Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd known as Llywelyn the Last or Llywelyn Yr Ail, was Prince of Wales from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282. The son of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn Fawr and grandson of Llywelyn the Great, he was the last sovereign prince of Wales before its conquest by Edward I of England. Llywelyn was the second of the four sons of Gruffudd, the eldest son of Llywelyn the Great, Senana ferch Caradog, the daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas ap Rhodri, Lord of Anglesey; the eldest was Owain Goch ap Gruffudd and Llywelyn had two younger brothers, Dafydd ap Gruffudd and Rhodri ap Gruffudd. Llywelyn is thought to have been born around 1222 or 1223, he is first heard of holding lands in the Vale of Clwyd around 1244. Following his grandfather's death in 1240, Llywelyn's uncle, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, succeeded him as ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn's father and his brother, were kept prisoner by Dafydd transferred into the custody of King Henry III of England. Gruffudd died in 1244, from a fall while trying to escape from his cell at the top of the Tower of London.
The window from which he attempted to escape the Tower was bricked up and can still be seen to this day. This freed Dafydd ap Llywelyn's hand as King Henry could no longer use Gruffudd against him, war broke out between him and King Henry in 1245. Llywelyn supported his uncle in the savage fighting. Owain, was freed by Henry after his father's death in the hope that he would start a civil war in Gwynedd, but stayed in Chester, so when Dafydd died in February 1246 without leaving an heir, Llywelyn had the advantage of being on the spot. Llywelyn and Owain came to terms with King Henry and in 1247, signed the Treaty of Woodstock at Woodstock Palace; the terms they were forced to accept restricted them to Gwynedd Uwch Conwy, the part of Gwynedd west of the River Conwy, divided between them. Gwynedd Is Conwy, east of the river, was taken over by King Henry; when Dafydd ap Gruffudd came of age, King Henry accepted his homage and announced his intention to give him part of the reduced Gwynedd. Llywelyn refused to accept this, Owain and Dafydd formed an alliance against him.
This led to the Battle of Bryn Derwin in June 1255. Llywelyn defeated Owain and Dafydd and captured them, thereby becoming sole ruler of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy. Llywelyn now looked to expand his area of control; the population of Gwynedd Is Conwy resented English rule. This area known as "Perfeddwlad" had been given by King Henry to his son Edward and during the summer of 1256, he visited the area, but failed to deal with grievances against the rule of his officers. An appeal was made to Llywelyn, that November, crossed the River Conwy with an army, accompanied by his brother, whom he had released from prison. By early December, Llywelyn controlled all of Gwynedd Is Conwy apart from the royal castles at Dyserth and Dnoredudd as a reward for his support and dispossessing his brother-in-law, Rhys Fychan, who supported the king. An English army led by Stephen Bauzan invaded to try to restore Rhys Fychan but was decisively defeated by Welsh forces at the Battle of Cadfan in June 1257, with Rhys having slipped away to make his peace with Llywelyn.
Rhys Fychan now accepted Llywelyn as overlord, but this caused problems for Llywelyn, as Rhys's lands had been given to Maredudd. Llywelyn restored his lands to Rhys, but the king's envoys approached Maredudd and offered him Rhys's lands if he would change sides. Maredudd paid homage to Henry in late 1257. By early 1258, Llywelyn was using the title Prince of Wales, first used in an agreement between Llywelyn and his supporters and the Scottish nobility associated with the Comyn family; the English Crown refused to recognise this title however, in 1263, Llywelyn's brother, went over to King Henry. On 12 December 1263 in the commote of Ystumanner, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn did homage and swore fealty to Llywelyn. In return he was made a vassal lord and the lands taken from him by Llywelyn about six years earlier were restored to him. In England, Simon de Montfort defeated the king's supporters at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, capturing the king and Prince Edward. Llywelyn began negotiations with de Montfort, in 1265, offered him 30,000 marks in exchange for a permanent peace, in which Llywelyn's right to rule Wales would be acknowledged.
The Treaty of Pipton, 22 June 1265, established an alliance between Llywelyn and de Montfort, but the favourable terms given to Llywelyn in this treaty were an indication of de Montfort's weakening position. De Montfort was to die at the Battle of Evesham in a battle in which Llywelyn took no part. After Simon de Montfort's death, Llywelyn launched a campaign in order to gain a bargaining position before King Henry had recovered. In 1265, Llywelyn captured Hawarden Castle and routed the combined armies of Hamo Lestrange and Maurice fitz Gerald in north Wales. Llywelyn moved on to Brycheiniog, in 1266, he routed Roger Mortimer's army. With these victories and the backing of the papal legate, Llywelyn opened negotiations with the king, was recognised as Prince of Wales by King Henry in the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. In return for the title, the retention of the lands he had conquered and the homage of all the native rulers of Wales, he was to pay a tribute of 25,000 marks in yearly instalments of 3,000 marks, could if he wished, purchase the homage of the one outstandin
Powys Wenwynwyn or Powys Cyfeiliog was a Welsh kingdom which existed during the high Middle Ages. The realm was the southern portion of the former princely state of Powys which split following the death of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys in 1160: the northern portion went to Gruffydd Maelor and became known as Powys Fadog. Powys Wenwynwyn and Gwynedd became bitter rivals in the years that followed, with the former allying itself with England to further its own aims of weakening the latter. 1160–1195 Owain Cyfeiliog married a daughter of Owain Gwynedd and abdicated in 1195. 1195–1216 Gwenwynwyn ab OwainGwenwynwyn seized the cantref of Arwystli in 1197, when he was aligned with England. Following the marriage of Llywelyn the Great and Joan of England in 1208, warfare broke out once more between Gwenwynwyn and Llywelyn. In 1212 Gwenwynwyn's ancient royal seat at Mathrafal was destroyed and he was evicted from his territories, he changed allegiance again and was restored to his realm in 1215, making a new capital at Welshpool.
In 1216 he was defeated in battle with the forces of Llywelyn and fled to England, where he died shortly afterwards. He was succeeded by his son. 1216–1286 Gruffydd ap GwenwynwynGruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn spent his youth in England, maintained by King Henry III of England. He did not return to Wales until 1241 after the death of Llywelyn and when he was invested with the lordships of Arwystli, Mawddwy, Ystrad Marchell and Upper Mochnant by Henry III. At some time before this he married daughter of John Le Strange of Knockin, he transferred his allegiance back to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1263 before returning to England's protection again after 1276, following a failed plot to murder Prince Llywelyn in collusion with his rival's own brother, Dafydd ap Gruffydd. His forces, commanded by his son Owain ap Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, mobilised during the Welsh War of 1282–1283 with those of John Le Strange and Hugh le Despenser and it was their soldiers who ambushed and killed the last native Prince of Wales near Builth in 1282.
Owain ap Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn surrendered the principality of Powys to Edward I at the Parliament held in Shrewsbury in 1283. In return for surrendering the principality he received it again from the king as a free Baron of England "sub nomine et tenura liberi Baronagii Angliæ, resignando Domino Regi heredibus suis et Coronæ Angliæ nomen et circulum principatus." The date should be accepted with reserve because Owen did not succeed his father in possession until 1286: it is possible that Owen was acting on behalf of his father, by an old man. From about that time the former princely family began using the Normanised surname "de la Pole" instead of Welsh patronymics; the name derives from his principal town. After the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 all of the other old princely titles in Wales ceased to exist; however the principality continued as a marcher lordship. The ruling family of Powys survived in the children and remoter descendants of Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, henceforth known as the de la Pole family, who lived in the newly built Powis Castle.
In 1293 Owen de la Pole died and was succeeded by his son Griffith de la Pole, who died without heirs in 1309. The lordship was inherited by his sister Hawise "Gadarn", rather than to the male heirs, she died in 1349 and on the death of her husband John Charleton, 1st Baron Cherleton in 1353, the lordship passed to their children and thence out of native Welsh hands. Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn known as Gruffydd de la Pole Owen de la Pole, his son Gruffydd de la Pole, his son Hawise Gadarn, Lady of Powys, married John Charleton, 1st Baron Cherleton John Charleton, 2nd Baron Cherleton John Charleton, 3rd Baron Cherleton John Charleton, 4th Baron Cherleton Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton KG, his brother, his heiresses were: Joan de Cherleton, wife of John Grey, 1st Earl of Tankerville whose son was Henry Grey, 2nd Earl of Tankerville whose son was Richard Grey, 3rd Earl of Tankerville whose son was John Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Powis whose son was John Grey, 2nd Baron Grey of Powis married Margaret, daughter of Edward Sutton, 2nd Baron Dudley, whose son was Edward Grey, 3rd Baron Grey of Powis.
