,200 gaming positions, is located along the river in downtown Aurora. Before European settlers arrived, there was a Native American village in what is today downtown Aurora, on the banks of the Fox River. In 1834, following the Black Hawk War, the McCarty brothers arrived, they owned land on both sides of the river, but sold their lands to the Lake brothers on the west side. The Lake brothers opened a mill on the opposite side of the river.
The McCartys operated their mill on the east side. A post office was established in 1837 creating Aurora. Aurora was two villages: East Aurora, incorporated in 1845, on the east side of the river, West Aurora, formally organized on the west side of the river in 1854. In 1857, the two towns joined incorporated as the city of Aurora; as representatives could not agree which side of the river should house the public buildings, most public buildings were built on or around Stolp Island in the middle of the river. As the city grew, it attracted numerous jobs. In 1856, the Chicago and Quincy Railroad located its roundhouse and locomotive shop in Aurora, becoming the town's largest employer, a rank it held until the 1960s. Railroad restructuring in the railroad industry resulted in a loss of jobs as the number of railroads reduced and they dropped lines for passenger traffic. Aurora at one time had scheduled passenger trains to Chicago; the heavy industries on the East side provided employment for generations of European immigrants, who came from Ireland, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Germany and Italy.
Aurora became the economic center of the Fox Valley region. The combination of these three factors—a industrialized town, a sizable river that divided it, the Burlington railroad's shops—accounted for much of the dynamics of Aurora's political and social history; the city supported abolitionism before the American Civil War. Mexican migrants began arriving after the Mexican Revolution of 1910; the town was progressive in its attitude toward education, religion and women. The first free public school district in Illinois was established in 1851 here and the city established a high school for girls in 1855; the city developed as a manufacturing powerhouse and continued until the early 1970s, when the railroad shops closed. Soon many other factories and industrial areas went out of business. By 1980, there were few industrial areas operating in the city, unemployment soared to 16%. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, development began of the Far East side along the Eola Road and Route 59 areas.
While this was financially beneficial to the city, it drew off retail businesses and manufacturing from downtown and the industrial sectors of the near East and West Sides weakening them. In the mid-1980s crime rates soared and street gangs started to form. During this time Aurora became a much more culturally diverse city; the Latino population began to grow in the city in the 1980s. In the late 1980s, several business and industrial parks were established on the city's outskirts. In 1993, the Hollywood Casino was built downtown, which helped bring the first redevelopment to the downtown area in nearly twenty years. In the late 1990s, more development began in the rural towns outside Aurora. Subdivisions sprouted up around the city, Aurora's population soared. Today, Aurora is a culturally diverse city of around 200,000 residents. Historic areas downtown are being redeveloped, new developments are being built all over the city. Aurora is at 41°45′50″N 88°17′24″W. According to the 2010 census, Aurora has an area of 45.799 square miles, of which 44.94 square miles is land and 0.859 square miles is water.
While the city has traditionally been regarded as being in Kane County, Aurora includes parts of DuPage and Will counties. Aurora is one of only three cities in Illinois. (The others are Barrington Hills and Centr
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of