A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Ronald William Fordham Searle, CBE, RDI was an English artist and satirical cartoonist. He is best remembered as the creator of St Trinian's School and for his collaboration with Geoffrey Willans on the Molesworth series. Searle was born in Cambridge, where his father was a Post Office worker who repaired telephone lines, he started drawing at the age of five and left school at the age of 15. He trained at Cambridge College of Technology for two years. In April 1939, realizing that war was inevitable, he abandoned his art studies to enlist in the Royal Engineers. In January 1942, he was stationed in Singapore. After a month of fighting in Malaya, he was taken prisoner along with his cousin Tom Fordham Searle, when Singapore fell to the Japanese, he spent the rest of the war a prisoner, first in Changi Prison and in the Kwai jungle, working on the Siam-Burma Death Railway. Searle contracted both beri-beri and malaria during his incarceration, which included numerous beatings, his weight dropped to less than 40 kilograms.
He was liberated in late 1945 with the final defeat of the Japanese. After the war, he served as a courtroom artist at the Nuremberg trials, he married the journalist Kaye Webb in 1947. In 1961, he moved to Paris, he married Monica Koenig, a painter and jewellery designer. After 1975, Searle and his wife worked in the mountains of Haute Provence, his wife Monica died in July 2011 and Searle died on 30 December 2011, aged 91. Although Searle published the first St Trinian's cartoon in the magazine Lilliput in 1941, his professional career begins with his documentation of the brutal camp conditions of his period as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese in World War II in a series of drawings that he hid under the mattresses of prisoners dying of cholera. Searle recalled, "I wanted to put down what was happening, because I thought if by any chance there was a record if I died, someone might find it and know what went on." But Searle survived, along with 300 of his drawings. Liberated late in 1945, Searle returned to England where he published several of the drawings in fellow prisoner Russell Braddon's The Naked Island.
Another of Searle's fellow prisoners recounted, "If you can imagine something that weighs six stone or so, is on the point of death and has no qualities of the human condition that aren't revolting, calmly lying there with a pencil and a scrap of paper, you have some idea of the difference of temperament that this man had from the ordinary human being."Most of these drawings appear in his 1986 book, Ronald Searle: To the Kwai and Back, War Drawings 1939–1945. In the book, Searle wrote of his experiences as a prisoner, including the day he woke up to find a dead friend on either side of him, a live snake underneath his head: "You can’t have that sort of experience without it directing the rest of your life. I think that’s why I never left my prison cell, because it gave me my measuring stick for the rest of my life... All the people we loved and knew and grew up with became fertiliser for the nearest bamboo."At least one of his drawings is on display at the Changi Museum and Chapel, but the majority of his originals are in the permanent collection of the Imperial War Museum, along with the works of other POW artists.
The best known of these are John Mennie, Jack Bridger Chalker, Philip Meninsky and Ashley George Old. Searle produced an extraordinary volume of work during the 1950s, including drawings for Life and Punch, his cartoons appeared in the Sunday Express and the News Chronicle. He compiled more St Trinian's books, which were based on his sister's school and other girls' schools in Cambridge, he collaborated with Geoffrey Willans on the Molesworth books, with Alex Atkinson on travel books. In addition to advertisements and posters, Searle drew the title backgrounds of the Sidney Gilliat and Frank Launder film The Happiest Days of Your Life. After moving to Paris in 1961, he worked more on reportage for Life and Holiday and less on cartoons, he continued to work in a broad range of media and created books, animated films and sculpture for commemorative medals, both for the French Mint and the British Art Medal Society. Searle did a considerable amount of designing for the cinema, in 1965, he completed the opening and closing credits for the comedy film Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines as well as the 1969 film Monte Carlo or Bust!.
In 1975, the full-length cartoon Dick Deadeye, or Duty Done was released. It is based on the character and songs from H. M. S. Pinafore. In 2010, he gave about 2,200 of his works as permanent loans to Wilhelm Busch Museum, now renamed Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Zeichenkunst; the summer palace of George I of Hanover, this museum holds Searle's archives. Searle received much recognition for his work in America, including the National Cartoonists Society's Advertising and Illustration Award in 1959 and 1965, the Reuben Award in 1960, their Illustration Award in 1980 and their Advertising Award in 1986 and 1987. Searle was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2004. In 2007, he was decorated with one of France's highest awards, the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, in 2009, he received the German Lower Saxony Order of Merit, his work has had a great deal of influence on American cartoonists, including Pat Oliphant, Matt Groening, Hilary Knight, t
Jean-Thomas "Tomi" Ungerer was an Alsatian artist and writer. He published over 140 books ranging from children's books to adult works and from the fantastic to the autobiographical, he was known for witty aphorisms. Ungerer is famous as a cartoonist and designer of political posters and film posters. Ungerer received the international Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1998 for his "lasting contribution" as a children's illustrator. Ungerer was born in Strasbourg in Alsace, the youngest of four children to Alice and Theo Ungerer; the family moved to Logelbach, near Colmar, after the death of Tomi's father, Theodore—an artist and astronomical clock manufacturer—in 1936. Ungerer lived through the German occupation of Alsace when the family home was requisitioned by the Wehrmacht; as a young man, Ungerer was inspired by the illustrations appearing in The New Yorker magazine the work of Saul Steinberg. In 1957, the year after he moved to the U. S. Harper & Row published his first children's book, The Mellops Go Flying, his second, The Mellops Go Diving for Treasure.
He did illustration work for publications including The New York Times, Life, Harper's Bazaar, The Village Voice, for television during the 1960s, began to create posters denouncing the Vietnam War. Maurice Sendak called Moon Man "easily one of the best picture books in recent years." After Allumette: A Fable, subtitled With Due Respect to Hans Christian Andersen, the Grimm Brothers, the Honorable Ambrose Bierce in 1974, he ceased writing children's books, focusing instead on adult-level books, many of which focused on sexuality. He returned to children's literature with Flix 1998. Ungerer donated many of the manuscripts and artwork for his early children’s books to the Children’s Literature Research Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia. One consistent theme in Ungerer's illustrations is his support for European construction, beginning with Franco-German reconciliation in his home region of Alsace, in particular European values of tolerance and diversity. In 2003, he was named Ambassador for Education by the 47-nation Council of Europe.
In 2007, his home town dedicated a museum to him, the Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l’illustration. Ungerer divided his time between Ireland, where he and his wife had moved in 1976, Strasbourg. In addition to his work as a graphic artist and'drawer', he was a designer, toy collector and "archivist of human absurdity."A biographical documentary film, Far Out Isn't Far Enough: The Tomi Ungerer Story, was produced in 2012. The film was featured at the 2013 Palm Springs International Film Festival. In 2015–2016, the Kunsthaus Zurich and the Museum Folkwang in Essen devoted a large exhibition to Ungerer's artistic oeuvre and in particular his collages. A comprehensive book has been published by Philipp Keel from Diogenes with essays by Tobias Burg, Cathérine Hug and Thérèse Willer. Ungerer died on 9 February 2019 in Cork, aged 87. Tomi Ungerer described himself foremost as a story teller and satirist. Prevalent themes in his work include political satire and imaginative subjects for children's books.
Ungerer's publications are held by the German National Library, including: Design of Dr. Strangelove film poster Design of the logo for the ill-fated Broadway musical Kelly Art work and poster for the film Monterey Pop Design of the Janus Aqueduct in Strasbourg The biennial Hans Christian Andersen Award conferred by the International Board on Books for Young People is the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children's books. Ungerer received the illustration award in 1998. Ungerer received the 2014 Lifetime Achievement of the Year award at the Sexual Freedom Awards. In 2018, he was made a commander of the Legion of Honour. Wilhelm Hornbostel: Tomi Ungerer. Zwischen Marianne und Germania, on the occasion of the exhibitions of the same name at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, 19 December 1999 – 13 February 2000, at the Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin, 16 March – 13 June 2000]. Prestel, Munich 1999 Maria Linsmann: preface to exhibition catalogue Tomi Ungerer-Illustrationen und Plastiken, Burg Wissem, Bilderbuchmuseum of Troisdorf 2000 Thérèse Willer: Tomi Ungerer, the "Picasso“ of caricature.
In: Graphis. The international journal of design and communication, ISSN 0017-3452, vol. 59, no. 348, 2003, pp 18–37 Thérèse Willer: Tomi Ungerer. Das Tomi Ungerer Museum in Strasbourg. Diogenes, Zurich 2007, ISBN 978-3-257-02094-6. Thérèse Willer: Tomi Ungerer: Energie. EnBW Service, Karlsruhe 2007, ISBN 978-3-934510-26-5. Tomi Ungerer. Der schärfste Strich der westlichen Welt. Du Kulturmedien, No. 812, Zurich 2010, ISBN 978-3-905931-04-4, Table of contents Daniel Keel: Expect the Unexpected. Essays über Tomi Ungerer zu seinem 80. Geburtstag, essays by Manuel Gasser, Walther Killy, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Robert Gernhardt, Anna Gavalda, Elke Heidenreich. Diogenes, Zurich 2011, ISBN 978-3-257-05614-3 Official website Literature by and about Tomi Ungerer in the German National Library catalogue Musée Tomi Ungerer Lambiek Comiclopedia page. Biography translated from an exhibition in Hanover Tomi Ungerer: The Artist and His Background d.hatena.ne.jp 1971 Far Out Isn't Far Enough: The Tomi Ungerer Story – Trailer on YouTube Tomi Ungerer at Library of
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
André François, born André Farkas, was a Hungarian-born French cartoonist. He was born to an Hungarian family in Temesvár, Austria-Hungary, He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest, he entered to the atelier of the famous poster artist Adolphe Cassandre. He became a French citizen in 1939, he worked as a painter and graphic designer, but is best remembered for his cartoons, whose subtle humor and wide influence bear comparison to those of Saul Steinberg. François worked for French leftist newspapers and illustrated books by authors such as Jacques Prévert, but reached a larger audience, publishing in leading magazines of the United Kingdom and the United States, he did a masterpiece cover illustration of the 1965 UK Penguin paperback edition of Lord of the Flies. He became a close collaborator of Ronald Searle, he was member of Alliance Graphique Internationale. He died in his home in the Val-d'Oise département. Les Larmes de Crocodile = Crocodile Tears. Neuf No. 9. Paris: Maison de la Médecine, 1953.
OCLC 864302499. Paris: Delpire, 1955. OCLC 459725216. Crocodile Tears. London: Faber and Faber, 1955. ISBN 9780571090280. Translated by E. M. Hatt. 2009: Rencontres d'Arles festival Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l’illustration Anne-Claude Lelieur et Raymond Bachollet, André François, Bibliothèque Forney, 2003, ISBN 2-84331-116-0Shahn, Ben, "The Gallic Laughter of Andre Francois," Horizon, May 1959, Volume I, Number 5, pp 108–121, Obituary in The Times André François at Pbase André François at AskArt André François's 2004 exhibition at the Centre Pompidou "Timişoreanul André François, un caricaturist celebru", in Evenimentul Zilei Art Directors Club biography and images of work