Turner Hillery Gill is a retired American football coach and former player. Most Gill served as the head football coach at Liberty University from 2012 to 2018. Gill's previous coaching experiences were head coach at the University of Kansas from 2010–2011, at the University at Buffalo from 2006–2009, he was one of 11 black head coaches in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision at the time of his hiring. Gill graduated from Arlington Heights High School in Fort Worth, Texas where he was an all-state, all-county and all-district quarterback for Coach Merlin Priddy. During his senior season, Gill was courted by Nebraska, as well as arch-rival Oklahoma, Texas. Nebraska won the spirited battle for Gill, in part because they would allow Turner to play baseball as well as football, but because head coach Tom Osborne had managed to quell any rumors about Nebraska being reluctant to play an African-American at quarterback. Gill arrived on campus in 1980 and saw limited action in mop-up duty as a freshman, which at the time was still unusual, as freshmen had only been allowed under NCAA rules to participate at the varsity level.
Nebraska started the 1981 season poorly, losing two of its first three games and performing anemically on offense at times in all three. Gill had found himself third on the depth chart prior to the Huskers season opener, behind Mark Mauer and Nate Mason. Down 3–0 to Auburn at halftime during the fourth game, with the season on the verge of slipping away, Osborne inserted Gill into the game; the Huskers pulled out a 17–3 victory, Gill was given the starting job the following week. Behind Gill, the Huskers demolished Colorado 59–0, thus setting off an unbeaten run through the Big 8 conference, which Nebraska would win outright for the first time since 1971. During the season's penultimate game against Iowa State, Gill suffered what appeared to be an innocuous leg injury. Instead, doctors discovered nerve damage. Although the Huskers would beat Oklahoma without him, they were not able to overcome a stingy Clemson defense in the Orange Bowl, where a win may have given the Huskers a possible national championship.
Gill came back strong during 1982 and led the Huskers to a second consecutive outright Big 8 title and a 12–1 record overall, losing only a controversial game at eventual national champion Penn State in September. During that season, he suffered the first of many concussions in a game against Missouri that would shorten his playing career. During his senior season, Turner would call the signals for one of the most prolific offenses in college football history, averaging 52 points and 401 rushing yards per game. Gill finished fourth in the voting for the 1983 Heisman Trophy, won by teammate Mike Rozier; the Huskers came within a whisker of a national championship, falling to the University of Miami, just one point short following a failed two-point conversion attempt in the 1984 Orange Bowl. Overall, Gill finished with a 28–2 record in his three years as a starter, winning three consecutive outright Big Eight championships with a perfect 20–0 mark in conference play. Despite this, he was unable to lead the Huskers to a national title, falling agonizingly short in each of his three seasons.
Gill bypassed the NFL and instead signed a lucrative contract with the Canadian Football League's Montreal Concordes. In two seasons with the Concordes, Gill had 727 pass attempts with 411 completions for 4,928 yards and 23 touchdowns to 24 interceptions, he had 826 rushing yards on 173 carries and seven touchdowns. Gill was just beginning to reach his potential as a professional player when he suffered three concussions, two of them coming in back-to-back games against the BC Lions and Saskatchewan Roughriders. Although he managed to keep the starting job until September, post-concussion issues prompted him to undergo a large battery of neurological tests during the 1985-86 offseason. On May 21, 1986—two days after the start of training camp—doctors informed the renamed Alouettes that Gill's post-concussion problems were serious enough that he would never be medically cleared to play football again, ending his career at the age of 23. At the time Gill had one year plus an option remaining on a three-year contract worth CAN$1.2 million.
Turner decided to return to baseball. A standout shortstop, Gill had been drafted by the Chicago White Sox in the second round of the 1980 MLB Draft at age 17 and again by the New York Yankees in the eighteenth round in 1983 at age 21. In college, he batted.284 in 48 games for Nebraska during the 1983 season. Gill was signed by the Cleveland Indians in May 1986 and spent three years in their organization before deciding to quit professional sports as a player and return to football as a coach. In 1989, Gill began his coaching career at the University of Nebraska, his alma mater, serving one year as a graduate assistant coach. After spending a season each at the University of North Texas and Southern Methodist University, Gill returned once again to Nebraska, where he coached quarterbacks from 1992–2003 and wide receivers in 2004. Gill served as position coach for two first team All-Americans, Tommie Frazier and Eric Crouch, with Crouch earning the Heisman Trophy under Gill's tutelage; the Cornhuskers earned three national championships in Gill's time as an assistant there.
