Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, navigator and politician of the Elizabethan era. With his incursion into the Pacific he inaugurated an era of privateering, Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588 and he died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits made him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards, King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4 million by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, England, although his birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith and this would date his birth to 1544. A date of c.1540 is suggested from two portraits, one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42 and he was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye.
The first son was alleged to have named after his godfather Francis Russell. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, there the father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the Kings Navy. He was ordained deacon and was vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway. Drakes father apprenticed Francis to his neighbour, the master of a used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France. The ship master was so satisfied with the young Drakes conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, Francis Drake married Mary Newman in 1569. She died 12 years later, in 1581, in 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham, who was the High Sheriff of Somerset. After Drakes death, the widow Elizabeth eventually married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham. At age 23, Drake made his first voyage to the Americas, sailing with his cousin, Sir John Hawkins, on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives.
In 1568 Drake was again with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulúa, following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa, Drake vowed revenge. He made two voyages to the West Indies, in 1570 and 1571, of which little is known, in 1572, he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish Main
Dogtown, Marin County, California
Dogtown is an unincorporated community in the rural West Marin region of coastal Marin County, California in the San Francisco Bay Areas North Bay. It lies at an elevation of 187 feet, with a population of 30, the town is located beside the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Point Reyes National Seashore, in the Olema Valley west of the Bolinas Ridge mountain range. The village, founded by miners and lumberjacks, is located within the original Rancho Punta de los Reyes Sobrante land grant and it was a stagecoach stop along the north-south route. The village includes the historic Nelson Hotel, which was connected by the old North Pacific Coast Railroad to the Bolinas Station and that railway ran between Mendocino County and a ferry service to San Francisco at Sausalito. The hotel, with nearby guest houses, was used by the U. S. Army during both World Wars as barracks. There was a K-8 school, with about 50 pupils, the schoolhouse was located south of the village towards Bolinas, the nearest town.
An early 20th-century pastime was a trip and picnic to the Copper Mine Gulch, the town was originally known as Woodville due to its timber industry, although the sawmills closed by the 1870s. The name was changed to Dogtown, as that was a name among locals. Until the name change, the hamlet was simply nicknamed The Dogtown by Bolinas residents, the location continues to be labeled Woodville on some maps. The areas economy is agricultural and tourism-based, Dogtown Pottery was a master potters shop. He left to retire to Idaho in 1996 and it was purchased by a gentleman that opened an artists retreat in the same area, and provided the use of the kiln and workshop. Dogtown is in the Bolinas-Stinson Union School District which provides K-8 education, students attend Tamalpais High School in Mill Valley after 8th grade. The town is accessible by State Route 1, marked as Shoreline Highway Road locally, there is limited Marin Transit West Marin Stagecoach bus service between Point Reyes Station, Dogtown and Mill Valley.
The service provides 4 daily round trips on Wednesdays and Fridays, some students use it to get to Tamalpais High School on the days it operates, these students are some of the services key users. Due to the geographic isolation, residents are, in most cases
Rodeo Lagoon is a coastal lagoon located in the Marin Headlands division of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which is in southern Marin County, California. This brackish water body is separated from the Pacific Ocean by a bar that forms Rodeo Beach. Rodeo Lagoon stretches approximately 900 meters by 250 meters, and is about 2 meters deep at its maximum depth and it covers a surface area of about 15 ha. Rodeo Lagoon empties into the Pacific Ocean when the level reaches a high enough level to erode through the sand bar. This high water usually occurs in the winter months. The outlet channel, shown at left looking southeast towards Rodeo Lagoon, is spanned by a bridge that provides access to Rodeo Beach. The depth, surface area, and volume of the lagoon all vary depending on the configuration of the sand berm, depths in the center range from less than 1.5 meters in a dry summer to nearly 3 meters in a wet winter. Tides do not have a significant effect on the circulation of water in Rodeo Lagoon, the circulation of water in Rodeo Lagoon is driven almost entirely by the wind.
Since the Marin Headlands are often windy, it is not unusual to see Langmuir circulation form windrows of foam on the surface of the lagoon. Rodeo Lagoon is a water body, with salinities in most of the lagoon ranging from 2 to 10 practical salinity units over the course of the year. However, water near the bottom of the lagoon is often much saltier, the bowl-shaped bathymetry of the lagoon traps this dense, salty water and prevents it from quickly draining back out in the ocean. Rodeo Lagoon provides habitat to a species, the tidewater goby. It provides habitat to species of migrating waterfowl. Resident fish include the threespine stickleback and prickly sculpin in addition to the tidewater goby, the phytoplankton community includes diatoms, flagellated protozoa, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Nodularia spumigena. Microcystis sp. and Nodularia sp. are types of toxic cyanobacteria, the population of phytoplankton described above is extremely high in the summer, a condition known as eutrophication.
This annual algae bloom, because of its size and potential toxicity, is considered problematic for water quality, Rodeo Lagoon typically suffers from an oxygen deficit or hypoxia in the summer and fall. This deficit is caused by the oxygen consumption of decaying algae that occurs during that time of year. The large algae population, which carbon dioxide from the water
Olema is an unincorporated community in Marin County, California. It is located on Olema Creek 2.25 miles south-southeast of Point Reyes Station, Olema is along State Route 1 at its intersection with Sir Francis Drake Boulevard, on the eastern edge of the Point Reyes Peninsula in the western part of Marin County. Olema-loke is Miwok Indian for little coyote, Olema was once thought to be the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake due to the huge fault rifts still visible via a nearby hiking path. There are historical references to this in and around the town, including at shops, more recent evidence suggests that a location near Daly City is more likely the epicenter. Olema was the subject of the late-1960s country-rock song, Hippie from Olema. The Olema post office opened in 1859, closed in 1860, Olema has a few shops, two restaurants, a lodge, and several bed and breakfasts. Nearby is a campground and a large retreat for the Vedanta Society. Also, the Bear Valley Visitor Center, a quarter-mile from town on Bear Valley Road, inside the center are exhibits and books for sale.
Outside are picnic tables, a Morgan horse ranch, and Kule Loklo, in the state legislature, Olema is in the 3rd Senate District and in the 6th Assembly District. Federally, Olema is in Californias 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Great Britain, known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group.
By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.
The latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England and Wales in combination
Stinson Beach, California
Stinson Beach is a census-designated place in Marin County, California, on the west coast of the United States. Stinson Beach is located 2.5 miles east-southeast of Bolinas, the population of the Stinson Beach CDP was 632 at the 2010 census. Stinson Beach is about a 35-minute drive from the Golden Gate Bridge on Californias Highway 1 and it is near important attractions such as Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, and Mount Tamalpais. It has a beach, where the cold water promotes fog throughout the year. Stinson Beach is a day trip for people in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although most visitors arrive by car, Stinson Beach is linked to Marin City by a daily bus service. The beach is one of the cleanest in the state, and sandy, Nathan H. Stinson bought land at the site in 1866. The Mt. Tamalpais & Muir Woods Railway opened in 1896, visitors could ride the train to West Point Inn and hike or arrange a stagecoach to take them to the beach. In 1906, refugees from the San Francisco earthquake came to the area, Stinson Beach became the official town name in 1916, in honor of the largest landowners and Nathan Stinson.
The first post office opened in 1916, in 1939, the beach was sold to Marin County. It was transferred to the State of California in 1950, and was transferred to the National Park Service in 1977. Stinson Beach is the home for GDTSToo, Inc. the mail order company for the Fare Thee Well Tour. Stinson Beach is located at 37°54′02″N 122°38′40″W, between Bolinas and Muir Beach, the CDP has a total area of 1.46 square miles, of which,1.44 square miles of it is land and 0.02 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Stinson Beach had a population of 632, the population density was 433.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Stinson Beach was 582 White,3 African American,8 Native American,14 Asian,1 Pacific Islander,9 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 33 persons. The Census reported that 629 people lived in households,3 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 26 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 147 households were made up of individuals and 45 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 1.86.
There were 158 families, the family size was 2.54
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, author, activist and former professional bodybuilder. He served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011, Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. He is widely considered to be among the greatest bodybuilders of all time as well as bodybuildings biggest icon, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. His breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, in 1984, Schwarzenegger appeared in James Camerons science-fiction thriller film The Terminator, which was a massive critical and box-office success. Schwarzenegger subsequently reprised the Terminator character in the installments in 1991,2003. He appeared in a number of films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop.
In 2015, it was announced Schwarzenegger would replace Donald Trump as the host of The Celebrity Apprentice and he was nicknamed the Austrian Oak in his bodybuilding days, Arnie during his acting career, and The Governator during his political career. As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7,2003, Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, to serve the remainder of Daviss term. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his term on January 5,2007. In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his term as governor. Schwarzenegger was born in Thal and christened Arnold Alois and his parents were Gustav Schwarzenegger and Aurelia Schwarzenegger. He married Aurelia on October 20,1945, he was 38, according to Schwarzenegger, both of his parents were very strict, Back in Austria it was a very different world. If we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared, Schwarzenegger grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday. Gustav had a preference for his son, over Arnold.
His favoritism was strong and blatant, which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child, Schwarzenegger has said his father had no patience for listening or understanding your problems. He had a relationship with his mother and kept in touch with her until her death. Gustavs background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign, at school, Schwarzenegger was reportedly academically average, but stood out for his cheerful, good-humored, and exuberant character
Marshall is an unincorporated community in Marin County, California. It is located on the northeast shore of Tomales Bay 6 miles south of Tomales, Marshall is located on the east shore of Tomales Bay. It has a population of about 400, although it has claimed a population of 50 and touted this as the sum of the elevation. It is located approximately 15 miles south east of Bodega Bay, the town is named after the Marshalls, four brothers who set up a dairying industry there in the 1850s. Starting in the 1870s, Marshall was a stop on the North Pacific Coast Railroad connecting Cazadero to the Sausalito ferry. There is still some dairying in the area with Straus Family Creamery based there and it acts as a center for tourists visiting Tomales Bay and the neighbouring Point Reyes Peninsula. Tomales Bay Oyster Company Information and photographs about Marshall on the Beach California website Information about Marshall on the West Marin Chamber of Commerce website
Golden Gate National Recreation Area
The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U. S. National Recreation Area protecting 80,002 acres of ecologically and historically significant landscapes surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area. Much of the park is land used by the United States Army. GGNRA is managed by the National Park Service and is one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States, with more than 15 million visitors a year. It is one of the largest urban parks in the world, the park is not one continuous locale, but rather a collection of areas that stretch from southern San Mateo County to northern Marin County, and includes several areas of San Francisco. The park is as diverse as it is expansive, it contains famous tourist attractions such as Muir Woods National Monument, the park was created thanks to the cooperative legislative efforts of cosponsors Congressman William S. Mailliard and Congressman Phillip Burton. In 1972, President Richard Nixon signed into law An Act to Establish the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, the bill allocated $120 million for land acquisition and development.
The National Park Service first purchased Alcatraz and Fort Mason from the U. S. Army, the Nature Conservancy transferred the land to the GGNRA. These properties formed the basis for the park. Throughout the next 30 years, the National Park service acquired land and historic sites from the U. S. Army, private landowners and corporations, incorporating them into the GGNRA. Many decommissioned Army bases and fortifications were incorporated into the park, including Fort Funston, four Nike missile sites, The Presidio, the latest acquisition by the National Park Service is Mori Point, a small parcel of land on the Pacifica coast. In 1988, UNESCO designated the GGNRA and 12 adjacent protected areas the Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve, the property, located south of Pacifica and surrounding the communities of Moss Beach and Montara, is home to many diverse plant and animal species. The bill passed in the Senate, but did not pass the House of Representatives, Fort Baker - former Army post located on the northern side of the Golden Gate Headlands Center for the Arts - an artist residency program set in renovated military buildings in the Marin Headlands.
Nike Missile Site SF-88 - a decommissioned Army surface-to-air missile site located near Fort Barry, located at the southwestern corner of the Presidio Battery Chamberlin - one of the last remaining coastal defense disappearing guns on the U. S. Trails lead across the ridge and to Sharp Park beach, the site includes recently restored wetlands and a pond, protecting endangered San Francisco garter snake and red-legged frog habitat. Rancho Corral de Tierra - the GGNRAs newest park, Golden Gate National Recreation Area Scenery Video, a video showing the scenery observed from the GGNRA, including footage from Lands End
Bolinas is an unincorporated coastal community in Marin County, California. The census designated place is located on the California coast, approximately 13 miles northwest of San Francisco by air, the community is known for its reclusive residents. Bolinas sits at an elevation of 36 feet above sea level and it is bound on the northeast by Bolinas Lagoon and Kent Island and on the south by Bolinas Bay and Duxbury Point. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 5.8 square miles. The GNIS has cited archaic alternate town-names, including Ballenas, Baulings, Bolinas downtown is located on the eastern side of town along Wharf Road, which ends at Bolinas Lagoon. Downtowns buildings were built between 1850 and 1920. Brighton Avenue connects downtown to the south-facing Brighton Beach, in the southeast corner of town is the Little Mesa. The Big Mesa, known as the Gridded Mesa, lies to the west, by air, Bolinas is just 10 miles west-southwest of San Rafael, and 13 miles northwest of San Francisco.
While located just 2 miles from State Route 1, the area is not very accessible by car, the driving time from San Rafael is roughly 52 minutes, and it takes over an hour to drive to downtown San Francisco. Bolinas lies west of the San Andreas Fault, which runs the length of Bolinas Lagoon and continues northward through Olema Valley and Tomales Bay. Bolinas and the Point Reyes peninsula are on the Pacific Plate, moving north relative to Stinson Beach, Point Reyes National Seashore borders Bolinas to the northwest. Duxbury Reef State Marine Conservation Area encompasses Bolinas western shoreline and present day Stinson Beach were once encompassed by Rancho Las Baulines, a Mexican land grant given by Governor Pío Pico to Gregorio Briones in 1846. The first post office in the town of Bolinas opened in 1863, in 1927, a 300-acre former dairy farm on the Big Mesa was subdivided into a grid of streets and 5,336 lots measuring 20 by 100. Many of these lots were sold for $69.50 by the San Francisco Bulletin as a subscription promotion, portions of the mesa, including sections of Ocean Parkway, have since eroded into the sea.
A few streets on the mesa are paved and maintained by the county, but many are unpaved, the Big Mesa has no sewer system, and houses on the mesa have individual septic systems. In 1967, the Bolinas Community Public Utility District was formed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors, the BCPUD provides water service and solid waste pickup throughout Bolinas, and sewer service to the Downtown and Little Mesa. Bolinas beaches were hit hard by the 1971 San Francisco Bay oil spill, in November 1971, the Bolinas Community Public Utility District instituted a moratorium on new water permits, which halted the construction of new homes. The moratorium was based on the local water supply during the summer months and in drought years
Nicasio is a census designated place in Marin County, California. It is located 8 miles west-southwest of Novato, at an elevation of 194 feet, the Nicasio region is a hydrologic zone containing the four main drainages of Nicasio Creek up to the ridgelines defining their basin. This includes, the fork of Nicasio Creek extending from Moon Hill, along the ridge separating Nicasio from San Geronimo. A major landmark in the area is the man-made Nicasio Reservoir, Nicasio is scenically very attractive with forested and open ridgelines surrounding a wide rolling valley. The area along Lucas Valley Road follows a valley with mostly forested hillsides above it. Oak and fir trees are common in the area, wildlife is abundant, the Nicasio chickadee, a subspecies of the chestnut-backed chickadee, was named by Robert Ridgway. Three main roads cross the area, Lucas Valley Road, Nicasio Valley Road, important pieces of public land in the surrounding area include Point Reyes National Seashore, portions of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and Samuel P.
Taylor State Park. Within the Nicasio area are about 250 homes located on approximately 350 parcels, much of the land is still used for agricultural purposes including beef and dairy cattle grazing, small-scale truck farming, and the raising of forage. Several small vineyards have recently established. Just north of Nicasio Reservoir is Fairlea Ranch, where pedigree longhorn cattle are raised, the most significant non-agricultural business within Nicasio is George Lucas Skywalker Ranch, a part of Lucasfilm Ltd. Population estimates for the range from about 600 to about 900 people. According to a 2004 Forbes magazine real estate survey, Nicasio is the 23rd most expensive zip code in the US, centrally located in this area is the small village of Nicasio itself. The town center has a post office, a general store, the town was founded in the early 19th century to support local agricultural and fishing activities. The town once boasted the twenty-two-room Hotel Nicasio, which opened in 1867, just north of town on Nicasio Valley Road is a beautiful red-painted one-room schoolhouse that opened in 1871.
The building is currently a historical landmark. The Nicasio post office opened in 1871, closed in 1899, in 2008 Dewey Livingston wrote a detailed history of the region, The Historic Valley at the Center of Marin. Nicasio is located at geographical coordinates 38° 3′43 N 122° 41′55 W, the 2010 United States Census reported that Nicasio village had a population of 96. The population density was 73.6 people per square mile, the racial makeup of the CDP was 97. 9% White and 2. 1% African American