Plate tectonics is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century; the geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, the rigid outermost shell of a planet, is broken into tectonic plates; the Earth's lithosphere is composed of many minor plates. Where the plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary: convergent, divergent, or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries; the relative movement of the plates ranges from zero to 100 mm annually. Tectonic plates are composed of oceanic lithosphere and thicker continental lithosphere, each topped by its own kind of crust.
Along convergent boundaries, subduction, or one plate moving under another, carries the lower one down into the mantle. In this way, the total surface of the lithosphere remains the same; this prediction of plate tectonics is referred to as the conveyor belt principle. Earlier theories, since disproven, proposed gradual expansion of the globe. Tectonic plates are able to move because the Earth's lithosphere has greater mechanical strength than the underlying asthenosphere. Lateral density variations in the mantle result in convection. Plate movement is thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of the seafloor away from spreading ridges due to variations in topography and density changes in the crust. At subduction zones the cold, dense crust is "pulled" or sinks down into the mantle over the downward convecting limb of a mantle cell. Another explanation lies in the different forces generated by tidal forces of the Moon; the relative importance of each of these factors and their relationship to each other is unclear, still the subject of much debate.
The outer layers of the Earth are divided into the asthenosphere. The division is based on differences in mechanical properties and in the method for the transfer of heat; the lithosphere is more rigid, while the asthenosphere is hotter and flows more easily. In terms of heat transfer, the lithosphere loses heat by conduction, whereas the asthenosphere transfers heat by convection and has a nearly adiabatic temperature gradient; this division should not be confused with the chemical subdivision of these same layers into the mantle and the crust: a given piece of mantle may be part of the lithosphere or the asthenosphere at different times depending on its temperature and pressure. The key principle of plate tectonics is that the lithosphere exists as separate and distinct tectonic plates, which ride on the fluid-like asthenosphere. Plate motions range up to a typical 10–40 mm/year, to about 160 mm/year; the driving mechanism behind this movement is described below. Tectonic lithosphere plates consist of lithospheric mantle overlain by one or two types of crustal material: oceanic crust and continental crust.
Average oceanic lithosphere is 100 km thick. Because it is formed at mid-ocean ridges and spreads outwards, its thickness is therefore a function of its distance from the mid-ocean ridge where it was formed. For a typical distance that oceanic lithosphere must travel before being subducted, the thickness varies from about 6 km thick at mid-ocean ridges to greater than 100 km at subduction zones. Continental lithosphere is about 200 km thick, though this varies between basins, mountain ranges, stable cratonic interiors of continents; the location where two plates meet is called a plate boundary. Plate boundaries are associated with geological events such as earthquakes and the creation of topographic features such as mountains, mid-ocean ridges, oceanic trenches; the majority of the world's active volcanoes occur along plate boundaries, with the Pacific Plate's Ring of Fire being the most active and known today. These boundaries are discussed in further detail below; some volcanoes occur in the interiors of plates, these have been variously attributed to internal plate deformation and to mantle plumes.
As explained above, tectonic plates may include continental crust or oceanic crust, most plates contain both. For example, the African Plate includes the continent and parts of the floor of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans; the distinction between oceanic crust and continental crust is based on their modes of formation. Oceanic crust is fo
Blackest Night is a 2009–2010 American comic book crossover storyline published by DC Comics, consisting of an eponymous, central miniseries written by Geoff Johns and penciled by Ivan Reis, a number of tie-in books. "Blackest Night" involves Nekron, a personified force of death who reanimates deceased superheroes and seeks to eliminate all life and emotion from the universe. Geoff Johns has identified the series' central theme as emotion; the crossover was published for eight months as a limited series and in both the Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps comic titles. Various other limited series and tie-ins, including an audio drama from Darker Projects, were published; the storyline was first mentioned at the conclusion of the "Sinestro Corps War" in Green Lantern vol. 4, #25. As the war between the Green Lantern and Sinestro Corps reaches its climax, the four Green Lanterns of Earth—Hal Jordan, Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner—are told by the Guardians Ganthet and Sayd of the Blackest Night prophecy.
