In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the volume of incoming water in unit time. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but often, one inflow may predominate, however, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be, strictly speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge. The dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Hinterrhein is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. The town is located near the start of the river Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, Hinterrhein is first mentioned in 1219 as de Reno. Hinterrhein has an area, as of 2006, of 48.4 km2, of this area,22. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 7. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 2% is settled, before 2017, the municipality was located in the Rheinwald sub-district, of the Hinterrhine district, after 2017 it was part of the Viamala Region. It is a located on the northern portal of the San Bernardino tunnel. Hinterrhein has a population of 66, as of 2008,6. 4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has stayed stable, as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 57. 7% male and 42. 3% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Hinterrhein is,9 people or 8. 6% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old,2 people or 1. 9% are 10 to 14, and 6 people or 5. 7% are 15 to 19.
Of the adult population,14 people or 13. 3% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 19 people or 18. 1% are 30 to 39,19 people or 18. 1% are 40 to 49, and 11 people or 10. 5% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 14 people or 13. 3% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old,9 people or 8. 6% are 70 to 79, there are 2 people or 1. 9% who are 80 to 89. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 76. 6% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SPS and the CVP. In Hinterrhein about 44. 8% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Hinterrhein has an unemployment rate of 0. 36%. As of 2005, there were 28 people employed in the economic sector. 2 people are employed in the sector and there is 1 business in this sector. 11 people are employed in the sector, with 4 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the table, Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common.
The Alte Landbrücke is listed as a Swiss heritage sites of national significance, between 1961 and 1990 Hinterrhein had an average of 121.4 days of rain per year and on average received 1,469 mm of precipitation
Oberalp Pass is a high mountain pass in the Swiss Alps connecting the cantons of Graubünden and Uri between Disentis and Andermatt. When the road closes depends on snowfall and varies between the end of October and the beginning of December, the road opens again in spring, usually by the end of April but sometimes not until mid May. In winter, a ski area extends to the Graubünden side, connecting the pass well into the Tujetsch territory to Dieni, the Rhine springs from a source nearby, which is marked by a working lighthouse. A multiday trekking route is signposted across Oberalp pass and along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, oberalpsee is located 20 m below, in the direction of Andermatt. Oberalppass railway station is located next to the Oberalppass road and it is at the base of the Oberalp ski area. The station is owned and run by the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn and it has 3 platforms, one of which is a bay platform from Andermatt, and is often closed during the winter. The railway on both sides of the station is a line, so Oberalppass is an important passing place.
Regional trains to Andermatt and Disentis/Mustér are operated hourly in each direction, with services to. The station has several Glacier Express trains and, during the season when the adjacent road is closed. The station has a waiting room, the station is the highest point on the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn network. The Oberalp Pass passes the Oberalp ski area, which is part of the Gotthard Oberalp Arena, there are currently plans for the ski area to be linked up with Nätschen, the neighbouring mountain, which is part of the Gotthard Oberalp Arena. List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes List of the highest Swiss passes Gotthard Oberalp Arena Profile on climbbybike. com Map, cycing elevation chart - both sides
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river. As an example of the definition above, the USGS at times considers the Missouri River as a tributary of the Mississippi River. But it follows the first definition above in using the combined Missouri - lower Mississippi length figure in lists of lengths of rivers around the world. This definition, from geographer Andrew Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution, is used by the National Geographic Society when pinpointing the source of rivers such as the Amazon or Nile. A definition given by the state of Montana agrees, stating that a source is never a confluence but is in a location that is the farthest, along water miles. Under this definition neither a lake nor a confluence of tributaries can be a river source. Likewise, the source of the Amazon River has been determined this way, when not listing river lengths, alternative definitions may be used.
In the case of the Missouri River and Clark would have had to travel to the east. to reach the source. Sometimes the source of the most remote tributary may be in an area that is more marsh-like, for example, the source of the River Tees is marshland. The furthest stream is often called the headstream. Headwaters are often small streams with cool waters because of shade and they may be glacial headwaters, waters formed by the melting of glacial ice. Headwater areas are the areas of a watershed, as opposed to the outflow or discharge of a watershed. The river source is often but not always on or quite near the edge of the watershed, for example, the source of the Colorado River is at the Continental Divide separating the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean watersheds of North America. A river is considered a geographic feature, with only one mouth. For an example, note how the Mississippi River and Missouri River sources are officially defined, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Mississippi River, Length,2,340 miles, Source, 47°14′22″N 95°12′29″W U. S.
For example, The River Thames rises in Gloucestershire, the White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. The word source, when applied to lakes rather than rivers or streams, refers to the lakes inflow
A lake is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams, natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers, in some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in, de, Moorlake, de, Wolfslake, de, German Lache, and Icelandic lækur.
Also related are the English words leak and leach, none of these definitions completely excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds. One definition of lake is a body of water of 2 hectares or more in area, others have defined lakes as waterbodies of 5 hectares and above, or 8 hectares and above. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more. The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre. In common usage, many bear names ending with the word pond. One textbook illustrates this point with the following, In Newfoundland, for example, almost every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin, the majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes. Finland has 187,888 lakes 500 square metres or larger, most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lakes average level by allowing the drainage of excess water.
Some lakes do not have an outflow and lose water solely by evaporation or underground seepage or both. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use. Globally, lakes are greatly outnumbered by ponds, of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area
Tujetsch is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. Tujetsch is first mentioned in 1237 as Thiuesch, Tujetsch has an area, as of 2006, of 133.9 km2. Of this area,25. 7% is used for agricultural purposes,1. 4% is settled while the remainder is non-productive. Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Disentis sub-district of the Surselva district and it is located at the entrance to the Oberalp Pass and at the source of the Vorderrhein river. Until 1920 there was no direct route between the halves on each bank of the Vorderrhein. Until 1976 Tujetsch was known as Tavetsch, Tujetsch has a population of 1,324. As of 2008,29. 1% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 25. 1%. Most of the population speaks Romansh, with German being second most common, as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 60. 2% male and 39. 8% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Tujetsch is,141 children or 9. 2% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 181 teenagers or 11. 9% are between 10 and 19.
Of the adult population,189 people or 12. 4% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 251 people or 16. 5% are between 30 and 39,243 people or 15. 9% are between 40 and 49, and 209 people or 13. 7% are between 50 and 59. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 55. 5% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SP and the FDP. In Tujetsch about 59. 9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Tujetsch has an unemployment rate of 1. 57%. As of 2005, there were 56 people employed in the economic sector. 177 people are employed in the sector and there are 19 businesses in this sector. 389 people are employed in the sector, with 66 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census,1,222 or 80. 1% are Roman Catholic, of the rest of the population, there are 23 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, and there are 6 individuals who belong to another Christian church.
There are 63 who are Islamic, there are 5 individuals who belong to another church,31 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 33 individuals did not answer the question
The Vorderrhein is one of the two sources of the Rhine. Its catchment area of 1,512 square kilometres is located predominantly in the canton of Graubünden, the Vorderrhein is about 76 kilometres long, thus more than 5% longer than the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur. The Vorderrhein, has a water flow of 53.8 m3/s. According to the Atlas of Switzerland of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, the source of the Vorderrhein–, Vorderrhein was the name of a judicial district that was created in 1851 with the reorganization of the judiciary of Graubünden. In 2001, it was annexed by the District Surselva, the largest communities along the Vorderrhein are Disentis and Ilanz. The Vorderrhein flows mostly in an east-northeast direction, through the Surselva and its north side is steep, with short valleys, the southern side, however, is divided by some long valleys. Consequently, its tributaries, the Rein da Sumvitg, the Glenner. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through the Flims Rockslide, near Reichenau, it joins the Hinterrhein to form the Rhine.
Some of the tributaries of the Vorderrhein are almost as long as the main branch, the longest headwater front of the Vorderrhein, is the Reno di Medel, which rises on the border of the municipality Quinto in Ticino. In the uppermost part of its course, it runs in the Val Cadlimo, south of the geomorphological main Alpine ridge, thanks to its attractive scenery and some interesting passage, the Vorderrhein is a popular river for paddling and rafting, especially the section between Ilanz and Versam. Along entire length of the Vorderrhein there is a railway line. From Disentis, the Furka-Oberalp line of the Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn runs to the Oberalp Pass, in the Ruinaulta area, the main road runs to the North of the river, and at its highest point, at Flims, it is about 480 metres above the Rhine. The Senda Sursilvana, a trail along the young Rhine River lead from the Oberalp Pass along the Vorderrhein in the direction of Chur. Natural Monument Ruinaulta flow description for water rides
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The largest city on the river Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days. The many castles and fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire, in the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The variant of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- to move, run, the grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine, the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in Rhine-kilometers, a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland.
The river length is shortened from the rivers natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. The total length of the Rhine, to the inclusion of Lake Constance and its course is conventionally divided as follows, The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein near Tamins-Reichenau. Above this point is the catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. It belongs almost exclusively to the Swiss Canton of Graubünden, ranging from Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Vorderrhein and the Rhine as a whole. The Hinterrhein rises in the Rheinwald valley below Mount Rheinwaldhorn, the Vorderrhein, or Anterior Rhine, springs from Lai da Tuma, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide. A multiday trekking route is signposted along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, or Posterior Rhine, starts from the Paradies Glacier, near the Rheinwaldhorn.
One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory, after three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau. The Vorderrhein arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva, one source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Reno di Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the Canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, all streams in the source area are partially, sometimes completely and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta through the Flims Rockslide, the whole stretch of the Vorderrhein to the Rhine confluence near Reichenau-Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana