Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery; the making of sculpture in wood has been widely practised, but survives much less well than the other main materials such as stone and bronze, as it is vulnerable to decay, insect damage, fire. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures. Outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan, in particular, are in wood, so are the great majority of African sculpture and that of Oceania and other regions. Wood is light and can take fine detail so it is suitable for masks and other sculpture intended to be worn or carried.
It is much easier to work on than stone. Some of the finest extant examples of early European wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Germany, Russia and France, where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England, many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. In the fall of 2018, after the presence of representatives in Iran, abadeh was chosen for first woodcarving city. Nickname of abadeh is the city of wood carving Chip carving Relief carving Scandinavian flat-plane Caricature carving Lovespoon Treen Whittling Chainsaw carving Pattern, Detailing and Smoothening the carving knife: a specialized knife used to pare and smooth wood; the gouge: a tool with a curved cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows and sweeping curves. The coping saw: a small saw, used to cut off chunks of wood at once; the chisel: large and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines and cleaning up flat surfaces.
The V-tool: used for parting, in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines. The U-Gauge: a specialized deep gouge with a U-shaped cutting edge. Sharpening equipment, such as various stones and a strop: necessary for maintaining edges. A special screw for fixing work to the workbench, a mallet, complete the carvers kit, though other tools, both specialized and adapted, are used, such as a router for bringing grounds to a uniform level, bent gouges and bent chisels for cutting hollows too deep for the ordinary tool; the nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. The direction in which wood is strongest is called "grain", it is smart to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it. However, a "line of best fit" is instead employed, since a design may have multiple weak points in different directions, or orientation of these along the grain would necessitate carving detail on end grain.
Carving blanks are sometimes assembled, as with carousel horses, out of many smaller boards, in this way, one can orient different areas of a carving in the most logical way, both for the carving process and for durability. Less this same principle is used in solid pieces of wood, where the fork of two branches is utilized for its divergent grain, or a branch off of a larger log is carved into a beak; the failure to appreciate these primary rules may be seen in damaged work, when it will be noticed that, whereas tendrils, tips of birds beaks, etc. arranged across the grain have been broken away, similar details designed more in harmony with the growth of the wood and not too undercut remain intact. The two most common woods used for carving in North America are basswood and tupelo. Chestnut, oak, American walnut and teak are very good woods. Decoration, to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is carved in pine, soft and inexpensive. A wood carver begins a new carving by selecting a chunk of wood the approximate size and shape of the figure he or she wishes to create or if the carving is to be large, several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size.
The type of wood is important. Hardwoods have greater luster and longevity. Softer woods are more prone to damage. Any wood can be carved but they all have different qualities and characteristics; the choice will depend on the requirements of carving being done: for example, a detailed figure would need a wood with a fine grain and little figure as a strong figure can interfere with'reading' fine detail. Once the sculptor has selected their wood, he or she begins a general shaping process using gouges of various sizes; the gouge is a curved blade. For harder woods, the sculptor may use gouges sharpened with stronger bevels, about 35 degrees, a mallet similar to a stone carver's; the terms gouge and chisel are open to confusion. A gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and a chisel is a tool with a flat cross-section. However, professional carvers tend to refer to them all as'ch
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti