Archaeological Survey of India
The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency attached to the Ministry of Culture, responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country. It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who became its first Director-General. ASI was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham who became its first Director-General; the first systematic research into the subcontinent's history was conducted by the Asiatic Society, founded by the British Indologist William Jones on 15 January 1784. Based in Calcutta, the society promoted the study of ancient Sanskrit and Persian texts and published an annual journal titled Asiatic Researches. Notable among its early members was Charles Wilkins who published the first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita in 1785 with the patronage of the Governor-General of India, Warren Hastings. However, the most important of the society's achievements was the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
This successful decipherment inaugurated the study of Indian palaeography. Armed with the knowledge of Brahmi, Alexander Cunningham, a protégé of Prinsep, carried out a detailed survey of the Buddhist monuments which lasted for over half a century. Inspired by early amateur archaeologists like the Italian military officer, Jean-Baptiste Ventura, Cunningham excavated stupas along the width, the length and breadth of India. While Cunningham funded many of his early excavations himself, in the long run, he realised the need for a permanent body to oversee archaeological excavations and the conservation of Indian monuments and used his stature and influence in India to lobby for an archaeological survey. While his attempt in 1848 did not meet with success, the Archaeological Survey of India was formed in 1861 by a statute passed into law by Lord Canning with Cunningham as the first Archaeological Surveyor; the survey was suspended between 1865 and 1871 due to lack of funds but restored by Lord Lawrence the Viceroy of India.
In 1871, the Survey was revived as a separate department and Cunningham was appointed as its first Director-General. Cunningham was succeeded as Director General by James Burgess. Burgess launched a yearly journal The Indian Antiquary and an annual epigraphical publication Epigraphia Indica as a supplement to the Indian Antiquary; the post of Director General was permanently suspended in 1889 due to a funds crunch and was not restored until 1902. In the interim period, conservation work in the different circles was carried out by the superintendents of the individual circles; the post of Director General was restored by Lord Curzon in 1902. Breaking with tradition, Curzon chose a 26-year-old professor of classical studies at Cambridge named John Marshall to head the survey. Marshall served as Director General for a quarter of a century and during his long tenure, he replenished and invigorated the survey whose activities were fast dwindling into insignificance. Marshall encouraged epigraphical studies.
The most significant event of his tenure was, the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization at Harappa and Mohenjodaro in 1921. The success and scale of the discoveries made ensured that the progress made in Marshall's tenure would remain unmatched. Marshall was succeeded by Harold Hargreaves in 1928. Hargreaves was succeeded by Daya Ram Sahni, supervisor of Marshall's excavation of Harappa in 1921−22, who in 1931, became the first Indian Director General of the survey. Sahni was succeeded by J. F. Blakiston and K. N. Dikshit both of whom had participated in the excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro. In 1944, a British archaeologist and army officer, Mortimer Wheeler took over as Director General. Wheeler served as Director General till 1948 and during this period he excavated the Iron Age site of Arikamedu and the Stone age sites of Brahmagiri and Maski in South India. Wheeler founded the journal Ancient India in 1946 and presided over the partitioning of ASI's assets during the Partition of India and helped establish an archaeological body for the newly formed Pakistan.
Wheeler was succeeded by N. P. Chakravarti in 1948; the National Museum was inaugurated in New Delhi on 15 August 1949 to house the artifacts displayed at the Indian Exhibition in the United Kingdom. Madho Sarup Vats and Amalananda Ghosh succeeded Chakravarti. Ghosh's tenure which lasted until 1968 is noted for the excavations of Indus Valley sites at Kalibangan and Dholavira; the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act was passed in 1958 bringing the archaeological survey under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture. Ghosh was succeeded by B. B. Lal who conducted archaeological excavations at Ayodhya to investigate whether a Ram Temple preceded the Babri Masjid. During Lal's tenure, the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act was passed recommending central protection for monuments considered to be "of national importance". Lal was succeeded by M. N. Deshpande who served from 1972 to 1978 and B. K. Thapar who served from 1978 to 1981. On Thapar's retirement in 1981, archaeologist Debala Mitra was appointed to succeed him - she was the first woman Director General of the ASI.