Joyce Charleton of Cherleton, wife of John Tiptoft, 1st Baron Tiptoft, whose daughter Joyce, carried the Tiptoft portion of the Cherleton inheritance to the family of her husband Sir Edmund Sutton of Dudley, which their grandson John Sutton, 3rd Baron Dudley, "Lord Quondam", sold to his nephew, the 3rd Baron Grey of Powis, circa 1538. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 abolished the feudal rights of the Lords of Powis and saw the territory of the Lordship of Powis entirely incorporated within the new county of Montgom
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o
The Llŷn Peninsula extends 30 miles into the Irish Sea from north west Wales, south west of the Isle of Anglesey. It is part of the historic county of Caernarfonshire, historic region and local authority area of Gwynedd. Much of the eastern part of the peninsula, around Criccieth, may be regarded as part of Eifionydd rather than Llŷn, although the boundary is somewhat vague; the area of Llŷn is about 400 km2, its population is at least 20,000. The peninsula was travelled by pilgrims en route to Bardsey Island, its relative isolation has helped to conserve the Welsh language and culture, for which the locality is now famous; this perceived remoteness from urban life has lent the area an unspoilt image which has made Llŷn a popular destination for both tourists and holiday home owners. Holiday homes remain a bone of contention among locals, many of whom are priced out of the housing market by incomers. From the 1970s to the 1990s, a shadowy group known as Meibion Glyndŵr claimed responsibility for several hundred arson attacks on holiday homes using incendiary devices, some of which took place in Llŷn.
The Llyn Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers c. 62 square miles. The name Llŷn is sometimes spelled Lleyn, although this spelling is now less common and is considered to be an anglicisation; the name is thought to be of Irish origin, to have the same root – Laigin in Irish – as the word Leinster and which occurs in Porth Dinllaen on the north coast. Following the death of Owain Whitetooth, king of Gwynedd, Owain's son Saint Einion seems to have ruled Llŷn as a kingdom separate from his brother Cuneglas' kingdom in Rhos, he is credited with having sponsored Saint Cadfan's monastery on Bardsey Island, which became a major centre of pilgrimage during medieval times. There are numerous wells throughout the peninsula. Many have holy connotations and they were important stops for pilgrims heading to the island; the most rural parts are characterised by small houses and individual farms, resembling parts of south west Ireland. There are small compact villages, built of traditional materials; the only large-scale industrial activities were quarrying and mining, which have now ceased.
The granite quarries of northern Llŷn have left a legacy of inclines and export docks, were the reason for the growth of villages such as Llithfaen and Trefor. Copper and lead were mined around Llanengan, while 196,770 long tons of manganese were produced at Y Rhiw between 1894 and 1945; the Penrhyn Dû mines have been extensively mined since the seventeenth century around Abersoch. Shipbuilding was important at Nefyn, Aberdaron and Llanaelhaearn, although the industry collapsed after the introduction of steel ships from 1880. Nefyn was an important herring port, most coastal communities fished for crab and lobster. Farming was simple and organic, but underwent major changes after the Second World War as machines came into widespread use. Land was drained and fields expanded and reseeded. From the 1950s onwards, extensive use was made of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, leading to drastic changes in the appearance of the landscape. Tourism developed after the railway to Pwllheli was built in 1867.
The town expanded with several large houses and hotels constructed, a tramway was built linking the town to Llanbedrog. After the Second World War, Butlins established a holiday camp at Penychain, which attracted visitors from the industrial cities of North West England and the West Midlands; as car ownership increased, the tourist industry spread to the countryside and to coastal villages such as Aberdaron, Abersoch and Nefyn, where many families supplemented their income by letting out rooms and houses. Pwllheli was the administrative centre of Llŷn for over 700 years, it was a royal maerdref of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, became a free borough following the English conquest. In the 18th and 19th centuries over 400 ships were built there. Llŷn is an extensive plateau dominated by mountains; the largest of these is Yr Eifl, although Garn Boduan, Garn Fadrun and Mynydd Rhiw are distinctive. Large stretches of the northern coast consist of steep cliffs and rugged rocks with offshore islands and stacks, while there are more extensive sandy beaches on the southern coast, such as Porth Neigwl and Castellmarch Beach.