In 2005, Gill was hired by the Green Bay Packers as Director of Player Development to help players become acclimated to playing professional football in Green Bay and to direct players to resources concerning community involvement, continuing education, financia
J. Ray Morrison was an American football and baseball player and a coach of football and baseball, he served as the head football coach at Southern Methodist University, Vanderbilt University, Temple University, Austin College, compiling a career college football record of 155–130–34. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1954. Morrison was the head basketball coach at Vanderbilt for one season in 1918–19, tallying a mark of 8–2, the head baseball coach at the school in 1919, notching a record of 3–3. Ray Morrison was born on February 1885 in Sugar Branch, Indiana. Soon after the family moved to McKenzie, where Morrison attended school, he spent a year at McTyiere School for Boys. To achieve funds for college, Morrison worked on a dredge boat on the Mississippi River for a year. Morrison won Bachelor of Ugliness for the class of 1912, he played football as a prominent halfback and quarterback for Dan McGugin's Vanderbilt football teams from 1908 to 1911. He is considered one of the best quarterbacks in Vanderbilt's long history.
The team posted a 30–6–2 record during his four years. Morrison was selected as the quarterback and kick returner for an Associated Press Southeast Area All-Time football team 1869-1919 era, he weighed some 155 to 159 pounds. The 1908 squad was hampered by a wealth of sophomores, which McGugin with the help of halfback Morrison led to a 7–2–1 campaign, derailed by losses to Sewanee; the 1910 team fought defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie on Yale Field. Yale coach Ted Coy called Morrison "the greatest player I have seen in years." Edwin Pope's Football's Greatest Coaches on the 1911 team reads "A lightning-swift backfield of Lew Hardage, Wilson Collins, Ammie Sikes, Ray Morrison pushed Vandy through 1911 with only a 9–8 loss to Michigan." The Atlanta Constitution voted it the best backfield in the South. Ted Coy selected Morrison All-American. Morrison played on the baseball team, moved to the outfield from catcher in his junior year, back to catcher as a senior. Morrison first taught and was athletics director at Branham & Hughes Military Academy in Spring Hill.
Ray Morrison was the first head coach in the history of SMU Mustangs football. He won just two games in two years from 1915 to 1916. Upon American entry into World War I, Morrison went to Fort Oglethorpe, he coached Vanderbilt in 1918 when McGugin left for the military, led the Vanderbilt team to a 4–2 record. In 1919, Morrison spent a year at Gulf Coast Military Academy as athletics teacher. In 1920, Morrison returned to SMU, he notably brought the forward pass to the southwest during his time at SMU. Morrison was one of the first to pass not just on first and second down too. Gerald Mann was one of his best passers, his teams earned the nickname the "Flying Circus". Upon the retirement of the legendary McGugin, Morrison was hand-picked as successor at his alma mater. Morrison neglected Josh Cody's coaching abilities. Morrison first team in his second stint finished second place in the Southeastern Conference, led by captain and SEC player of the year Willie Geny; the 1936 team was captained by the last NFL player to play without a helmet.
The 1937 team upset LSU on a hidden ball trick, the school's first-ever victory over a ranked opponent. The team's captain was SEC player of the year Carl Hinkle. Morrison was awarded SEC Coach of the Year in 1937. Fred Russell offered this description of Morrison upon his arrival as coach of Vanderbilt: A gentle, soft-spoken person who talks out of the side of his mouth with convincing firmness. Eyes with a permanent twinkle, tiny wrinkles about them when he smiles, but a set jaw that seems to enclose teeth gritted tighter. A happy combination that blends austerity and affability into well-nigh perfect personality--that's the Ray Morrison of today, known to Nashvillians twenty-five years ago as Vanderbilt's whirling quarterback. After the 1939 season, Morrison resigned from his position at Vanderbilt to go to Temple, resigned from Temple in 1949. Cody was his line coach, he finished his career at Austin College. He quit to take over "public relations" at SMU, a post he held for eleven years, he died at the home of his son in Miami Springs, Florida at the age of 97.