Mitra was succeeded by M. S. Nagaraja Rao, transferred from the Karnataka State Department of Archaeology. Archaeologists J. P. Joshi and M. C. Joshi succeeded Rao. M. C. Joshi was the Director General when the Babri Masjid was demolished in 1992 triggering Hindu-Muslim violence all over India; as a fallout of the demolition, Joshi was dismissed in 1993 and controversially replaced as Director General by Indian Administrative Service officer Achala Moulik, a move which inaugurated a tradition of appointing bureaucrats
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
Mirza Ghiyas Beg
Mirza Ghiyas Beg known by his title of I'timad-ud-Daulah, was an important Persian official in the Mughal empire, whose children served as wives and generals of the Mughal emperors. Born in Tehran, Ghiyas Beg belonged to a family of high officials, his fortunes fell into disfavor after the death of his father in 1576. Along with his pregnant wife Asmat Begum, his three children, they immigrated to India. There he was received by the Mughal emperor Akbar, was enrolled into his service. During the latters reign, Ghiyas Beg was appointed treasurer for the province of Kabul, his fortunes further increased during the reign of Akbar's son and successor Jahangir, who in 1611 married his daughter Nur Jahan and appointed Ghiyas Beg as his Prime minister. By 1615, Ghiyas Beg had risen to further prominence, when he was given the status of 6,000 men and was given a standard and drums, a prestige restricted for distinguished princes. Ghiyas Beg was a native of Tehran, was the youngest son of Khvajeh Mohammad-Sharif, a poet and vizier of Mohammad Khan Tekkelu and his son Tatar Soltan, the governor of the Safavid province of Khorasan.
Mohammad-Sharif was listed under the service of Shah Tahmasp I, where he in the start served as the vizier of Yazd and Biabanak for seven years. Thereafter he was appointed as the vizier of Isfahan, died there in 1576. Ghiyas Beg's elder brother, Mohammad-Taher Wasli, was a learned man who composed poetry under the pen name of Wasli. After the death of Ghiyas' father, his family fell into disgrace. Hoping to improve his family’s fortunes, Ghiyas Beg chose to relocate to India where the Emperor Akbar's court was said to be at the centre of the growing trade industry and cultural scene. Half way along their route the family was attacked by robbers who took from them the remaining meager possessions they had. Left with only two mules, Ghiyas Beg, his pregnant wife, their three children were forced to take turns riding on the backs of the animals for the remained of their journey; when the family arrived in Kandahar, Asmat Begam gave birth to their second daughter. The family was so impoverished; the family was taken in by a caravan led by the merchant noble Malik Masud, who would assist Ghiyas Beg in finding a job in the service of Emperor Akbar.
Believing that the child had signaled a change in the family’s fate, she was named Mehrunnisa, meaning "sun among women". Ghiyas Beg was the not the first member of his family to move to India—his cousin Asaf Khan Jafar Beg and the uncle of Asmat Begum, Mirza Ghiyasuddin Ali Asaf Khan, had been enrolled into the provincial assignments of Akbar. Ghiyas was appointed diwan for the province of Kabul. Due to his astute skills at conducting business he rose through the ranks of the high administrative officials. For his excellent work he was awarded the title of ‘‘Itimad-ud-Daula‘‘ by the emperor; as a result of his work and promotions, Ghiyas Beg was able to ensure that Mehirunnisa would have the best possible education. She became well versed in Persian, she became well versed in art, literature and dance. Ghiyas' daughter, Mehrunissa married Akbar's son Jahangir in 1611, his son Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan served as a general to Jahangir. Ghiyas was the grandfather of Mumtaz Mahal, the wife of the emperor Shah Jahan, responsible for the building of the Taj Mahal.
Jahangir was succeeded by his son Shah Jahan, Abdul Hasan served as one of Shah Jahan's closest advisors. Shah Jahan married Abdul Hasan's daughter Arjumand Banu Begum, Mumtāz Mahal, the mother of his four sons, including his successor Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal to serve as Mumtaz Mahal's tomb. Ghiyas Beg died near Kangra in 1622 while the Mughal camp was moving towards its summer residence in Kashmir, his body was carried back to Agra. His burial place still stands till this day, is known as Tomb of I'timad-ud-Daulah. Shokoohy, Mehrdad. "GĪĀṮ BEG, ʿEʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 6. Pp. 594–595. Nath, Renuka. Notable Mughal and Hindu women in the 16th and 17th centuries A. D. New Delhi: Inter-India Publ. ISBN 9788121002417. Gold, Claudia. Queen, Concubine: Fifty Women Rulers from Cleopatra to Catherine the Great. London: Quercus. ISBN 978-1-84724-542-7. Banks Findley, Ellison. Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India. Oxford, UK: Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India. ISBN 9780195074888.
Keay, John. India: A History. Grove Press, New York
The Yamuna known as the Jumna or Jamuna, is the second largest tributary river of the Ganges and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres, 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years, it crosses several states: Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Uttarakhand and Delhi, meeting its tributaries on the way, including Tons, its largest tributary, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, Ken. From Uttaranchal, the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh. After passing Paonta Sahib, Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganga at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad.
It helps create the fertile alluvial Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna's waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres and usage of 4,400 cbm, the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi's water supply. Like the Ganges, the Yamuna is venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. In Hindu mythology she is the daughter of the Sun Deva and the sister of Yama, the Deva of Death, hence known as Yami. According to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death. At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined only by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, by the polluted Hindon River near Noida, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.
The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad barrage in Delhi, about 375 kilometres. One official described the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content. There are three main sources of pollution in the river: household and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture, resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites; the Yamuna from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage is called the Upper Yamuna. The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna. Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth's crust caused by plate tectonics; the source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres, on the south-western slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand.
Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana. From Markendeya Tirtha, the river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres, through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range. Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna, highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs, steep rock benches and stream terraces. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, such as those near Naugoan. An important part of its early catchment area, totalling 2,320 square kilometres, lies in Himachal Pradesh; the Tons, Yamana's largest tribuary, drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream. It rises from merges after Kalsi near Dehradun.
The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal draining the ridge of Shimla. Kalanag is the highest point of the Yamuna basin. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Hanuman Ganga and Bata, which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin. From the upper catchment area, the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley, at Dak Pathar near Dehradun. Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation. Further downstream, the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage, which hosts a bird sanctuary. After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib, the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana. A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals, the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals, which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh; the Western Yamuna Canal (W
Carnelian is a brownish-red mineral used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, harder and darker. Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide; the color can vary ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. It is most found in Brazil, India and Germany; the red variety of chalcedony has been known to be used as beads since the Early Neolithic in Bulgaria. The first faceted carnelian beads are described from the Varna Chalolithic necropolis; the bow drill was used to drill holes into carnelian in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BC. Carnelian was recovered from Bronze Age Minoan layers at Knossos on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts. Carnelian was used during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Sard was used for Assyrian cylinder seals and Phoenician scarabs, early Greek and Etruscan gems.
The Hebrew odem, the first stone in the High Priest's breastplate, was a red stone sard but red jasper. In Revelation 4:3, the One seated on the heavenly throne seen in the vision of John the apostle is said to "look like jasper and'σαρδίῳ'", and it is in Revelation 21:20 as one of the precious stones in the foundations of the wall of the heavenly city. Although now the more common term, "carnelian" is a 16th-century corruption of the 14th-century word "cornelian". Cornelian, cognate with similar words in several Romance languages, comes from the Mediaeval Latin corneolus, itself derived from the Latin word cornum, the cornel cherry, whose translucent red fruits resemble the stone; the Oxford English Dictionary calls "carnelian" a perversion of "cornelian", by subsequent analogy with the Latin word caro, flesh. According to Pliny the Elder, sard derived its name from the city of Sardis in Lydia from which it came, according to others, may be related to the Persian word سرد sered, meaning yellowish red.
The names carnelian and sard are used interchangeably, but they can be used to describe distinct subvarieties. The general differences are as follows: All of these properties vary across a continuum, so the boundary between carnelian and sard is inherently blurry. Carnelian List of minerals Allchin, B. 1979. "The agate and carnelian industry of Western India and Pakistan". – In: South Asian Archaeology 1975. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 91–105. Beck, H. C. 1933. "Etched carnelian beads". – The Antiquaries Journal, 13, 4, 384–398. Bellina, B. 2003. "Beads, social change and interaction between India and South-east Asia". – Antiquity, 77, 296, 285–297. Brunet, O. 2009. "Bronze and Iron Age carnelian bead production in the UAE and Armenia: new perspectives". – Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 39, 57–68. Carter, A. K. L. Dussubieux. 2016. "Geologic provenience analysis of agate and carnelian beads using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: A case study from Iron Age Cambodia and Thailand".
– J. Archeol. Sci.: Reports, 6, 321–331. Cornaline de l'Inde. Des pratiques techniques de Cambay aux techno-systèmes de l'Indus. 2000. Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme, Paris, 558 pp. Glover, I. 2001. "Cornaline de l'Inde. Des pratiques techniques de Cambay aux techno-systèmes de l'Indus. – Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, 88, 376–381. Inizan, M.-L. 1999. "La cornaline de l’Indus à la Mésopotamie, production et circulation: la voie du Golfe au IIIe millénaire". – In: Cornaline et pierres précieuses. De Sumer à l'Islam, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 127–140. Insoll, T. D. A. Polya, K. Bhan, D. Irving, K. Jarvis. 2004. "Towards an understanding of the carnelian bead trade from Western India to sub-Saharan Africa: the application of UV-LA-ICP-MS to carnelian from Gujarat and West Africa". – J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 8, 1161–1173. Kostov, R. I.. "Complex faceted and other carnelian beads from the Varna Chalcolithic necropolis: archaeogemmological analysis". Proceedings of the International Conference "Geology and Archaeomineralogy".
Sofia, 29–30 October 2008. Sofia: Publishing House "St. Ivan Rilski": 67–72. Mackay, E. 1933. "Decorated carnelian beads". – Man, 33, Sept. 143–146. Theunissen, R. 2007. "The agate and carnelian ornaments". – In: The Excavations of Noen U-Loke and Non Muang Kao. The Thai Fine Arts Department, Bangkok, 359–377. Mindat article on carnelian Mindat article on sard
A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire; the English word "cenotaph" derives from the Greek: κενοτάφιον kenotaphion. Cenotaphs were common in the ancient world, with many built in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and across Northern Europe; the cenotaph in Whitehall, London - designed in 1919 by Sir Edwin Lutyens - influenced the design of many other war memorials in Britain and in the British sectors of the Western Front, as well as those in other Commonwealth nations. The Church of Santa Engrácia, in Lisbon, turned into a National Pantheon in 1966, holds six cenotaphs, namely to Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Henry the Navigator.
The Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, contains a number of cenotaphs, including one for Dante Alighieri, buried in Ravenna. A cenotaph is the focal point of the Voortrekker Monument in South Africa, it is situated below the other main point of interest, a marble Historical Frieze in the Hall of Heroes, is visible through a round opening in the floor. The Hall of Heroes itself has a dome from the summit of which one can view the interior of the monument. At noon on 16 December each year the sun shines through another opening in the dome onto the middle of the cenotaph, where the words Ons vir Jou, Suid-Afrika are inscribed; the ray of sunshine symbolises God's blessing on the endeavours of the Voortrekkers. 16 December is the date in 1838. Durban, South Africa, has a striking and unusual cenotaph made of granite and lavishly decorated with brightly coloured ceramics. Port Elizabeth, South Africa, has a cenotaph. Located on the edge of St George's Park in Rink Street, it was designed by Elizabeth Gardner to commemorate the men who died in the First World War and was erected by the monumental mason firm of Pennachini Bros.
On either side of the central sarcophagus are statues by Technical College Art School principal, James Gardner, who served in the trenches during the war. One depicts St George and the Dragon, the other depicts the sanctity of family life. Surrounding the sarcophagus are a number of bas-relief panels depicting scenes and people during the First World War, it was unveiled by Mrs W F Savage and dedicated by Canon Mayo on 10 November 1929. A surrounding memorial wall commemorates the men and women killed during World War II. In Livingstone there is a cenotaph at the Eastern Cataract of The Victoria Falls with the names of the men of Northern Rhodesia who died during the Great War 1914–18, it was unveiled by HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught on 1 August 1923. There is a cenotaph in Lusaka at Embassy Park, opposite the Cabinet Office along Independence Avenue, commemorates those Zambians who fought and died in World Wars I & II; the cenotaph was commemorated in 1977. A monument which has come to be known to as the "Cenotaph" was erected in Plaza San Martín, in downtown Buenos Aires, to commemorate the Argentinian soldiers who died during the Falklands War, in 1982.
The monument consists of a series of plaques of black marble with the names of the fallen, surrounding a flame, during the day is guarded by two soldiers. Another cenotaph, a replica of the Argentine Military Cemetery in Darwin on the Falkland Islands, exists in Campo de Mayo, a large Army facility and training field just outside Buenos Aires. A limestone replica of the Cenotaph at Whitehall in London was erected outside the Cabinet Building in Hamilton, Bermuda in 1920. In Canada, major cenotaphs commemorating the nation's war dead in World War I and conflicts include the National War Memorial in Ottawa, and in Midland Ontario. In the Falkland Islands, there are several war memorials to commemorate those killed in the Falklands War in 1982; the main memorial for Falkland Islanders is the 1982 Liberation Memorial, a cenotaph erected in Stanley in 1984 which lists all the British Army regiments, RAF squadrons, Royal Navy vessels and the Royal Marine formations and units that took part in the conflict.
The names of the 255 British military personnel who died during the war are listed on ten plaques behind the Memorial, divided into the service branches. Services are held at the Memorial each year on 14 June and on Remembrance Sunday, with wreaths being laid at the foot of the Memorial. In the United States, a cenotaph in Yale University's Hewitt Quad honours men of Yale who died in battle; the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas is described as a cenotaph. The Battle Monument in Baltimore, Maryland commemorates the Battle of Baltimore, the Battle of North Point on 12 September 1814, the Bombardment of Fort McHenry on 13–14 September, the stand-off on Loudenschlager's Hill, it has an Egyptian Revival cenotaph base, surmounted by a fasces bound together with ribbons bearing the names of the dead. It was designed by French émigré architect Maximilian Godefroy in 1815, construction was completed in 1827, it is considered the first war memorial in America, an early example of a memori
Humayun's tomb is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India. The tomb was commissioned by Humayun's first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum, in 1569-70, designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad, Persian architects chosen by her, it was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, is located in Nizamuddin East, India, close to the Dina-panah Citadel known as Purana Qila, that Humayun found in 1533. It was the first structure to use red sandstone at such a scale; the tomb was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993, since has undergone extensive restoration work, complete. Besides the main tomb enclosure of Humayun, several smaller monuments dot the pathway leading up to it, from the main entrance in the West, including one that pre-dates the main tomb itself, by twenty years; the complex encompasses the main tomb of the Emperor Humayun, which houses the graves of Empress Bega Begum, Hamida Begum, Dara Shikoh, great-great-grandson of Humayun and son of the Emperor Shah Jahan, as well as numerous other subsequent Mughals, including Emperor Jahandar Shah, Rafi Ul-Darjat, Rafi Ud-Daulat, Muhammad Kam Bakhsh and Alamgir II.