North of Abersoch a series of sand dunes have developed. The landscape is divided into a patchwork of fields, with the traditional field boundaries, stone walls and cloddiau, a prominent feature; the geology of Llŷn is complex: the majority is formed from volcanic rocks of the Ordovician period. Rocks of Cambrian origin occur south of Abersoch. Numerous granite intrusions and outcrops of rhyolite form prominent hills such as Yr Eifl, whilst gabbro is found at the west end of Porth Neigwl; the western part of the peninsula is formed from Precambrian rocks, the majority of which are considered to form a part of the Monian Complex and thus to be related to the rocks of Anglesey. Numerous faults cut the area and a major shear zone - the Llyn Shear Zone - runs northeast to southwest through the Monian rocks. In 1984 there was an earthquake beneath the peninsula, which measured 5.4 on the Richter Scale and was felt in many parts of Ireland and western Britain. The area was overrun by Irish Sea ice during the ice ages and this has left a legacy of boulder clay and of meltwater channels.
Llŷn is notable for its large number of protected sites, including a national nature reserve at Cors Ge
Owain Lawgoch, full name Owain ap Thomas ap Rhodri, was a Welsh soldier who served in Spain, France and Switzerland. He led a Free Company fighting for the French against the English in the Hundred Years' War; as the last politically active descendant of Llywelyn the Great in the male line, he was a claimant to the title of Prince of Gwynedd and of Wales. Following the death of Llywelyn the Last in 1282 and the execution of his brother and successor Dafydd ap Gruffudd in 1283, Gwynedd paid fealty to and accepted English rule. Llywelyn's daughter Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn was committed to a nunnery at Sempringham, while the sons of Dafydd were kept in Bristol Castle until their deaths. Another of Llywelyn's brothers, Rhodri ap Gruffydd, renounced his rights in Gwynedd and spent much of his life in England as a royal pensioner, his son Thomas inherited lands in England in Surrey and Gloucestershire. Rhodri was content to end his life as a country gentleman in England, though his son Thomas ap Rhodri used the four lions of Gwynedd on his seal he made no attempt to win his inheritance.
Owain, his only son, was born in Surrey. Tatsfield, a small village only 17 miles from the centre of London, still has Welsh place names e.g. Maesmawr Road. Thomas died in 1363 and Owain returned from abroad to claim his patrimony in 1365. Owain Lawgoch was in French service by 1369 and his lands in Wales and England were confiscated; the year in which Owain entered the service of the king of France is uncertain. Froissart claims that he fought on the French side at the Battle of Poitiers, but there is no other evidence to support this, he was however deprived of his English lands in 1369, suggesting he was in the service of the French as leader of a Free Company when the period of truce between France and England following the Treaty of Brétigny ended and hostilities resumed in 1369. His French name was Yvain de Galles. Owain's company consisted of Welshmen, many of whom remained in French service for many years; the second in command of this company was Ieuan Wyn, known to the French as le Poursuivant d'Amour, a descendant of Ednyfed Fychan, Seneschal of Gwynedd under Owain's ancestors.
Owain received financial support while in France from Ieuan Wyn's father, Rhys ap Robert. While in French service Owain had good relations with Bertrand du Guesclin and others and gained the support of Charles V of France. Welsh soldiery and longbowmen who had fought for Edward I in his campaigns in North Wales remained armed and sold their services to Norman kings in their battles in Scotland and at Crecy and Poitiers; the Norman attempt to conquer Wales set in train events which reignited Welsh identity and raised up new Welsh military leaders such as Owain claiming descent from the ancient Princes of Wales. In May 1372 in Paris, Owain announced, he set sail from Harfleur with money borrowed from Charles V. Owain first attacked the island of Guernsey, was still there when a message arrived from Charles ordering him to abandon the expedition in order to go to Castile to seek ships to attack La Rochelle. Owain defeated an English and Gascon force at Soubise that year, capturing Sir Thomas Percy and Jean de Grailly, the Captal de Buch.
Another invasion of Wales was planned in 1373 but had to be abandoned when John of Gaunt launched an offensive. In 1374 he fought at Saintonge. In 1375 Owain was employed by Enguerrand de Coucy to help win Enguerrand's share of the Habsburg lands due to him as nephew of the former Duke of Austria. However, during the Gugler War they were defeated by the forces of Bern and had to abandon the expedition. In 1377 there were reports that Owain was planning another expedition, this time with help from Castile; the alarmed English government sent a spy, the Scot Jon Lamb, to assassinate Owain, given the task of besieging Mortagne-sur-Gironde in Poitou. Lamb gained Owain's confidence and became his chamberlain, which gave him the opportunity to stab Owain to death in July 1378, something Walker described as'a sad end to a flamboyant career'; the Issue Roll of the Exchequer dated 4 December 1378 records "To John Lamb, an esquire from Scotland, because he killed Owynn de Gales, a rebel and enemy of the King in France... £20".
