Basement Jaxx are an English electronic music duo consisting of Felix Buxton and Simon Ratcliffe. The pair got their name from the regular night club they held in their hometown of Brixton, London, UK, they first rose to popularity in the mid 1990s. As the British Hit Singles & Albums book duly noted "they surfaced from the underground house scene, are regular transatlantic club chart-toppers and won the BRIT Award for Best Dance Act in 2002 and 2004". Since 1992, Ratcliffe has released a few white label records which sold well and gained a lot of attention from the likes of LTJ Bukem and Goldie, enabled him to buy a few electronic musical instruments and set up a basic studio in a friend’s mother’s basement. In 1993, the pair first met in a pub in London through a mutual friend, they bonded over an appreciation of New York house music. They released their first extended play called EP1 via the British independent record label Wall of Sound, with the help of its founder Mark Jones; the album went on to sell over a thousand copies, with plays from Tony Humphries in New York City, a thing that caught member Ratcliffe "mind-blow".
"Knowing that people you respect are supporting your music is so important in the early days as encouragement to keep going, it means you are doing something right," he said. They began working with vocalist Corrina Joseph in their first attempts at making "proper songs". One of the collaboration's outputs was "Fly Life". At first, the name of the group they were thinking themselves was "Underground Oasis," however, the idea was scrapped due to a friend of them "who was involved in the music scene" noticing the existence of a similar named rock band that might "get big". Basement Jaxx started in Brixton, South London, in 1994, where they held a regular club night called Basement Jaxx, held in a variety of venues including The George IV, The Crypt and The Junction, they were joined by DJs including DJ Sneak, Daft Punk, singer Corrina Joseph. They mutated the night into an popular club called Rooty, the namesake of their second album. In 1995, "Samba Magic" was picked up for distribution by Virgin Records.
In the same year, they moved their studio out of the basement to a place in Camberwell and started their writing there. Their fourth extended play was named EP3 in an early example of their "trademark eccentricity."In 1997, Basement Jaxx was the opening act for Daft Punk's Daftendirektour when Daft Punk first came to the UK. Thanks to the success of the single, they ended up signing a record deal with XL. In 1999, the group released their first full-length album, Remedy. Remedy included the single "Red Alert", featured in the film Bend It Like Beckham as well as Nickelodeon and Coca-Cola commercials. Other singles on this album were "Jump N' Shout", "Bingo Bango", "Rendez-Vu", Basement Jaxx's highest UK Singles Chart entry to date at number 4. Basement Jaxx released Jaxx Unreleased, a compilation album of B-sides and other assorted material, in 1999. 2000 saw them release another release of new material. Their next album, 2001's Rooty included singles "Romeo", "Jus 1 Kiss", "Where's Your Head At?", "Do Your Thing", "Get Me Off".
The music video for album opener "Romeo" is an homage to the Bollywood film style. "Where's Your Head At?" became an international hit in 2002 known for its inclusion on the Lara Croft: Tomb Raider soundtrack. "Do Your Thing" was included in the video game SSX 3. Xxtra Cutz was released shortly after Rooty. Span Thang and Junction, two EPs, were released in 2001–2002. Basement Jaxx decided to close the Rooty club in May 2001 after it became "too popular." In 2003, Basement Jaxx released their third full-length album, Kish Kash, which included contributions from Lisa Kekaula, Me'shell Ndegeocello, Dizzee Rascal, Totlyn Jackson, JC Chasez, Siouxsie Sioux, Phoebe. From this album, the tracks "Lucky Star", "Good Luck", "Plug It In" were released as singles; the track "Good Luck" was re-released in 2004, after exposure from being the theme to BBC's Euro 2004 coverage, was featured in the soundtrack of Just Married and Appleseed, an anime film released in 2004. Kish Kash was recognised the following year at the 47th Grammy Awards, winning Buxton and Ratcliffe the inaugural Best Electronic/Dance Album award.
Basement Jaxx's manager, Andrew Mansi, says Astralwerks chose not to renew its U. S. licensing contract with the duo. The duo produced "Shake It", a song from JC Chasez's Schizophrenic. In 2005, the duo released the number 1 compilation The Singles along with a video collection on DVD, comprising all the singles from their previous three albums, some earlier releases, two new tracks, "Oh My Gosh" and "U Don't Know Me", which were both released as singles; the Singles was released, which contained the original compilation along with a bonus disc entitled Bonus Traxx, containing many unreleased tracks, as well as remixes of existing Basement Jaxx songs. The duo appeared as a headline act on the Pyramid stage at Glastonbury Festival in 2005 when Kylie Minogue was forced to pull out after being diagnosed with cancer. Basement Jaxx played with a live band made up of artists. Drumtech-trained Nathan'Tugg' Curran was on drums for Glastonbury and has remained a constant performer, their fourth studio album, Crazy Itch Radio, was released on 4 September 2006 in the UK with its first single, "Hush Boy".