According to the prophecy, the two existing Corps would be joined by five new ones, each driven by a specific emotion and empowered by a specific color of the emotional spectrum, leading to a "War of Light" that would subsequently destroy the universe. Johns says the prophecy has its origins in the story "Tygers" by Alan Moore, which touches on the rising up of the Guardians' enemies the Weaponers of Qward, Ranx the Sentient City, the Children of the White Lobe, the destruction of the Green Lanterns, shows Hal Jordan and Mogo dying. Both Geoff Johns and Ethan Van Sciver said that Blackest Night is the third part of a Green Lantern event trilogy that began with Rebirth and continued with "Sinestro Corps War". In a December 2007 interview with IGN, Johns stated that he has the monthly Green Lantern book plotted up until issue #55. More details for the event were revealed in DC Universe #0, which depicted Black Hand discovering the black power battery on the planet of Ryut. Blackest Night #0 was released on May 2, 2009, —Free Comic Book Day—and portrays a series of events directly leading into Blackest Night #1.
The standalone, self-titled miniseries consists of Blackest Night eight monthly issues. Tie-ins include issues of Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps starting with issues #43 and #38 and nine 3-issue limited series: Blackest Night: Tales of the Corps, Blackest Night: Superman, Blackest Night: Batman, Blackest Night: Titans, Blackest Night: Wonder Woman, Blackest Night: Flash, Blackest Night: JSA. Ethan Van Sciver had planned to work on the opening book, but because of his work on The Flash: Rebirth miniseries he was not able to complete both effectively. Van Sciver and Ivan Reis created many of the designs for this storyline. Green Lanterns Ash and Saarek find the Black Central Power Battery at a classified location within Sector 666. After touching the battery, Saarek reports; the two are killed when two monstrous hands emerge from below them as the battery calls "flesh". In Green Lantern Corps, a field of asteroids in an unknown region of space is depicted with the colors of the spectrum in the background.
The asteroids, which are the remains of the planet Xanshi, are shattered and a large quantity of black power rings move through them. In Gotham City, Black Hand removes Bruce Wayne's skull from his grave and carries it with him, a Black Lantern power battery begins to charge; the Guardians of Oa observe the War of Light and realize that Ganthet and Sayd are correct but are kept from intervening by Scar, who swiftly kills one and imprisons the rest. Thousands of black rings assault the Corps' crypt. Hal Jordan and the newly revived Flash investigate Bruce Wayne's grave and are attacked by Black Lantern Martian Manhunter. On Oa, the Green Lanterns are met by all of the resurrected Lanterns. Hawkgirl and Hawkman are killed by Black Lanterns Elongated Man and Sue Dibny and join the growing Black Corps; the Atom is tricked into visiting Black Lantern Hawkman, Deadman is the first to realize the dead superheroes are not their true selves when his physical body revives as a Black Lantern while he is still free.
Aquaman and his Black Lantern family attack Mera. A black ring strikes the Spectre, binding the spirit Aztar and reviving Crispus Allen as a Black Lantern; the black rings are unable to revive dead characters who are at peace, such as former Dove Don Hall as his partner Hawk and his brother Hank rise. In Gotham, Hal Jordan and Barry Allen are confronted by several Black Lanterns, including Ronald Raymond. Hal, the Atom and Flash battle the Black Lanterns when the Indigo Tribe appear and use their Indigo power with other rings to obliterate the Black Dibnys. Mera finds the new Gehenna, who merge to create a new Firestorm. Indigo says; the Indigo Tribe leave the other heroes to fight the invading Black Lanterns. Black Lantern Firestorm separates Gehenna and Jason, kills Gehenna and absorbs Jason's consciousness. Black rings revive the villains. Mera and Flash use Atom's powers to escape through a telephone line. Flash leaves and gives all the superheroes in the US the key to defeat the Black Lanterns—merging lights with a Green Ring—and the Atom and the Justice Society of America battle many Lanterns together.
Jean Loring kills and causes Damage to revive as a Lantern, which empowers the Black Lantern power battery. Barry arrives in Coast City. Black Hand summons Nekron, who revives the residents of Coas
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Justice League Unlimited
Justice League Unlimited is an American animated television series, produced by Warner Bros. Animation and aired on Cartoon Network. Featuring a wide array of superheroes from the DC Comics universe, based on the Justice League superhero team, it is a direct sequel to the previous Justice League animated series. JLU debuted on July 31, 2004 on Toonami and ended on May 13, 2006, it was the final series set in the long-running DC animated universe, which started with Batman: The Animated Series in 1992. Boomerang reran the series from June 2007 to March 26, 2010 as part of Boomeraction. On August 25, 2012, The CW's Vortexx Saturday morning block began airing reruns of this series, lasting until August 23, 2014. According to animator Bruce Timm, the series finale of Justice League, "Starcrossed", was planned to be the final episode of the series. Taking place shortly after its predecessor ended, it features a expanded League, in which the characters from the original series—now referred to as "founding members"—are joined by many other superheroes from the DC Universe.
A number of these were heroes who had made guest appearances in Justice League, but many heroes and other characters made their first animated appearances in this series. The general format of each episode is to have a small team assemble to deal with a particular situation, with a focus on both action and character interaction; this extension of the Justice League was planned to be explained in a planned direct-to-video feature film, but the project never materialized. Stan Berkowitz, a member of the production team, left the show for the TV series Friends and Heroes, writer Matt Wayne was contracted to replace him. Most episodes tell a self-contained story, but the series features extended story arcs, the first involving the building conflict between the League and a secret government agency known as Project Cadmus; this plot line builds upon events that occurred during the second season of Justice League, has affected the plotlines of most of its episodes. It was resolved in a four-part story at the end of the second season of Justice League Unlimited.
The third and final season story arc focuses on the new Secret Society as the main villains, a loose-knit organization formed to combat the increased superhero coordination of the first season. However, the Secret Society was never referred as the Legion of Doom, although it was planned to use the original name used by the Flash as his comical way to refer the Society, but the idea was rejected; the series, along the entire DC animated universe, was planned to end after the second-season finale "Epilogue", but a third season was greenlighted by Cartoon Network. The third season started in 2005 with the episode "I Am Legion" and ended in 2006 with the episode "Destroyer". According with Matt Wayne, if the show had been renewed for a fourth season, he would have liked to write more episodes focusing on Superman and Wonder Woman. Towards the end of the series, certain characters became off-limits to the show, like Blue Beetle and Hugo Strange. Characters associated with Batman and those who appeared in Batman: The Animated Series were restricted due to the unrelated animated series The Batman and Christopher Nolan's live-action theatrical The Dark Knight Trilogy to avoid continuity confusion.
Aquaman and related characters were unavailable due to the development of a pilot for a live-action series featuring the character as a young man, which wasn't picked up at the end. Characters from DC's "mature readers" Vertigo imprint were not allowed, like Swamp Thing and Phantom Stranger. No characters from the Teen Titans animated series appeared in JLU until after that show had been canceled; the Joker, Batman's archenemy, was restricted to appear in the series, unlike its predecessor, like Riddler and Scarecrow, which were supposed to be members of the Secret Society as a nod to the original Legion of Doom. To compensate for this, the producers focused some stories on overlooked DC Comics characters; these included characters like Deadman, an unnamed modern equivalent of The Seven Soldiers of Victory. DC Comics created an ongoing monthly comic book series based on the TV series, as part of its Johnny DC line of "all ages" comics, which did not have the same restrictions regarding character appearances.
Justice League Unlimited, like the second season of Justice League, is animated in widescreen. The show features new theme music and intro; the two-part series finale was aired in the UK on February 8 and 18, 2006, in the United States on May 6 and 13, 2006. Some romantic relationships develop as in Justice League; some of these relationships are Question and the Huntress, Black Canary and Green Arrow, the love-triangle between Green Lantern and Vixen. Additionally, the series continuously hints at a mutual attraction between Wonder Woman. However, Batman is reluctant to develop a full romantic relationship due to his duty as a superhero, Diana's immortality, his belief that a relationship within a
Green Lantern (film)
Green Lantern is a 2011 American superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name. The film stars Ryan Reynolds, Blake Lively, Peter Sarsgaard, Mark Strong, Angela Bassett and Tim Robbins, with Martin Campbell directing a script by Greg Berlanti and comic book writers Michael Green and Marc Guggenheim, subsequently rewritten by Michael Goldenberg; the film tells the story of Hal Jordan, a test pilot, selected to become the first human member of the Green Lantern Corps. Hal is given a ring that grants him superpowers, must confront Parallax, who threatens to upset the balance of power in the universe; the film first entered development in 1997. Martin Campbell was brought on board in February 2009 after Berlanti was forced to vacate the director's position. Most of the live-action actors were cast between July 2009 and February 2010, filming took place from March to August 2010 in Louisiana; the film was converted to 3D during its post-production stage. Green Lantern was released on June 17, 2011, received negative reviews.