His coaching tree includes: Josh Cody Henry Frnka List of college football head coaches with non-consecutive tenure Traughber, Bill. Vanderbilt Football: Tales of Commodore Gridiron History; the History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-423-0. Ray Morrison at the College Football Hall of Fame
College of the Holy Cross
The College of the Holy Cross or better known as Holy Cross is a private Jesuit liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1843, Holy Cross is the oldest Catholic college in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Opened as a school for boys under the auspices of the Society of Jesus, it was the first Jesuit college in New England. Today, Holy Cross is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and is part of the Colleges of Worcester Consortium. Holy Cross sports teams are called the Crusaders, their sole color is purple. Holy Cross was founded by Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S. J. Second Bishop of Boston, after his efforts to found a Catholic college in Boston were thwarted by the city's Protestant civic leaders. From the beginning of his tenure as bishop, Fenwick intended to establish a Catholic college within the boundaries of his diocese. Relations with Boston's civic leaders worsened such that, when a Jesuit faculty was secured in 1843, Fenwick decided to leave the Boston school and instead opened the College of the Holy Cross 45 miles west of the city in central Massachusetts, where he felt the Jesuits could operate with greater autonomy.
The site of the college, Mount Saint James, was occupied by a Roman Catholic boarding school run by the Rev. James Fitton, with his lay collaborator Joseph Brigden, since 1832. On February 2, 1843, Fr. Fitton sold the land to Bishop Fenwick and the Diocese of Boston to be used to found the Roman Catholic college that the bishop had wanted in Boston. Fenwick gave the college the Cathedral of the Holy Cross; the Bishop's letters record his enthusiasm for the project as well as for its location: Next May I shall lay the foundation of a splendid College in Worcester... It is calculated to contain 100 boys and I shall take them for $125 per an. & supply them with everything but clothes. Will not this be a bold undertaking? I will try it, it will stand on a beautiful eminence. The school opened in October 1843 with the Rev. Thomas F. Mulledy, S. J. former president of Georgetown University, as its first president, on the second day of November, with six students aged 9 to 19, the first classes were held.
Within three years, the enrollment had increased to 100 students. The education was more at the elementary and high school level. Since its founding, Holy Cross has produced the fifth most members of the Catholic clergy out of all American Catholic colleges; the first class graduated in 1849, led by the valedictorian James Augustine Healy, the mixed-race son of an Irish planter in Georgia and his common-law wife, a mulatto former slave. Healy is now recognized as the first African-American bishop in the United States, but at the time he identified as white Irish Catholic and was accepted as such, without denying his African ancestry, his father sent all his sons north for their education at Holy Cross College. Healy graduated with his close friend Colby Kane, who would go on to join the clergy, was influential in many of Healy's early writings on Eucharistic transubstantiation. Fenwick Hall, the school's main building, was destroyed by fire in 1852. Funds were raised to rebuild the college, in 1853 it opened for the second time.
Petitions to secure a charter for the college from the state legislature were denied in 1847 for a variety of reasons, including anti-Catholicism on the part of some legislators. The increased rate of immigration from Ireland during the famine years roused resistance from some residents of Massachusetts. Holy Cross diplomas were signed by the president of Georgetown University. After repeated denials, a charter was granted on March 24, 1865, by Governor John Albion Andrew. During World War II, College of the Holy Cross was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1998, Holy Cross initiated an eight-year capital campaign, "Lift High the Cross," with a three-year quiet period; the campaign for Holy Cross ended in fiscal 2006 with $216.3 million raised, surpassing its original goal of $175 million. The funds allowed Holy Cross to establish an additional 12 new faculty positions, along with more than 75 newly endowed scholarships for students.
The campaign provided support for the renovation of the Mary Chapel as well as construction of new facilities on campus, including Smith Hall which houses the new Michael C. McFarland Center for Religion and Culture. During the campaign, the college's endowment grew to more than $544 million. On July 1, 2000, Rev. Michael C. McFarland, S. J. became the president of the college. On February 3, 2011, Fr. McFarland announced his resignation as President of the College, a national search, led by the Board of Trustees, was conducted to find his successor. On May 7, 2011, Rev. Philip L. Boroughs, S. J. the Vice President for Mission and Ministry at Georgetown University, was named as McFarland's successor. In early 2018, the college began publicly exploring the possibility of changing its "Crusader" nickname and associated imagery; the college's leadership decided to keep the nickname, distinguishing its use of the nickname from the historical associations with the crusades. In line with this, the college's leadership decided to retire the used imagery of an armed medie
The Atlanta Falcons are a professional American football team based in Atlanta, Georgia. The Falcons compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference South division; the Falcons joined the NFL in 1965 as an expansion team, after the NFL offered then-owner Rankin Smith a franchise to keep him from joining the rival American Football League. In their 53 years of existence, the Falcons have compiled a record of 368–466–6, winning division championships in 1980, 1998, 2004, 2010, 2012, 2016; the Falcons have appeared in two Super Bowls, the first during the 1998 season in Super Bowl XXXIII, where they lost to the Denver Broncos 34–19, the second was eighteen years a 34–28 overtime defeat by the New England Patriots in Super Bowl LI. The Falcons' current home field is Mercedes-Benz Stadium. Professional football first came to Atlanta in 1962, when the American Football League staged two preseason contests, with one featuring the Denver Broncos vs. the Houston Oilers and the second pitting the Dallas Texans against the Oakland Raiders.
Two years the AFL held another exhibition, this time with the New York Jets taking on the San Diego Chargers. In 1965, after the Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium was built, the city of Atlanta felt the time was right to start pursuing professional football. One independent group, active in NFL exhibition promotions in Atlanta applied for franchises in both the AFL and NFL, acting on its own with no guarantee of stadium rights. Another group reported it had deposited earnest money for a team in the AFL. With everyone running in different directions, some local businessmen worked out a deal and were awarded an AFL franchise on June 8, contingent upon acquiring exclusive stadium rights from city officials. NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle, moving in Atlanta matters, was spurred by the AFL interest and headed on the next plane down to Atlanta to block the rival league's claim on the city of Atlanta, he forced the city to make a choice between the two leagues. The AFL's original expansion plans in June 1965 were for two new teams in 1966, in Atlanta and Philadelphia.
It evolved into the Miami Dolphins in 1966 and the Cincinnati Bengals in 1968. The NFL had planned to add two teams in 1967; the odd number of teams resulted in one idle team each week, with each team playing fourteen games over fifteen weeks. The second expansion team, the New Orleans Saints, joined the NFL as planned in 1967 as its sixteenth franchise; the Atlanta Falcons franchise began on June 30, 1965, when Rozelle granted ownership to forty-year-old Rankin Smith Sr. an Executive Vice President of Life Insurance Company of Georgia. He paid the highest price in NFL history at the time for a franchise. Rozelle and Smith made the deal in about five minutes and the Atlanta Falcons brought the largest and most popular sport to the city of Atlanta; the Atlanta expansion team became the fifteenth NFL franchise, they were awarded the first overall pick in the 1966 NFL Draft as well as the final pick in each of the first five rounds. They selected consensus All-American linebacker Tommy Nobis from the University of Texas, making him the first-ever Falcon.
The league held the expansion draft six weeks in which Atlanta selected unprotected players from the fourteen existing franchises. Although the Falcons selected many good players in those drafts, they still were not able to win right away; the Atlanta team received its nickname on August 29, 1965. Miss Julia Elliott, a school teacher from Griffin, was singled out from many people who suggested "Falcons" as the nickname for the new franchise, she wrote: "the Falcon is dignified, with great courage and fight. It never drops its prey, it is deadly and has a great sporting tradition." The Falcons' inaugural season was in 1966, their first preseason game was on August 1, a loss to the Philadelphia Eagles. Under head coach Norb Hecker, Atlanta lost their first nine regular season games in 1966. Two weeks Atlanta won at Minnesota, beat St. Louis in Atlanta the next week for their first home win; the team finished the 1960s with twelve wins in four seasons. The Falcons had their first Monday Night Football game in Atlanta during the 1970 season, a 20–7 loss to the Miami Dolphins.
The only two winning seasons in their first twelve years were 1971 and 1973. In the 1978 season, the Falcons qualified for the playoffs for the first time and won the Wild Card game against the Eagles 14–13; the following week, they lost to the Dallas Cowboys 27–20 in the Divisional Playoffs. In the 1980 season, after a nine-game winning streak, the Falcons posted a franchise then-best record of 12–4 and captured their first NFC West division title; the next week, their dream season ended at home with a loss to the Cowboys 30–27 in the divisional playoffs. In the strike-shortened 1982 season, the Falcons made the playoffs but lost to the Minnesota Vikings, 30–24. Falcons coach Leeman Bennett was fired after the loss; the team had losing seasons for the next eight years. In the 1989 NFL Draft, the Falcons selected cornerback Deion Sanders in the first round
Dana Carl Holgorsen is the head football coach at the University of Houston. During his coaching career he has served under coaches such as Hal Mumme, Mike Leach, Kevin Sumlin, Mike Gundy at Oklahoma State. Holgorsen spent time at Valdosta State as the quarterbacks and special teams coach under head coach Hal Mumme, at Mississippi College as the quarterbacks and special teams coach and at Wingate as the quarterbacks and receivers coach. Holgorsen was a member of the coaching staff at Texas Tech from 2000–07, serving as the inside receivers coach from 2000–04, before being elevated to co-offensive coordinator alongside Sonny Dykes from 2005–06 and offensive coordinator in 2007; the move reunited him with head coach Mike Leach, whom Holgorsen had coached with at Valdosta State under Hal Mumme. While there, his offenses increased the amount of yardage from 324.8 yards of total offense to 529.6, an increase of more than 200 yards per game. The Red Raiders were No. 7 nationally prior to Holgorsen becoming offensive coordinator and raised their yardage total to No. 4 in 2005, his first season directing the offense.
In his two years as offensive coordinator, his squad was nationally ranked No. 8 in 2006 and No. 3 in 2007. In 2007, Texas Tech led the nation in passing, was No. 2 in total offense and was No. 7 in scoring offense. Quarterback Graham Harrell led the nation in total offense and Biletnikoff Award winner Michael Crabtree led the nation in receptions per game and receiving yards per game. In 2006, the Red Raiders ranked No. 3 nationally in No. 6 in total offense. Harrell once again was outstanding, finishing No. 3 nationally in total offense with 344.38 yards per game. Texas Tech led the nation in passing in 2005, was No. 4 in scoring offense and No. 6 in total offense. Quarterback Cody Hodges was No. 2 in the nation with 396.08 yards per game. Houston has long been known for scoring a lot of points from the Veer that tallied 100 points in a single football game to the Run and Shoot of the late 1980s that re-wrote the college football record books; as the Offensive Coordinator at the University of Houston Dana Holgorsen gained prominence and recognition as one of the most promising, up-and-coming offensive coaches in the country and his success running the Cougar offense would set the table for future coaching opportunities.
During his two-year tenure with the Cougars, Holgorsen's offenses posted earth-shattering numbers, accounting for 563 yards of total offense per game, passing for 433.7 yards per game and totaling more than 42.2 points per game. His offense ranked No. 3 in total offense in 2008 with a duo of freshmen quarterbacks and No. 1 in 2009 behind the arm of Heisman finalist and All-Conference quarterback Case Keenum. In 2008–2009, Quarterback Case Keenum, led the nation in total offense totaling 403.2 yards per game as a sophomore and 416.4 yards his junior season. He ranked among the Top 10 nationally in pass efficiency both years. Under Holgerson's tutelage Case Keenum would go on to become the all-time leading passer in college football with more touchdowns than any quarterback in the history of college football. At Houston, Dana Holgorsen demonstrated his own brand of the Air Raid offense that used motion to confuse opposing defenses, as well as wearing them down. In 2009, Holgorsen developed a set called the "diamond formation" which, features multiple diverging running backs in the backfield who adeptly use spread gain yards after catching short passes.
Houston's fast wide receivers were ideal to the style of spread Holgerson ran and Houston continued using much the same offense after Holgorsen departed to lead the NCAA with over 50 points per game, 600 yards of offense per game in 2011. At Houston, Holgorsen not only mentored Case Keenum but offensive coaches including Kliff Kingsbury and Jason Phillips who continued running a Holgorsen-inspired Air Raid offense at Houston; when Holgorsen was hired at Oklahoma State, the Cowboys' offense was ranked No. 61 nationally in total offense. In his first season the offense led the nation in total offense, averaging 537.6 yards per game, was No. 2 in passing offense, averaging 354.7 yards per game, No. 3 in scoring offense, averaging 44.9 points per game. The postseason accolades have been plentiful for Holgorsen's offensive players in 2010, quarterback Brandon Weeden became the first OSU passer to earn first team All-Big 12 honors, he was a finalist for the Manning Award, given to the top quarterback in the nation.
Wide receiver Justin Blackmon was named the recipient of the 2010 Biletnikoff Award, given to the top receiver in the nation, running back Kendall Hunter was a finalist for the Doak Walker Award, given to the nation's top running back. Weeden and Blackmon became only the second trio in NCAA history to pass for at least 3,000 yards, run for more than 1,500 yards and finish with more than 1,500 yards receiving in the same season. Holgorsen was a 2010 finalist for the Broyles Award, given annually to the nation's top assistant coach; these are the school records set by the Dana Holgorsen-coordinated Oklahoma State Cowboys' offense during the 2010 season: Total yards: 6,451 Old record was 6,340, set in 2002 Scoring: 539 points Old record was 530, set in 2008 Passing yards: 4,256 Old record was 3,414, set in 2002 Pass attempts: 491 Old record was 454, set in 2002 Pass completions: 332 Old record was 243, set in 2002 On December 22, 2010, Holgorsen moved to West Virginia as offensive coordinator.
At that time, athletic director Oliver Luck announced that Holgorsen would replace Bill Stewart as head coach in 2012, saying that he didn't think Stewart was capable of leading the Mountaineers to a national champ
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference North division; the Bears have won nine NFL Championships, including one Super Bowl, hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the most retired jersey numbers. The Bears have recorded more victories than any other NFL franchise; the franchise was founded in Decatur, Illinois, on September 17, 1920, moved to Chicago in 1921. It is one of only two remaining franchises from the NFL's founding in 1920, along with the Arizona Cardinals, also in Chicago; the team played home games at Wrigley Field on Chicago's North Side through the 1970 season. The Bears have a long-standing rivalry with the Green Bay Packers; the team headquarters, Halas Hall, is in the Chicago suburb of Illinois. The Bears practice at adjoining facilities there during the season. Since 2002, the Bears have held their annual training camp, from late July to mid-August, at Ward Field on the campus of Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois.
In March of 1920 a man telephoned me... George Chamberlain and he was general superintendent of the A. E. Staley Company... In 1919, had formed a football team, it had done well against other local teams but Mr. Staley wanted to build it into a team that could compete with the best semi-professional and industrial teams in the country... Mr. Chamberlain asked if I would like to come to work for the Staley Company. Named the Decatur Staleys, the club was established by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur, Illinois in 1919 as a company team; this was the typical start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired Edward "Dutch" Sternaman in 1920 to run the team; the 1920 Decatur Staleys season was their inaugural regular season completed in the newly formed American Professional Football Association. Full control of the team was turned over to Halas and Sternaman in 1921. Official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL.
The team relocated to Chicago in 1921. Under an agreement reached by Halas and Sternaman with Staley, Halas purchased the rights to the club from Staley for US$100. In 1922, Halas changed the team name from the Staleys to the Bears; the team moved into Wrigley Field, home to the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise. As with several early NFL franchises, the Bears derived their nickname from their city's baseball team. Halas liked the bright orange-and-blue colors of his alma mater, the University of Illinois, the Bears adopted those colors as their own, albeit in a darker shade of each; the Staleys/Bears dominated the league in the early years. Their rivalry with the Chicago Cardinals, the oldest in the NFL, was key in four out of the first six league titles. During the league's first six years, the Bears lost twice to the Canton Bulldogs, split with their crosstown rival Cardinals, but no other team in the league defeated the Bears more than a single time. During that span, the Bears posted 34 shutouts.