The album featured guest vocals by Martina Sorbara, Lily Allen, Robyn. In 2006, Basement Jaxx were one of the support acts for Robbie Williams on his'Close Encounters' tour. For Cyndi Lauper's Bring Ya to the B
Christophe Le Friant, better known by his stage name Bob Sinclar, is a French record producer, house music DJ, remixer and the owner of the record label Yellow Productions. Christophe Le Friant began DJing in the 1980s under the name Chris the French Kiss. During this time he was more influenced by hip-hop and jazz music and created music projects such as The Mighty Bop and Reminiscence Quartet, this one with an ensemble of musicians. Le Friant used the alias Desmond K in the Reminiscence Quartet. Le Friant adopted the new name of Bob Sinclar in 1998, he became known for popularising the "French touch" of house music with heavy use of sampled and filtered disco strings. He describes his musical style as inspired by "peace and house music".. In the 2000s, Several of Sinclar's songs have become international hits, being popular in Europe; some of his most popular hits include "Love Generation" and "World, Hold On". In 2006, Bob Sinclar received the TMF Award Best Dance International. In 2006, he released the song "Rock This Party" under the label Defected Records.
In 2008, Bob Sinclar along with Steve Edwards released a song called "Together". In the 2010s, Bob Sinclar is a prolific music producer. In 2011 he released a song in Italian with the vocalist Raffaella Carra called "Far L'Amore". In 2013, he released a single called "Summer Moonlight". In 2015, he collaborated with Dawn Tallman for a track entilted "Feel The Vibe". In 2016, he released the track "Someone. With Spinnin' Records, he released a collaboration with Akon entilted "Til The Sun Rise Up". In June 2018, he released a single called "I Believe", popular in Italy and Europe. Studio albumsParadise Champs Elysées III Western Dream Soundz of Freedom Born in 69 Made in Jamaïca Disco Crash Paris by Night List of number-one dance hits List of artists who reached number one on the US Dance chart Hello - where Sinclar appears in the video as Solveig's opponent in a tennis match Bob Sinclar — official site Bob Sinclar discography at Discogs
Lucas Cornelis van Scheppingen, better known under his stage name Laidback Luke, is a Dutch-Filipino DJ and music producer from Hoofddorp, North Holland. Born in Manila, Philippines, he is a martial artist. He notably remixed the Robin S. song, "Show Me Love" which charted at #11 on the UK charts in 2009. Van Scheppingen was born to a Dutch father and Filipina mother, Lucy Baruelo in Manila and grew up in Hoofddorp, Netherlands together with his younger brother, Asley, he has passion for music, together with his musician cousins in the Philippines, John Mark and Jed. He has worked with artists such as David Guetta, Steve Angello, the percussionist Nebat Drums, Sebastian Ingrosso, Axwell and Junior Sanchez and played throughout Europe and North America as well as shows in Japan and Ibiza, he has released three studio albums: Psyched Up, Electronic Satisfaction, Cream Ibiza Super You & Me as well as a mix album, Windmill Skill. In 2003, van Scheppingen did a remix of the Daft Punk song "Crescendolls" for the duo's remix album Daft Club.
Luke has released his own mix album, titled Ibiza Closing Party, as a free covermount CD in the October 2008 issue of Mixmag. In 2012, Laidback Luke was nominated for the best European DJ award from the 27th Dance Music Awards. Luke was one half of a musical side project with Gina Turner, he appeared in the 2016 Grammy-nominated documentary film about American DJ and producer Steve Aoki, titled I'll Sleep When I'm Dead. After a first marriage, he announced on the maiden voyage of Holy Ship! that he was engaged to American DJ Gina Turner and they married on October 1, 2012, at The View, New York. In 2014, their daughter Evalina was born. In 2017, he announced his separation from Turner. Laidback Luke practices kung fu Choy Li Fut, represented the Netherlands at the World Championship 2013 in China. In March 2018, he was featured on the cover of Men’s Health NL, talked about his kung fu career. Electronic Satisfaction Focus Official website
Boy George is an English singer, songwriter, DJ and fashion designer. He is the lead singer of the pop band Culture Club. At the height of the band's fame, during the 1980s, they recorded global hit songs such as "Karma Chameleon", "Do You Really Want to Hurt Me" and "Time". George is known for his soulful voice and androgynous appearance, he was part of the English New Romantic movement. His music is classified as blue-eyed soul, influenced by rhythm and blues and reggae, he was lead singer of Jesus Loves You during the period 1989–1992. His 1990s and 2000s-era solo music has glam influences, such as Iggy Pop. More he has released fewer music recordings, splitting his time between songwriting, DJing, writing books, designing clothes, photography. In 2015, Boy George received an Ivor Novello Award from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors for Outstanding Services to British Music. Boy George was born George Alan O'Dowd at Barnehurst Hospital, England, on 14 June 1961 and raised in Woolwich, the second of five children born to builder Jeremiah "Gerry" O'Dowd and Dinah.
He was raised in a working-class Irish Catholic family. He has three brothers, Kevin and Gerald, one sister, Siobhan, as well as an older half-brother, born out of wedlock in Dublin in 1957 when his mother was just 18. George has compared his family history to a "sad Irish song." His maternal grandmother was permanently taken from her family at age 6 after being found outside the family home alone, placed into an Industrial School. His great uncle Thomas Bryan was executed by the British in 1921 during the Irish War of Independence. According to George's mother, who published a memoir in 2007, Gerry O'Dowd was physically and mentally abusive, beat her when she was pregnant with George. George said of his father, "He was a terrible father and a terrible husband." In 1995, George's youngest brother Gerald, who suffers from schizophrenia, was convicted of killing his wife in an episode of paranoia. George was a follower of the New Romantic movement, popular in Britain in the early 1980s, he lived in various squats around Warren Street in Central London.
He and his friend Marilyn were regulars at Blitz, a London nightclub run by Steve Strange and Rusty Egan. The pop artists that inspired him were Siouxsie and the Banshees, David Bowie, Roxy Music, Patti Smith, Marc Bolan of T. Rex. Boy George's androgynous style of dressing caught the attention of music entrepreneur Malcolm McLaren, who arranged for George to perform with the group Bow Wow Wow. Going by the stage name Lieutenant Lush, his tenure with Bow Wow Wow proved problematic with lead singer Annabella Lwin. George left the group and started his own band with bassist Mikey Craig, they were joined by Jon Moss and guitarist Roy Hay. Realising they had a cross-dressing Irish singer, a black-Briton, a Jewish drummer and an ethnic Englishman, they settled on the name Culture Club, referring to the various ethnic backgrounds of the members; the band recorded demos that were paid for by EMI Records. Virgin Records expressed interest in signing the group in the UK for European releases, while Epic Records handled the US and North American distribution.
They recorded their debut album Kissing to Be Clever and it was released in 1982. The single "Do You Really Want to Hurt Me?", became an international hit, reaching No. 1 in a dozen countries around the world, plus top ten in several more countries. This was followed by the Top 5 hit "Time" in the US and UK, "I'll Tumble 4 Ya" which reached US No. 9. This gave Culture Club the distinction of being the first group since the Beatles to have three Top 10 hits in the US from a debut album, their next album, Colour By Numbers was an enormous success, topping the UK charts and hit No. 2 in the US. The single "Church of the Poison Mind" became a Top 10 hit, "Karma Chameleon" became an international hit, peaking at No. 1 in 16 countries, the top ten in additional countries. It hit No. 1 in the US. It was the best-selling single of the year in the United Kingdom, where it spent six weeks at No. 1. "Victims" and "It's a Miracle" were further Top 5 UK hits, while "Miss Me Blind" reached the Top 5 in the US.
The band's third album Waking Up with the House on Fire was not as big a hit as its predecessors. Although the first single, "The War Song", was a No.2 hit in the UK, further singles performed below expectations. George provided a lead vocal role on the Band Aid international hit single "Do They Know It's Christmas"; the single featured British and Irish musical acts, proceeds from the song were donated to feed famine victims in Africa during the 1984–1985 famine in Ethiopia. Unlike many of the bands featured on the single, Culture Club did not perform at Live Aid in July 1985. In 1986, George performed a guest-starring cameo role in an episode of the television series The A-Team titled "Cowboy George". In 1986, Culture Club released their fourth album, From Luxury to Heartache which featured the hit single, "Move Away". However, word shortly began circulating in tabloids, he was arrested in Britain for possession of cannabis. With G
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti