Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
"Louie Louie" is an American rhythm and blues song written and composed by Richard Berry in 1955 and best known for the 1963 hit version by The Kingsmen. It has become a standard with hundreds of versions recorded by different artists; the song is based on the tune "El Loco Cha Cha” popularized by bandleader René Touzet and is an example of Latin influence on American popular music. "Louie Louie" tells, in simple verse–chorus form, the first-person story of a Jamaican sailor returning to the island to see his lady love. The Kingsmen's recording was the subject of an FBI investigation about the supposed, but nonexistent, obscenity of the lyrics, an investigation that ended without prosecution; the recording notably includes the drummer yelling "Fuck!" after dropping his drumstick at the 0:54 mark. "Louie Louie" has been recognized by organizations and publications worldwide for its influence on the history of rock and roll. A partial list includes the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Grammy Hall of Fame, National Public Radio, VH1, Rolling Stone Magazine, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Recording Industry Association of America.
In addition to new versions appearing on YouTube and elsewhere, other major examples of the song's legacy include the celebration of International Louie Louie Day every year on April 11. The tune was written as "Amarren Al Loco" by Cuban bandleader Rosendo Ruiz Jr. known as Rosendo Ruiz Quevedo, but became best known in the "El Loco Cha Cha" arrangement by René Touzet which included a rhythmic ten-note "1-2-3 1–2 1-2-3 1–2" riff. Touzet performed the tune in Los Angeles clubs in the 1950s. In Berry's mind, the words "Louie Louie" superimposed themselves over the bass riff. Lyrically, the first person perspective of the song was influenced by "One for My Baby,", sung from the perspective of a customer talking to a bartender. Berry cited Chuck Berry's "Havana Moon" and his exposure to Latin American music for the song's speech pattern and references to Jamaica. Richard Berry released his version in April of 1957 as a B-side, with his backing band the Pharaohs, scored a regional hit on the west coast in San Francisco.
When the group toured the Pacific Northwest, local R&B bands began to play the song, increasing its popularity. The track was re-released as an A-side. However, the single never charted on Billboard's national blues or pop charts. Berry's label reported. After a series of unsuccessful follow-ups, Berry sold his portion of publishing and songwriting rights for $750 to the head of Flip Records in 1959. While the title of the song is rendered with a comma, in 1988, Berry told Esquire magazine that the correct title of the song was "Louie Louie," with no comma. Although similar to the original, the version on Rhino's 1983 The Best of Louie, Louie compilation is a note-for-note re-recording created because licensing could not be obtained for Berry's 1957 version; the original version was not released on CD until the Ace Records Love That Louie compilation in 2002. By some accounts "Louie Louie" is the world's most recorded rock song with over 1,600 versions and counting. Robin Roberts developed an interest in rock'n' roll and rhythm and blues records as a high school student in Tacoma, Washington.
Among the songs he began performing as an occasional guest singer with a local band, the Bluenotes, in 1958 were "Louie Louie", which he had heard on Berry's obscure original single, Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin", which gave him his stage name. In 1959, Roberts began singing with another local band, the Wailers. Known for his dynamic onstage performances, Roberts added "Louie Louie" to the band's set and, in 1960 recorded the track with the Wailers as his backing band; the arrangement, devised by Roberts with the band, included Roberts' ad-lib "Let's give it to'em, RIGHT NOW!!" Released on the band's own label, Etiquette, in early 1961, it became a hit locally and was reissued and promoted by Liberty Records in Los Angeles, but it failed to chart. Roberts was killed in an automobile accident in 1967. On April 6, 1963, a rock and roll group from Portland, called the Kingsmen, chose "Louie Louie" as their second recording, their first having been "Peter Gunn Rock"; the Kingsmen recorded the song at Inc..
Motion Pictures and Recording in Portland. The session cost $50, the band split the cost; the session was produced by Ken Chase. Chase was a local radio personality on the AM rock station 91 KISN and owned the teen nightclub that hosted the Kingsmen as their house band; the engineer for the session was Robert Lindahl. The Kingsmen's lead singer Jack Ely based his version on the recording by Rockin' Robin Roberts with the Fabulous Wailers, unintention
Dead Moon was an American punk rock band from 1987 to 2006, formed in Portland, United States. Fronted by singer/guitarist Fred Cole, the band included bassist Kathleen "Toody" Cole, Fred's wife, drummer Andrew Loomis. Veterans of Portland's independent rock scene, Dead Moon combined dark and lovelorn themes with punk and country music influences into a stripped-down sound. Fred Cole engineered most of the band's recordings and mastered them on a mono lathe, used for The Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie", their early records, such as In the Graveyard, were released on the Tombstone Records label, named for the musical equipment store Fred and Toody operated at the time. Soon they caught the attention of the German label Music Maniac Records, toured Europe successfully. Not until the mid-nineties did they tour the United States. Much of their following was in Europe. A U. S. filmmaking team produced a 2004 documentary, Unknown Passage: The Dead Moon Story, which played in independent theaters around the U.
S. New Zealand, at the Melbourne International Film Fest, was released on DVD in the fall of 2006. Dead Moon has recorded for labels such as Empty Records, but most releases are on Music Maniac worldwide and Tombstone in the U. S; the Tombstone label has provided cheap mastering and duplication for other bands, serving more as a cooperative than a promotional vehicle. Though Fred and Toody were in their fifties, they showed no signs of slowing down on their 2004 release Dead Ahead, continuing to tour the globe until 2006, which saw the release of the Echoes of the Past compilation. In December 2006, near the end of the Echoes of the Past tour, Dead Moon announced that they were breaking up the band, their last gig was at the Vera club in Groningen on November 26, 2006. Fred and Toody owned and operated their guitar shop, Tombstone Music, for 30 years and ran the Tombstone General Store in Clackamas, Oregon for about eight years. Pearl Jam covered the song "It's O. K.". Eddie Vedder of Pearl Jam has covered "Diamonds in the Rough" and "Running Out of Time" with C-Average.
Fred and Toody formed a new band called Pierced Arrows with Portland punk musician Kelly Halliburton, whose father played in a band called "Albatross" with Fred in 1972, of Severed Head of State and Murder Disco X. Pierced Arrows played their first show, debuting on May 18, 2007 at Portland’s Ash Street Saloon with the reformed Poison Idea. Andrew Loomis played drums for a band called The Shiny Things from Washington, their former drummer, Andrew Loomis, died on March 8, 2016. He was aged 54. Frontman Fred Cole died on November 9, 2017 from liver disease. Toody is known to play a late-1960s semi-hollow Vox teardrop bass, due to its shorter-scale length and ease of use, she plays through a V-4 Ampeg and Ampeg SVT bass amp head and has used an Ampeg 4x12 Speaker Cab live. In Europe, Toody uses a VHT 2-15 Speaker cab. Fred uses a Guild Thunderbird Guitar, he has a 4x12 cab in the US and one in Europe. Fred and Toody both prefer. Andrew used a kick, hat, floor tom, one ride cymbal mostly. In the Graveyard Unknown Passage Defiance Stranded in the Mystery Zone Strange Pray Tell Crack in the System Nervous Sooner Changes Destination X Trash & Burn Dead Ahead Dead Moon Night Thirteen Off My Hook Echoes of the Past Live Evil Hard Wired in Ljubljana Alive In The Unknown Live at The Casbah 10/21/2004 Dead Moon, Live at Satyricon "Parchment Farm" "Don't Burn the Fires" "Black September" "D.
O. A." "Over the Edge" "Fire in the Western World" "Day After Day" "Clouds of Dawn" "Dirty Noise" "Ricochet" "Sabotage" Christgau, Robert. "Dead Moon: Echoes of the Past". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 29, 2017. Official website Official Dead Moon Myspace
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Kingsmen are a 1960s garage rock band from Portland, United States. Their 1963 recording of Richard Berry's "Louie Louie" held the No. 2 spot on the Billboard charts for six weeks and has become an enduring classic. In 1959, Lynn Easton invited Jack Ely to play with him at a Portland Hotel gig, with Ely singing and playing guitar and Easton on the drum kit; the two teenagers grew up together. Easton and Ely performed at yacht club parties, soon added Mike Mitchell on guitar and Bob Nordby on bass to round out the band, they called themselves the Kingsmen, taking the name from a disbanded group. The Kingsmen began their collective career playing at fashion shows, Red Cross events, supermarket promotions avoiding rock songs on their setlist. In 1962, while playing a gig at the Pypo Club in Seaside, Oregon managed by Al Dardis, the band noticed Rockin' Robin Roberts's version of "Louie Louie" being played on the jukebox for hours on end; the entire club would dance. Ely convinced the Kingsmen to learn the song.
Unknown to him, he changed the beat. Ken Chase, host of radio station KISN, formed his own club to capitalize on these dance crazes. Dubbed the "Chase", the Kingsmen became the club's house band and Ken Chase became the band's manager. On April 5, 1963, Chase booked the band an hour-long session at the local Northwestern Inc. studio for the following day. The band had just played a 90-minute "Louie Louie" marathon. Despite the band's annoyance at having so little time to prepare, on April 6 at 10 am the Kingsmen walked into the three-microphone recording studio. In order to sound like a live performance, Ely was forced to lean back and sing to a microphone suspended from the ceiling. "It was more yelling than singing," Ely said, "'cause I was trying to be heard over all the instruments." In addition, he was wearing braces at the time of the performance, further compounding his infamously slurred words. Ely sang the beginning of the third verse several bars too early, but realized his mistake and waited for the rest of the band to catch up.
In what was thought to be a warm-up, the song was recorded in its first and only take. The Kingsmen were not proud of the version; the B-side was "Haunted Castle", composed by the new keyboardist. However, Lynn Easton was credited on both the Wand releases; the entire session cost $50, the band split the cost."Louie Louie" was kept from the top spot on the charts in late 1963 and early 1964 by the Singing Nun and Bobby Vinton, who monopolized the No. 1 slot for four weeks apiece. The Kingsmen single reached No. 1 on No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Additionally it reached No. 1 on the CHUM Canada chart and in the UK it reached No. 26 on the Record Retailer chart. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc. Wand issued a re-release in 1966 as "Louie Louie 64-65-66" and it re-entered the Billboard Hot 100 at No. 97. The band attracted nationwide attention when "Louie Louie" was banned by the governor of Indiana, Matthew E. Welsh attracting the attention of the FBI because of alleged indecent lyrics in their version of the song.
The lyrics were, in fact, but Ely's baffling enunciation permitted teenage fans and concerned parents alike to imagine the most scandalous obscenities. All of this attention only made the song more popular. In April 1966 "Louie Louie" was reissued and once again hit the music charts, reaching No. 65 on the Cashbox chart and No. 97 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. In 1985, Ross Shafer, host and a writer-performer of the late-night comedy series Almost Live! on the Seattle TV station KING, spearheaded an effort to have "Louie Louie" replace "Washington, My Home" by Helen Davis as Washington's official state song. Picking up on this prankish effort, Whatcom County Councilman Craig Cole introduced Resolution No. 85-12 in the state legislature, citing the need for a "contemporary theme song that can be used to engender a sense of pride and community, in the enhancement of tourism and economic development". His resolution called for the creation of a new "Louie Louie County". While the House did not pass it, the Senate's Resolution 1985-37 declared April 12, 1985, "Louie Louie Day".
A crowd of 4,000, estimated by press reports, convened at the state capitol that day for speeches and performances by the Wailers, the Kingsmen, Paul Revere and the Raiders. Two days a Seattle event commemorated the occasion with the premiere performance of a new, Washington-centric version of the song written by composer Berry. Over the years the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" has been recognized by organizations and publications worldwide for its influence on the history of rock and roll. Rankings and recognition in major publications and surveys are shown in the table below. Before the success of "Louie Louie", the members of the Kingsmen took varied paths. Easton, whose mother had registered the name of the group and therefore owned it, declared that from this point on he intended to be the singer, forcing Ely to play the drums; this led Jack Ely and Bob Nordby to quit the group in 1963. Don Gallucci was forced out because he wasn't old enough to tour and formed Don and the Goodtimes, which morphed into the short-lived Touch.
Gallucci became a record producer with Elektra Records, with his most famous production being the Stooges' seminal second album Fun House. The two remaining original Kingsmen, Lynn Easton and Mike Mitchell
Fred Cole (musician)
Frederick Lee Cole was an American rock singer and guitarist who played with several bands from the 1960s until his death, most notably The Lollipop Shoppe, Dead Moon, Pierced Arrows. He was associated with the garage punk genre though he was influenced by hard rock, blues and folk music; the majority of his recorded output was self-financed and independently released on his own record label. In 1964, Cole began his recording career in Las Vegas with his band, the Lords, at the Teenbeat Club, releasing a single titled "Ain't Got No Self-Respect." His next single, from 1965, was a promo-only called "Poverty Shack" b/w "Rover," with a band named Deep Soul Cole. In 1966 Cole's band The Weeds gained notice in garage rock circles, their only single, a 1960s punk track called It's Your Time, has become a collectors' favorite; the A-side appeared on one of the Nuggets anthologies. The band was promised an opening slot on a Yardbirds bill at the Fillmore in San Francisco, but on their arrival found that the venue hadn't heard of them.
Angry at management and fearing the military draft, the band decided to head up to Canada, but ran out of gas in Portland, Oregon. There, they started playing at a club called the Folk Singer. Cole and Toody soon fell in love and were married in 1967, although The Weeds' manager insisted they keep the marriage secret. Another manager required The Weeds to change their name to The Lollipop Shoppe because he managed The Seeds and thought the names were too similar, to fit the current bubblegum trend; the album and its single "You Must Be a Witch" remain underground favorites. The band released another single, "Someone I Knew" b/w "Through My Window," played many shows in San Francisco with performers such as Janis Joplin and The Doors, had two tracks on the soundtrack LP to the film Angels from Hell; the Lollipop Shoppe broke up in 1969, but reappeared as The Weeds with another single in 1971. Frustrated with the music business and still of draft age, Cole headed for Alaska with Toody and their two young children.
They got as far as the Yukon. Upon their return, Cole tried unsuccessfully to secure another record deal in Los Angeles, he opened a musical equipment store called Captain Whizeagle's. Taking his musical career into his own hands, he formed the hard rock band Zipper and released an LP in 1975 on his and Toody's label, Whizeagle. Cole's next band, King Bee, saw him playing guitar for the first time in addition to singing. A last-minute invitation to open for The Ramones introduced them to the punk sounds of the time, they soon broke up. In an attempt to find a stable lineup, Cole taught Toody to play bass and they formed The Rats, their self-titled debut was released in 1980 on Whizeagle. Intermittent Signals followed in 1981, 1983 saw the release of the third LP, In a Desperate Red. After losing three drummers, tired of the macho direction the punk scene had taken, Cole disbanded The Rats and began an old-time country band called Western Front, they released only two singles, "Orygun" b/w "Clementine" and "Stampede" b/w "Looking Back at Me" in 1985, but they influenced many local punkers to develop an interest in country-rock and rockabilly.
Toody, who had performed with Western Front and recorded a single with them, rejoined Cole for another country-influenced project, The Range Rats, in 1986. Drummer Andrew Loomis auditioned for this band, but it didn't work out, so Cole and Toody carried on with a drum machine. In 1987, while returning from Reno and Toody decided they wanted to play rock'n' roll again, they called Andrew Loomis, a better fit for this project, Dead Moon was born. Dead Moon's music is a blend of dark'60s garage with punk rock, their early records, In the Graveyard, Unknown Passage, Defiance, appeared on the band's own Tombstone Records, named for the music store Cole and Toody operated in Clackamas, Oregon. Cole mastered these records on a mono lathe from the 1950s, used for The Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie"; these releases helped them gain cult followings around the United States and in Europe in Germany, home of their European record label Music Maniac. After releasing "Dead Ahead" and touring Europe, Dead Moon broke up in 2006, with a new drummer, Kelly Halliburton and Toody formed the band Pierced Arrows.
In 2004 U. S. documentary filmmaking couple produced Unknown Passage: The Dead Moon Story. Fred Cole died in November 2017 from liver disease; the Trouser Press guide to'90s rock, by Ira A. Robbins, David Sprague. ISBN 0-684-81437-4 Garage rock, by Alessandro Bonini. ISBN 88-8440-362-6 Dead moon Official Pierced Arrows-site Dead Moon Cole Mine at the Wayback Machine Fred Cole turns 60! The Rats Fred Cole on IMDb