Reynolds would voice his dissatisfaction with the film. The film underperformed at the box office, grossing $219 million against a production budget of $200 million. Due to the film's negative reception and disappointing box office performance, Warner Bros. canceled any plans for a sequel, instead opting to reboot the character in the DC Extended Universe line with the film Green Lantern Corps. Billions of years ago, beings called the Guardians of the Universe use the green essence of willpower to create an intergalactic police force called the Green Lantern Corps, they divide the universe with one Green Lantern per sector. One such Green Lantern, Abin Sur of Sector 2814, defeats the malevolent being Parallax and imprisons him in the Lost Sector on the desolate planet Ryut. In the present day, Parallax escapes from his prison after becoming strengthened by an encounter with crash survivors who had accidentally fallen into the dugout where Parallax was imprisoned on the abandoned planet. Parallax feeds on their fear to gain strength before pursuing and nearly killing Abin Sur, who escapes and crash-lands on Earth where he commands his power ring to find a worthy successor.
Hal Jordan, a cocky test pilot working at Ferris Aircraft, is chosen by the ring and transported to the crash site, where the dying Abin Sur appoints him a Green Lantern, telling him to take the lantern and speak the oath. Jordan says the oath and is whisked away to the Green Lantern Corps home planet of Oa, where he meets and trains with veteran Corps members Tomar-Re, Corps leader Sinestro, who believes he is unfit and fearful. Jordan, disheartened by his extreme training sessions and Sinestro's doubts and returns to Earth, keeping the power ring and lantern. Scientist Hector Hammond is summoned by his father, Senator Robert Hammond, to a secret government facility to perform an autopsy on Abin Sur's body under the watchful eye of Amanda Waller. A piece of Parallax inside the corpse enters Hammond, giving him telepathic and telekinetic powers at the cost of his sanity. After discovering that he was chosen for the secret work only due to his father's influence and not for his own abilities, Hammond attempts to kill his father by telekinetically sabotaging his helicopter at a massive party.
Jordan saves the party guests, including his childhood sweetheart Carol Ferris. At the government facility, Hammond uses telekenisis to kill his father by burning him alive. Hammond elevates Waller high above the floor; as she's falling, Jordan arrives and saves the injured Waller by creating a pool of water which whisks her away out of further danger. During the encounter Jordan learns of Parallax coming to Earth. On Oa, the Guardians tell Sinestro that Parallax was one of their own until he desired to control the yellow essence of fear, only to become corrupted. Arguing that the way to fight fear is with fear itself, Sinestro requests that the Guardians forge a ring of the same yellow power, preparing to concede Earth's destruction to Parallax in order to protect Oa. Jordan appears and tries to convince the Guardians that fear will turn the users evil if its power is used, but they reject his pleas, he returns to Earth to try to defeat Parallax on his own. Jordan saves Ferris from Hammond after a brief showdown.
Parallax arrives, consumes Hammond's entire life force, wreaks havoc on Coast City. After a fierce battle, Jordan lures Parallax away toward the sun. Parallax is inadvertently caught in the sun's gravitational pull and is destroyed, while Jordan escapes. Jordan loses consciousness after the battle and falls toward the sun, but is saved by Sinestro and Tomar-Re; the entire Green Lantern Corps congratulates Jordan for his bravery. Sinestro tells Jordan. In a mid-credits scene, Sinestro takes the yellow ring and places it on his finger causing his green suit and eyes to turn yellow. Ryan Reynolds as Harold "Hal" Jordan / Green Lantern:A test pilot for the Ferris Aircraft Company whose will to act qualifies him to become the first earthman inducted into an intergalactic peacekeeping force fueled by green energy of will. Reynolds said, "I've known about'Green Lantern' my whole life, but I've never followed it before. I fell in love with the character when I met with Martin Campbell". Reynolds called the film "an origin story to a certain degree, but it's not a labored origin story, where the movie b
Gil Kane was a Latvian-born American comics artist whose career spanned the 1940s to the 1990s and every major comics company and character. Kane co-created the modern-day versions of the superheroes Green Lantern and the Atom for DC Comics, co-created Iron Fist with Roy Thomas for Marvel Comics, he was involved in such major storylines as that of The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98, which, at the behest of the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare, bucked the then-prevalent Comics Code Authority to depict drug abuse, spurred an update of the Code. Kane additionally pioneered an early graphic novel prototype, His Name Is... Savage, in 1968, a seminal graphic novel, Blackmark, in 1971. In 1997, he was inducted into both the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame and the Harvey Award Jack Kirby Hall of Fame. Gil Kane was born Eli Katz on April 6, 1926, in Latvia to a Jewish family that immigrated to the U. S. in 1929, settling in New York City. His father was a struggling poultry merchant. Kane attended high school at Manhattan's School of Industrial Art, but left in his senior year when he saw an opportunity to work at MLJ Comics.
He recalled in a 1996 interview, rom the time I was 15, I was going up to the comics offices.... My first job came the next year at 16. During my summer vacation, I went up and got a job working at MLJ in 1942... I was in my last year in high school. I was 16 and I'd started my last year but I'd gotten my job the summer before at MLJ, so I didn't want to give up my job. I quit school in the last grade; until being fired after three weeks, Kane worked in production, "putting borders on pages. The letterers would only put in the lettering, not the balloons, so I would put in the borders, I'd finish up artwork — whatever had to be done on a lesser scale." Within "a couple of days" of being let go, "I got a job with Jack Binder's agency. Jack Binder had a loft on Fifth Avenue and it just looked like an internment camp. There must have been 60 guys up there, all at drawing tables. You had to account for the paper that you took." Kane began penciling professionally there, but, "They weren't happy with what I was doing.
But when I was rehired by MLJ three weeks not only did they put me back into the production department and give me an increase, they gave me my first job, which was'Inspector Bentley of Scotland Yard' in Pep Comics, they gave me a whole issue of The Shield and Dusty, one of their leading books". He would do spot illustrations for other studios, his earliest known credit is inking Carl Hubbell on the six-page Scarlet Avenger superhero story "The Counterfeit Money Code" in MLJ's Zip Comics #14, on which he signed the name "Gil Kane". Other early credits include some issues of the company's Pep Comics, sometimes under pseudonyms including Stack Til and Stacktil, and, in conjunction with artist Pen Shumaker, Pen Star, he used his birth name on rare occasions, including on at least one story each in the Temerson / Helnit / Continental publishing group's Terrific Comics and Cat-Man Comics. In 1944 he did his first work for the future Marvel Comics, as one of two inkers on the 28-page "The Spawn of Death" in the wartime kid-gang comic Young Allies #11, the future DC Comics, as the uncredited ghost artist for Jack Kirby on the Sandman superhero story "Courage a la Carte" in Adventure Comics #91.
That same year Kane either was drafted or enlisted in the Army and served in the World War II Pacific theater of operations. After 19 months in the service, he returned to in December 1945. All-American Publications editor Sheldon Mayer hired him in 1947, for a stint that lasted six months, he contributed again to the "Sandman" feature in Adventure Comics and, as penciler Gil Stack and inker Phil Martel, to the "Wildcat" feature in Sensation Comics. Around this time, he said, he "worked with director Garson Kanin when he was involved in TV," drawing storyboards. In 1949, Kane began a longtime professional relationship with Julius Schwartz, an editor at National Comics, the future DC Comics. Kane drew stories for several DC series in the 1950s including All-Star Western and The Adventures of Rex the Wonder Dog. In the late 1950s, freelancing for DC Comics precursor National Comics, Kane illustrated works in what fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, creating character designs for the modern-day version of the 1940s superhero Green Lantern, for which he pencilled most of the first 75 issues of the reimagined character's comic.
Comics historian Les Daniels praised Kane's work on the character, stating "The design was part of an approach that emphasized grace as well as strength, an approach notable in Kane's flying scenes... Green Lantern appeared to soar effortlessly across the cosmos." DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz noted in 2010 that Kane "modeled the Guardians on Israeli founding father David Ben-Gurion as the human figures in the cast tended to mimic Kane's own tall, elongated build." Kane and writer John Broome's stories for the Green Lantern series included transforming Hal Jordan's love interest, Carol Ferris, into the Star Sapphire in issue #16. Black Hand, a character featured prominently in the "Blackest Night" storyline in 2009-2010, debuted in issue #29 by Broome and Kane; the creative team created Guy Gardner in the story "Earth's Other Green Lantern!" in issue #59. Kane co-created an updated version of the Atom with writer Gardner Fox. Kane — who by 1960 was living in Jericho, New York, on Long Island — drew the youthful superhero team the Teen Titans, a revival of Plastic Man, and, in
Green Lantern Corps
The Green Lantern Corps is the name of a fictional intergalactic military/police force appearing in comics published by DC Comics. They patrol the farthest reaches of the DC Universe at the behest of the Guardians, a race of immortals residing on the planet Oa. According to DC continuity, the Green Lantern Corps has been in existence for three billion years, surviving multiple conflicts both internal and foreign. Operating divided as pairs amongst the 3600 "sectors" of the universe, there are 7202 members, two lanterns for every sector, except for sector 2814, which has six members; each Green Lantern is given a power ring, a weapon granting the use of incredible abilities that are directed by the wearer's own willpower. In 1959, during a revival of the popularity of superhero comics in America, DC Comics' editor Julius Schwartz decided to reinvent the 1940s superhero character Green Lantern as a science fiction hero. Schwartz's new conception of Green Lantern had a different name and origin story, no connection to the original Green Lantern.
Whereas the Green Lantern of the 1940s was a lone vigilante who only had adventures on Earth, the new Green Lantern was but one of a group of interstellar lawmen who all called themselves Green Lanterns. The group is first mentioned in Showcase #22 when a dying Green Lantern passes on his ring to Hal Jordan. Over the years, writers have introduced a large cast of Green Lanterns in both supporting and starring roles; the Guardians of the Universe are one of several races that originated on the planet Maltus and were among the first intelligent life forms in the universe. At this time they were short greyish blue humanoids with black hair, they became thinkers, experimenting on the worlds around them. In a pivotal moment billions of years ago, a Maltusian named Krona used time-bending technology to observe the beginning of the universe. However, this experiment unleashed disaster upon all existence; the experiment splintered the universe into the multiverse and created the evil anti-matter universe.
Following the retroactive destruction of the Multiverse, it was revealed that Krona flooded the beginning of the universe with entropy causing it "to be born old". Krona's experiment drew Volthoom a traveler from the multiverse looking to save his Earth, he bought with him the Travel Lantern powered by the Emotional Spectrum. Through working with Volthoom the future Guardians shed their emotions into The Great Heart and inadvertently created the First Ring. Volthoom received this ring and had the Great Heart implanted in his chest, controlling the whole emotional spectrum made him dangerous; the future guardians destroyed his Travel Lantern further escalating the situation. Future Guardian Rami used the pieces of the Travel Lantern to create the first seven green lantern rings and imprison the First Lantern Volthoom. Soon after it was decided that the emotional spectrum was at present too dangerous to wield; the male Maltusians argued about. One group decided to dedicate their eternal existences to contain evil.
A single male Guardian would become the Pale Bishop and found The Paling, an anti-emotion faith. The females, saw no need to involve themselves and, since the Oans were by immortal and had no more need to reproduce, left their mates and became known as the Zamarons founding the Star Sapphires. Relocating to the planet Oa at "the center of the universe", the Guardians dedicated themselves to combatting evil and creating an orderly universe. During this period they evolved into their current appearance. A Green Lantern's only weakness is the yellow energy of fear, opposite to the green energy of will. After the Green Lantern Sinestro betrayed the Green Lantern Corps and created the Sinestro Corps, a prophecy was fulfilled that Lantern Corps of the other cosmic energies of emotion shall form, such as Red, Black, Indigo and Violet. In their first attempt to enforce their will and guard against all menaces, about 3.5 billion years ago the Guardians of the universe created a legion of robotic sentinels called the Manhunters.
At first serving faithfully to enforce order, in time the Manhunters came to resent their servitude and the moral restrictions the Guardians decreed of them. They were found to be inherently flawed due to their inability to recognize or feel emotions, they rebelled against the Guardians and fought a millennia-long war that culminated with an attack on the planet Oa. The Guardians overcame their android servants, stripped them of their power, banished them across the universe; the surviving Manhunters formed their own robotic society and pursued their own interpretation of their original mission. In the Martian Manhunter series, the Guardians first get the idea for an intergalactic police force from the Martians' own Manhunters, they offer the Martian race the opportunity to be that force. The Martians turn it down. In Geoff Johns' 2008 storyline "Green Lantern: Secret Origin", it is revealed that the Manhunters suffered from a malfunction in their logic that led them to believe that order could only be achieved by eliminating all life.
They rampaged through Sector 666. The only survivors banded together to form the Five Inversions, swearing revenge on the Guardians for the actions of their creations. One of the five, would become the leader of the Red Lantern Corps, it was discovered that the Manhunters