The Bears' rivalry with the Green Bay Packers is one of the oldest and most storied in American professional sports, dating back to 1921. In one infamous incident that year, Halas got the Packers expelled from the league in order to prevent their signing a particular player, graciously got them re-admitted after the Bears had closed the deal with that player; the franchise was an early success under Halas, capturing the NFL Championship in 1921 and remaining competitive throughout the decade. In 1924 the Bears claimed the Championship after defeating the Cleveland Bulldogs on December 7 putting the title "World's Champions" on their 1924 team photo, but the NFL had ruled that games after November 30 did not count towards league standings, the Bears had to settle for second place behind Cleveland. Their only losing season came in 1929. During the 1920s the club was responsible for triggering the NFL's long-standing rule that a player could not be signed until his college's senior class had graduated.
The NFL took that action as a consequence of the Bears' aggressive signing of famous University of Illinois player Red Grange within a day of his final game as a collegian. Despite much of the on-field success, the Bears were a team in trouble, they faced the problem of flatlined attendance. The Bears would only draw 5,000–6,000 fans a game, while a University of Chicago game would draw 40,000–50,000 fans a game. By adding top college football draw Red Grange to the roster, the Bears knew that they found something to draw more fans to their games. C. C. Pyle was able to secure a $2,000 per game contract for Grange, in one of the first games, the Bears defeated the Green Bay Packers, 21–0. However, Grange remained on the sidelines while learning the team's plays from Bears quarterback Joey Sternaman. In 1925, The Bears would go on a barnstorming tour, showing off the best football player of the day. 75,000 people paid to see Grange
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football; the league consists of each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division; as of 2018, it features a 21-week regular season where each team plays 18 games with three bye weeks. This season traditionally runs from mid-June to early November. Following the regular season, six teams compete in the league's three-week divisional playoffs which culminate in the Grey Cup championship game in late November; the Grey Cup is television events. The CFL was founded on January 19, 1958; the league was formed through a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, many of the first Canadian football teams played under the auspices of the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884.
The CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the team winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, started to become more similar to the American game. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU, the eastern Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and Western Interprovincial Football Union evolved from amateur to professional leagues, amateur teams such as those in the Ontario Rugby Football Union were no longer competitive for the Grey Cup. From 1945 onward, the WIFU's champion faced the Big Four's champion for the Grey Cup, though until 1954 it had to play in a semi-final against the champion of the ORFU–by the only amateur union still competing for the Grey Cup; the ORFU withdrew from Grey Cup competition after the 1954 season, the WIFU champion was automatically awarded a berth in the Grey Cup final.
For this reason, 1954 is reckoned as the start of the modern era of Canadian football, in which the Grey Cup has been contested by professional teams. Since 1965, Canada's top amateur teams, competing in what is now U Sports, have competed for the Vanier Cup. In 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed the Canadian Football Council. In 1958, the CFC became the Canadian Football League; as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada adopting the name Football Canada; the two unions remained autonomous, there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years; the IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961. In 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced.
Because the West played 16 games by this time while the East still only played 14, this arrangement oddly allowed both the four-team Eastern Conference and the five-team Western Conference to play three games per intraconference opponent and one game per interconference opponent. It wasn't until 1974. In 1981, the two conferences agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a balanced and interlocking schedule of 16 games per season. Since 1986, the CFL's regular season schedule has been 18 games; the separate histories of the IRFU and the WIFU accounted for the fact that two teams had the same name: the IRFU's Ottawa Rough Riders were called the "Eastern Riders", while the WIFU's Saskatchewan Roughriders were called the "Western Riders" or "Green Riders". Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a rugby team for its members' off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it and the rowing club have long since gone their separate ways. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats; the league remained stable with nine franchises—the BC Lions, Calgary Stampeders, Edmonton Eskimos, Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Toronto Argonauts, Ottawa Rough Riders and Montreal Alouettes—from its 1958 inception until 1981. After the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, but the team folded the next year; the loss of the Montreal franchise forced the league to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division from 1987 to 1994, again from 1997 to 2001 and 2006 to 2013 when Montreal resumed operations, but Ottawa was unable to field a team.
In 1993, the league admitted the Sacramento Gold Miners. After modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, Shreveport Pirates. For the 1995 campaign, the American