With the assassination of Owain Lawgoch the direct line of the House of Cunedda became extinct. As a result, the claim to the title'Prince of Wales' fell to the other royal dynasties, of Deheubarth and Powys; the leading heir in this respect was Owain ap Gruffudd of Glyndyfrdwy, descended from both dynasties. A number of legends grew around Owain. Dafydd Meurig of Betws Bledrws was helping to drive cattle from Cardiganshire to London. On the way he cut himself a hazel stick, was still carrying it when he encountered a stranger on London Bridge; the stranger asked Dafydd where he had cut the stick, ended up accompanying him back to Wales to the place where the stick had been cut. The stranger told Dafydd to dig under the bush, this revealed steps leading down to a large cave illuminated by lamps, where a man seven feet tall with a red right hand was sleeping; the stranger told Dafydd. The quarry reservoir at Aberllefenni in Gwynedd was once known as Llyn Owain Lawgoch and there is a story linking him with the nearby mansion, Plas Aberllefenni, recorded in "Trem Yn Ol" by J. Arthur Williams.
In Guernsey, Owain is remembered as Yvon de Galles. He and his Aragonese mercenar
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Owain Goch ap Gruffydd
Owain ap Gruffudd, was brother to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Dafydd ap Gruffudd and, for a brief period in the late 1240s and early 1250s, ruler of part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Owain was the grandson of Llywelyn the Great, he was imprisoned together with his father in Criccieth Castle in 1239 by his uncle Dafydd ap Llywelyn, accompanied his father to England two years when Dafydd was forced to hand Gruffudd over to King Henry III of England. In 1244 Gruffudd was killed when a makeshift rope broke as he attempted to escape from the Tower of London; this freed Dafydd ap Llywelyn's hand as King Henry could no longer use Gruffudd against him, war broke out between him and King Henry in the spring of 1244. Owain meanwhile had been freed by Henry after his father's death in the hope that he would start a civil war in Gwynedd, but he remained at Chester, so that when Dafydd died unexpectedly in February 1246 without leaving an heir, his brother Llywelyn, who had supported his uncle against the king, had the advantage of being on the spot.
Owain and Llywelyn came to terms with King Henry, but were restricted by the terms of the Treaty of Woodstock in 1247 to Gwynedd Uwch Conwy, the part of Gwynedd west of the River Conwy, divided between them. Gwynedd Is Conwy, east of the river, was taken over by the king. Though paying homage to the English and Llywelyn soon broke with Henry III in protest over the ruthless raids being conducted on the Welsh borders; the third brother, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, came of age soon afterwards, King Henry accepted his homage and announced his intention of giving him a part of the much reduced Gwynedd. Llywelyn refused to accept this, Owain and Dafydd formed an alliance against him; this led to the Battle of Bryn Derwin in June 1255. Llywelyn defeated Owain and Dafydd and captured them, thereby becoming sole ruler of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy; the medieval Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion described the struggle thus: In those days great strife was bred at the instigation of the Devil between the sons of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, Namely Owain Goch and Dafydd on the one side, Llywelyn on the other.
And Llywelyn and his men, trusting in God, unafraid on Bryn Derwin the fierce coming of his brothers, a mighty host along with them. And before the end of one hour Owain Goch was captured and Dafydd fled, after many of his host had been slain. With his brothers out of the way, Llywelyn proceeded to extend Gwynedd's territory until it encompassed much of the rest of Wales, in the process claiming the title of Prince of Wales. Owain was imprisoned again, remained in prison until 1277. In a contemporary poem of the 13th century, court poet Hywel Foel ap Griffri laments Owain's captivity, describing him in the opening line as: Gŵr ysydd yn nhŵr yn hir westai, it is unclear where Owain was imprisoned, but some scholars believe he was kept in Dolbadarn Castle near Llanberis. Wherever he was kept, Llywelyn reluctantly released Owain in 1277 under the terms of the Treaty of Aberconwy, after some 20 years of captivity. Upon being released, Owain retired to his estate in north-west Wales and never again mounted a serious challenge to his brother Llywelyn's rule.
He is thought to have died c. 1282. List of rulers of Wales J. Beverley Smith Llywelyn ap Gruffudd: Tywysog Cymru