It represented a leap in Mughal architecture, together with its accomplished Charbagh garden, typical of Persian gardens, but never seen before in India, it set a precedent for subsequent Mughal architecture. It is seen as a clear departure from the modest mausoleum of his father, the first Mughal Emperor, called Bagh-e Babur in Kabul. Though the latter was the first Emperor to start the tradition of being buried in a paradise garden. Modelled on Gur-e Amir, the tomb of his ancestor and Asia's conqueror Timur in Samarkand, it created a precedent for future Mughal architecture of royal mausolea, which reached its zenith with the Taj Mahal, at Agra; the site was chosen on the banks of Yamuna river, due to its proximity to Nizamuddin Dargah, the mausoleum of the celebrated Sufi saint of Delhi, Nizamuddin Auliya, much revered by the rulers of Delhi, whose residence, Chilla Nizamuddin Auliya lies just north-east of the tomb. In Mughal history, the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar took refuge here, during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, along with three princes, was captured by Captain Hodson before being exiled to Rangoon.
At the time of the Slave Dynasty this land was under the'KiloKheri Fort', capital of Sultan Kequbad, son of Nasiruddin. The Tombs of Battashewala Complex lie in the buffer zone of the World Heritage Site of the Humayun Tomb Complex. After his death on 27 January 1556, Humayun's body was first buried in his palace in Purana Quila at Delhi. Thereafter it was taken to Sirhind, in Punjab by Khanjar Beg and in 1558, it was seen by his son, the Mughal Emperor, Akbar. Akbar subsequently visited the tomb when it was about to be completed in 1571; the tomb of Humayun was built by the orders of Humayun's first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum. The construction began in 1565, nine years after his death, completed in 1572 AD at a cost of 1.5 million ruppees at the time. The cost for building the mausoleum was paid by Empress Bega Begum; when Humayun had died in 1556, Bega Begum was so grieved over her husband's death that she dedicated her life thenceforth to a sole purpose: the construction of the most magnificent mausoleum in the Empire, at a site near the Yamuna River in Delhi for the memorial of the late Emperor.
According to Ain-i-Akbari, a 16th-century detailed document written during the reign of Akbar, Haji Begum supervised the construction of the tomb after returning from Mecca and undertaking the Hajj pilgrimage. According to Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, one of the few contemporary historians to mention its construction, the architect of the tomb was the Persian architect, Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, brought from Herat, had designed several buildings in Herat and others elsewhere in India. Ghiyas, to whom the mausoleum's exquisite design is attributed was chosen to be the architect by Empress Bega Begum. Before the structure's completion, he died and so his son Sayyed Muhammad ibn Mirak Ghiyathuddin completed his father's design in 1571. An English merchant, William Finch, who visited the tomb in 1611, describes the rich interior furnishing of the central chamber, he mentioned the presence of rich carpets, a shamiana, a small tent above the cenotaph, covered with a pure white sheet and with copies of the Quran in front along with his sword and shoes.
The fortunes of the once famous Charbagh gardens, which spread over 13 hectares surrounding the monument, changed over the years after its construction. The capital had shifted to Agra in 1556, the decline of the Mughals accelerated the decay of the monument and its features, as the expensive upkeep of the garden proved impossible. By the early 18th century, the once lush gardens were replaced by vegetable garden of people who had settled within the walled area. However, the capture of the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 together with the premises, his subsequent sentencing to exile, along with execution of his three sons, meant that the monument’s w