Governor of New Jersey
The Governor of the State of New Jersey is head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government. The office of governor is an elected position. Governors cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the total number of terms they may serve; the official residence for the governor is a mansion located in Princeton, New Jersey. The first Governor of New Jersey was William Livingston, who served from August 31, 1776, to July 25, 1790; the current governor is Phil Murphy, who assumed office on January 16, 2018. The governor is directly elected by the voters to become the political and ceremonial head of the state; the governor performs the executive functions of the state, is not directly subordinate to the federal authorities. The governor assumes additional roles, such as being the Commander-in-Chief of the New Jersey National Guard forces. Unlike many other states that have elections for some cabinet-level positions, under the New Jersey Constitution the governor and lieutenant governor are the only officials elected on a statewide basis.
Much like the President of the United States, the governor appoints the entire cabinet, subject to confirmation by the New Jersey Senate. More under the New Jersey constitution, the governor appoints all superior court judges and county prosecutors, although this is done with strong consideration of the preferences of the individual state senators who represent the district where vacancies arise; the governor is responsible for appointing two constitutionally created officers, the New Jersey Attorney General and the Secretary of State of New Jersey, with the approval of the senate. As amended in January 2002, state law allows for a maximum salary of $175,000. Phil Murphy has stated. Jon Corzine accepted a token salary of $1 per year as governor. Previous governor Jim McGreevey received an annual salary of $157,000, a reduction of 10% of the maximum allowed, while Chris Christie, Murphy's immediate predecessor, accepted the full gubernatorial salary; the governor has a full-time protective security detail from the Executive Protection Unit of the New Jersey State Police while in office.
A former governor is entitled to a 1-person security detail from the New Jersey State Police, for up to 6 months after leaving office. On Tuesday, November 8, 2005, the voters passed an amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution that created the position of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey, effective with the 2009 elections. Before this amendment was passed, the president of the New Jersey Senate would have become governor or acting governor in the event that office of governor became vacant; this dual position was more powerful than that of an elected governor, as the individual would have had a major role in legislative and executive processes. As a result of the constitutional amendment passed in 2005, Governor Richard Codey, serving from November 2004 to January 2006 as governor, was the final person to wield such power. Kim Guadagno, a former prosecutor, was sworn in as New Jersey's first lieutenant governor on January 19, 2010 under Governor Christie. Succeeding Guadagno, former assemblywoman Sheila Oliver was sworn in on January 16, 2018 under Governor Murphy.
The Center on the American Governor, at Rutgers' Eagleton Institute of Politics, was established in 2006 to study the governors of New Jersey and, to a lesser degree, the governors of other states. The program features extensive archives of documents and pictures from the Byrne and Kean administrations, video interviews with many members of the respective administrations, some information on other American governors, news updates on current governors; the project is in the process of creating new archives, similar to the Byrne and Kean archives, for administrations. "I, A. B. elected governor of the State of New Jersey, do solemnly promise and swear, that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of New Jersey, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, to the governments established in the United States and in this state under the authority of the people, that I will diligently, impartially, to the best of my knowledge and ability, execute the said office in conformity with the powers delegated to me, that I will to the utmost of my skill and ability, promote the peace and prosperity and maintain the lawful rights of the said state, so help me God."
Governorship of Phil Murphy List of colonial governors of New Jersey List of Governors of New Jersey Official website Executive Orders issued by the New Jersey Governor
The Record (Bergen County)
The Record is a newspaper in North Jersey, United States. It serves Bergen County, though it covers Hudson and Passaic counties as well, it has the second largest circulation behind The Star-Ledger. Its editor is Daniel Sforza; the Record was under the ownership of the Borg family from 1930 on and the family went on to form North Jersey Media Group, which bought its competitor, the Herald News. Both papers are now owned by Gannett Company, which purchased the Borgs' media assets in July 2016. For years, The Record had its primary offices in Hackensack with a bureau in Wayne. Following the purchase of the competing Herald News of Passaic, both papers began centralizing operations in what is now Woodland Park, where The Record is located. In 1930 John Borg, a Wall Street financier, bought The Record. From 1952 to 1963 the circulation of The Record doubled and its coverage changed from local to regional, it was one of the papers whose editorial position was in favor of the Metropolitan Regional Council In 1974, writers in the area voted The Record first in the categories of writing and local coverage.
It provided different local news coverage for various areas in its distribution range. In 1983, the paper had a daily circulation of just over 149,000 with its readership described as "upscale". On September 12, 1988, its afternoon publication and delivery changed to early morning; when combined with more centralized distribution requiring carriers to have automobiles, many "youth carriers" were put out of work. The paper's approach to coverage made it "read like a magazine". Rather than a focus on breaking news on its front page, it featured "The Patch," a thematic topic or investigative report. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, a photographer for The Record, Thomas E. Franklin, took a photograph of three firefighters raising an American flag over the rubble of what had been the World Trade Center; this became an iconic photo known as Raising the Flag at Ground Zero. A follow-up story by Jeannine Clegg, a reporter for The Record, about the flag raising efforts by the firemen that led to the photo appeared in the newspaper on September 14, 2011.
The Record owns the rights to the photograph, but has licensed it in exchange for donations to September 11 causes, as long as the photo is used in a "dignified and proper manner" for non-commercial purposes. William A. Caldwell, Pulitzer Prize-winning former columnist Mike Kelly Robert Leckie, rejoined The Record after returning from World War II. John R. MacArthur John Tierney Kaavya Viswanathan The Record's and North Jersey Media Group website The Record website
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey
Woodcliff Lake is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the borough's population was 5,730, reflecting a decline of 15 from the 5,745 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 442 from the 5,303 counted in the 1990 Census. Most of the borough mandates a minimum lot size of 22,500 square feet for single-family homes, with portions on the borough's east zoned for 15,000 square feet and portions of the borough's northwest and southwest zoned for 30,000 square feet lots. Woodcliff Lake is the name of the reservoir that lies within the borough, with a small portion at the southeastern edge located in neighboring Hillsdale; the borough was incorporated as the Borough of Woodcliff, on August 31, 1894, from parts of Orvil Township and Washington Township, based on the results of a referendum held three days earlier. The borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone.
The borough derives its name from the characteristics of its geography. On March 1, 1910, after the creation of the reservoir, the name of the borough was changed to Woodcliff Lake, to match the name of the post office. Prior to the creation of ZIP codes as a way to uniquely identify addresses, United States Postal Service policy was that two post offices in a state could not have the same name, there was a "Woodcliff" in Hudson County. On January 1, 1956, again on July 1, 1958, Woodcliff Lake exchanged sections of land with Park Ridge. On October 13, 1960, portions were exchanged with Hillsdale. Woodcliff Lake has some dating from the 18th century. Many old buildings are present, but are to have been modified through the years; the borough has seen intense development over the past 50 years, as all areas available for construction have been developed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 3.606 square miles, including 3.405 square miles of land and 0.201 square miles of water.
The borough is bordered by Montvale, Park Ridge, River Vale, Saddle River, small portions of Upper Saddle River. Woodcliff Lake is located 20 miles northwest of Manhattan; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,730 people, 1,916 households, 1,599.860 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,682.7 per square mile. There were 1,980 housing units at an average density of 581.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 90.30% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 0.00% Native American, 6.47% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.41% of the population. There were 1,916 households out of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.4% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.5% were non-families. 15.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.28. In the borough, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 17.1% from 25 to 44, 33.3% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.8 years. For every 100 females there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.0 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $150,404 and the median family income was $172,019. Males had a median income of $105,045 versus $65,119 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $62,925. About 1.1% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.5% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed five households in 2010, an increase from the one household counted in 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 5,745 people, 1,824 households, 1,605 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 1,725.3 people per square mile. There were 1,842 housing units at an average density of 553.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.84% White, 0.87% African American, 0.03% Native American, 4.47% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 2.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,824 households out of which 47.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 80.2% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 12.0% were non-families. 10.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.08 and the average family size was 3.31. In the borough the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 4.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $123,022, the median income for a family was $133,925. Males had a median income of $90,000 versus $45,150 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $53,461. 1.5% of the population and 0.9% of families were below the poverty line
Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 948,406, an increase of 4.8% from the 2010 United States Census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.
The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.
Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.
The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.
It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Contin
Hackensack, New Jersey
Hackensack is a city in Bergen County in New Jersey, United States, serves as its county seat. The area was named New Barbadoes Township until 1921, but it was informally known as Hackensack since at least the 18th century; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 43,010, reflecting an increase of 333 from the 42,677 counted in the 2000 Census, which had, in turn, increased by 5,628 from the 37,049 counted in the 1990 Census. An inner suburb of New York City, Hackensack is located 12 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan and about 7 miles from the George Washington Bridge. From a number of locations, the New York City skyline can be seen; the Metropolitan Campus of Fairleigh Dickinson University straddles the Hackensack River in both Hackensack and Teaneck. Hackensack is the home of the New Jersey Naval Museum and the World War II submarine USS Ling. Astronaut Wally Schirra is Hackensack's most famous native son; the city is known for a great diversity of neighborhoods and land uses close to one another.
Within its borders are the prominent Hackensack University Medical Center, a trendy high-rise district about a mile long, classic suburban neighborhoods of single-family houses, stately older homes on acre-plus lots, older two-family neighborhoods, large garden apartment complexes, industrial areas, the Bergen County Jail, a tidal river, Hackensack River County Park, Borg's Woods Nature Preserve, various city parks, large office buildings, a major college campus, the Bergen County Court House, a vibrant small-city downtown district, various small neighborhood business districts. The first inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape, an Algonquian people who lived along the valley of what they called the Achinigeu-hach, or "Ackingsah-sack", meaning stony ground. A representation of Chief Oratam of the Achkinhenhcky appears on the Hackensack municipal seal; the most common explanation is that the city was named for the Native American tribe, though other sources attribute it to a Native American word variously translated as meaning "hook mouth", "stream that unites with another on low ground", "on low ground" or "land of the big snake", while another version described as "more colorful than probable" attributes the name to an inn called the "Hock and Sack".
Settlement by the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland on west banks of the North River across from New Amsterdam began in the 1630s at Pavonia leading to the establishment of Bergen in 1660. Oratam, sachem of the Lenni Lenape, deeded the land along mid-Hackensack River to the Dutch in 1665; the area kept its Dutch name. Philip Cartaret, governor of what became the proprietary colony of East Jersey granted land to Captain John Berry in the area of Achter Kol and soon after took up residence and called it "New Barbadoes," after having resided on the island of Barbados. In 1666, a deed was confirmed for the 2,260-acre tract, given earlier by Oratem to Sarah Kiersted in gratitude for her work as emissary and interpreter. Other grants were given at the English Neighborhood. In 1675, the East Jersey Legislature established the administrative districts:. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly; the seal of Bergen County bearing this date includes an image of an agreement between the settlers and the natives.
New Barbadoes Township, together with Acquackanonk Township, were formed by Royal charter on October 31, 1693. In 1700, the village of Hackensack was little more than the area around Main Street from the Courthouse to around Anderson Street. New Barbadoes Township included what is now Maywood, Rochelle Park and River Edge, along with those portions of Oradell that are west of the Hackensack River; these areas were all sparsely populated and consisted of farm fields and swamplands. The few roads that existed included the streets now known as Kinderkamack Road, Paramus Road/Passaic Street and Essex Street; the southernmost portions of what is now Hackensack were not part of New Barbadoes Township at that time. The neighborhood that came to be known as the village of Hackensack was a part of Essex County until 1710, when Bergen County, by royal decree of Queen Anne of Great Britain, was enlarged and the Township of New Barbadoes was removed from Essex County and added to Bergen County. In 1710, the village of Hackensack in the newly formed Township of New Barbadoes was designated as being more centrally located and more reached by the majority of the Bergen County's inhabitants, hence was chosen as the county seat of Bergen County, as it remains today.
The earliest records of the Bergen County Board of Chosen Freeholders date back to 1715, at which time agreement was made to build a courthouse and jail complex, completed in 1716. During the American Revolutionary War, George Washington headquartered in the village of Hackensack in November 1776 during the retreat from Fort Lee via New Bridge Landing and camped on'The Green' across from the First Dutch Reformed Church on November 20, 1776. A raid by British forces against Hackensack on March 23, 1780, resulted in the destruction by fire of the original courthouse structure; the Hackensack Improvement Commission was incorporated by an Act of the state legislature approved on April 1, 1868, within New Barbadoes township and including the village of Hackensack, with authority to develop sewers and other improv
Fort Lee, New Jersey
Fort Lee is a borough at the eastern border of Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, situated atop the Hudson Palisades. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 35,345, reflecting a decline of 116 from the 35,461 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,464 from the 31,997 counted in the 1990 Census; the borough is the western terminus of the George Washington Bridge and is located across the Hudson River from the Manhattan borough of New York City. Named for the site of an early American Revolutionary War military encampment, it became the birthplace of the American film industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.888 square miles, including 2.541 square miles of land and 0.347 square miles of water. The borough is situated atop the escarpment of the Hudson Palisades on the peninsula between the Hackensack and Hudson rivers; the borough is bisected by the confluence of roads at GWB Plaza leading to the George Washington Bridge.
Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Coytesville and Taylorville. The borough borders Cliffside Park, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Palisades Park, Ridgefield. and the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. Given its evolving cosmopolitan ambiance and adjacent proximity to Manhattan, Fort Lee is one of Northern New Jersey's Hudson Waterfront communities, called New York City's Sixth Borough, Fort Lee is named for General Charles Lee after George Washington and his troops had camped at Mount Constitution overlooking Burdett's Landing, in defense of New York City, it was during Washington's retreat in November 1776 that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, The American Crisis, which began with the recognized phrase, "These are the times that try men's souls." These events are recalled at Fort Lee Historic Park. Fort Lee was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 29, 1904, from the remaining portions of Ridgefield Township.
With the creation of Fort Lee, Ridgefield Township became defunct and was dissolved as of March 29, 1904. The Fort Lee Police Department was formed under borough ordinance on August 9, 1904, consisted of six marshals; the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison's "Black Maria", the first motion picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey. New Jersey offered land at costs less than New York City, the cities and towns on the North River and Hudson Palisades benefited as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century. Film-making began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, when the Kalem Company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio.
They were followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving Pictures Company, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès, World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee; such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. With the offshoot businesses that sprang up to service the film studios, for nearly two decades Fort Lee experienced unrivaled prosperity. However, just as the development of Fort Lee production facilities were gaining strength, Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911. Nestor Studios, owned by David and William Horsley merged with Universal Studios. California's more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s.
At the time, Thomas Edison owned all the patents relevant to motion picture production. Movie producers on the East Coast acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents, while movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control, in part due to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals–which was headquartered in San Francisco and covered most of Southern California–being well known not to enforce patents claims. Television and film in New Jersey remains an important industry. Since 2000, the Fort Lee Film Commission has been charged with celebrating the history of film in Fort Lee, as well as attracting film and television production companies to the borough, they will be opening the Barrymore Film Center to promote film making and its history. In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test.
Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Hungry? Eat popcorn" for 1/3000 of a second a