The four Raphael Rooms form a suite of reception rooms in the palace, the public part of the papal apartments in the Palace of the Vatican. They are famous for their frescoes, painted by Raphael and his workshop, together with Michelangelos ceiling frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, they are the grand fresco sequences that mark the High Renaissance in Rome. The Stanze, as they are called, were originally intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II. He commissioned Raphael, a young artist from Urbino. It was possibly Julius intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI and they are on the third floor, overlooking the south side of the Belvedere Courtyard. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program, following Raphaels death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino. The scheme of the works is as follows, The largest of the rooms is the Sala di Costantino.
Its paintings were not begun until Pope Julius and, indeed Raphael himself, had died, the room is dedicated to the victory of Christianity over paganism. Its frescoes represent this struggle from the life of the Roman Emperor Constantine, because they are not by the master himself, the frescos are less famous than works in the neighboring rooms. Continuing a long tradition of flattery, Raphaels assistants gave the features of the current pontiff, Clement VII, the fresco of The Vision of the Cross depicts the legendary story of a great cross appearing to Constantine as he marched to confront his rival Maxentius. The vision in the sky is painted with the words in Greek Εν τούτω νίκα written next to it, the Battle of Milvian Bridge shows the battle that took place on October 28,312, following Constantines vision. The next room, going from East to West, is the Stanza di Eliodoro, painted between 1511 and 1514, it takes its name from one of the paintings. The theme of this private chamber – probably an audience room – was the protection granted by Christ to the Church.
The four paintings are, The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, The Mass at Bolsena, The Meeting of Pope Leo I and Attila, Raphaels style changed here from the Stanza della Segnatura. Instead of the images of the Popes library, he had dramatic narratives to portray. The composition is more dramatic than Raphaels earlier frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura. Although the focal point is the figure of the priest at prayer, Heliodorus. At the left Julius II, carried by the Swiss Guard in a chair and his inclusion here refers to his battles to prevent secular leaders from usurping papal territories
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits Church of the Gesù in Rome, the three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola and Palladio. Giacomo Barozzi was born at Vignola, near Modena and he began his career as architect in Bologna, supporting himself by painting and making perspective templates for inlay craftsmen. He made a first trip to Rome in 1536 to make measured drawings of Roman temples, François I called him to Fontainebleau, where he spent the years 1541–1543. Here he probably met his fellow Bolognese, the architect Sebastiano Serlio, after his return to Italy, he designed the Palazzo Bocchi in Bologna. Here he worked for Pope Julius III and, after the death, he was taken up by the papal family of the Farnese and worked with Michelangelo. In 1558, he was in Piacenza to revise the designs of Palazzo Farnese, commissioned by Margaret of Austria, wife of the Duke Ottavio Farnese, from 1564 Vignola carried on Michelangelos work at St Peters Basilica, and constructed the two subordinate domes according to Michelangelos plans.
Giacomo Barozzi died in Rome in 1573, in 1973 his remains were reburied in the Pantheon, Rome. Vignolas main works include, Villa Giulia for Pope Julius III, here Vignola was working with Ammanati, who designed the nymphaeum and other garden features under the general direction of Vasari, with guidance from the knowledgeable pope and Michelangelo. A medal of 1553 shows Vignolas main villa substantially as it was completed, Palazzo dei Banchi, Bologna Palazzo Farnese, Piacenza. This was a project of a vast palace on a scale paralleled only by the Vatican Palace in Italy. Ten arches on the sides and seven on the short are sustained by pilasters with Tuscan style ornamentation that rise from high plinths. A simple frieze with triglyphs and metopes separates the lower from the upper levels. Like many other architects, Vignola submitted his plans for completing the facade of San Petronio, the clarity and ease of use of Vignolas treatise caused it to become in succeeding centuries the most published book in architectural history.
Vignolas second treatise, the posthumously-published Due regole della prospettiva pratica, Vignola presented— without theoretical obscurities— practical applications which could be understood by a prospective patron. Egnatio Danti, Les deux règles de la pratique de Vignole,1583, Pascal Dubourg Glatigny, Paris,2003. Website Architectura, Centre détudes supérieures de la Renaissance, Tours Brief biographical sketch Paolo Zauli on Vignola from a Bolognese perspective Vignolas effect on garden design
Lucius Junius Brutus
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC. He was claimed as an ancestor of the Roman gens Junia, including Decimus Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius Brutus, prior to the establishment of the Roman Republic, Rome had been ruled by kings. Brutus led the revolt that overthrew the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the account is from Livys Ab urbe condita and deals with a point in the history of Rome prior to reliable historical records. Brutus was the son of Tarquinia, daughter of Romes fifth king Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, according to Livy, Brutus had a number of grievances against his uncle the king. Amongst them was the fact that Tarquin had put to death a number of the men of Rome. Brutus avoided the distrust of Tarquins family by feigning slow-wittedness and he accompanied Tarquins sons on a trip to the Oracle of Delphi. The sons asked the oracle who would be the ruler of Rome. The Oracle responded the next person to kiss his mother would become king, Brutus interpreted mother to mean the Earth, so he pretended to trip and kissed the ground.
Lucretia, believing that the rape dishonored her and her family, according to legend, Brutus grabbed the dagger from Lucretias breast after her death and immediately shouted for the overthrow of the Tarquins. The four men gathered the youth of Collatia, went to Rome where Brutus, being at that time Tribunus Celerum, summoned the people to the forum, the people voted for the deposition of the king, and the banishment of the royal family. Brutus, leaving Lucretius in command of the city, proceeded with armed men to the Roman army camped at Ardea, the king, who had been with the army, heard of developments at Rome, and left the camp for the city before Brutus arrival. The army received Brutus as a hero, and the sons were expelled from the camp. Tarquinius Superbus, was refused entry at Rome, according to Livy, Brutus first act after the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was to bring the people to swear an oath never to allow any man again to be king in Rome. Omnium primum avidum novae libertatis populum, ne postmodum flecti precibus aut donis regiis posset, There is no scholarly agreement that the oath took place, it is reported, although differently, by Plutarch and Appian.
Nevertheless, the spirit of the oath inspired Romans including his descendant Marcus Junius Brutus and Lucretias bereaved husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, were elected as the first consuls of Rome. However, Tarquinius was soon replaced by Publius Valerius Publicola, the new consuls created a new office of rex sacrorum to carry out the religious duties that had previously been performed by the kings. During his consulship the royal family made an attempt to regain the throne, amongst the conspirators were two brothers of Brutus wife Vitellia, and Brutus two sons, Titus Junius Brutus and Tiberius Junius Brutus. The conspiracy was discovered and the determined to punish the conspirators with death
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV, born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565. He is known for presiding over the session of the Council of Trent. Giovanni Angelo Medici was born in Milan on 31 March 1499 as the second of eleven children to Bernardino de Medici and he was not closely related to the Medicis of Florence. Giovanni Medici was the brother of condottiero Gian Giacomo Medici. Medici studied philosophy and medicine in Pavia, after studying at Bologna and acquiring a reputation as a jurist he obtained his doctorate in both canon and civil law on 11 May 1525. Medici went in 1527 to Rome, and as a favourite of Pope Paul III was rapidly promoted to the governorship of several towns, the archbishopric of Ragusa, in April 1549, Pope Paul III made Medici a cardinal. Under Papal authority, he was sent on missions to Germany. On the death of Pope Paul IV, he was elected pope on 25 December 1559, taking the name Pius IV. and installed on 6 January 1560. His first public acts of importance were to grant a pardon to the participants in the riot after the death of his predecessor.
One, Cardinal Carlo Carafa, was strangled, and Duke Giovanni Carafa of Paliano, on 18 January 1562 the Council of Trent, which had been suspended by Pope Julius III, was convened by Pius IV for the third and final time. The more marked manifestations of stringency during his pontificate appear to have been prompted rather than spontaneous, his personal character inclining him to moderation, in the same year he published a bull granting the use of the cup to the laity of Austria and Bohemia. A conspiracy against Pius IV, headed by Benedetto Accolti the Younger, katherine Rinne said in her book Waters of Rome that Pius IV ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Pius IV died on 9 December 1565 and he was buried in Santa Maria degli Angeli. Cardinals created by Pius IV List of popes from the Medici family House of Medici Bonora, roma 1564, La congiura contro il papa. Freedberg, Sydney J. Pelican History of Art, ed, catholic Hierarchy, Pope Pius IV Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Medici
Bologna is the largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, located in the heart of an area of about one million. The first settlements back to at least 1000 BC. The city has been a centre, first under the Etruscans. Home to the oldest university in the world, University of Bologna, founded in 1088, Bologna is an important transportation crossroad for the roads and trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical and nutritional industries have their headquarters. According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional Economic Growth Index of 2009, Bologna is the first Italian city, Bologna is home to numerous prestigious cultural and political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade fair districts in Europe. In 2000 it was declared European capital of culture and in 2006, the city of Bologna was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai 2010 together with 45 other cities from around the world.
Bologna is one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country, after a long decline, Bologna was reborn in the 5th century under Bishop Petronius. According to legend, St. Petronius built the church of S. Stefano. After the fall of Rome, Bologna was a stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king Liutprand, the Germanic conquerors formed a district called addizione longobarda near the complex of S. Stefano. Charlemagne stayed in this district in 786, traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna is widely considered to be the first university. The university originated as a centre of study of medieval Roman law under major glossators. It numbered Dante and Petrarca among its students, the medical school is especially famous. In the 12th century, the families engaged in continual internecine fighting. Troops of Pope Julius II besieged Bologna and sacked the artistic treasures of his palace, in 1530, in front of Saint Petronio Church, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII.
Then a plague at the end of the 16th century reduced the population from 72,000 to 59,000, the population recovered to a stable 60, 000–65,000. However, there was great progress during this era, in 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and the Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the Archiginnasio, the centre of the University
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Illusionistic ceiling painting
Italian terminology for this technique reflects the latter artists influence and is called prospettiva melozziana, or Melozzos perspective. Another notable use is by Antonio da Correggio in the Duomo of Parma, the technique often uses foreshortened figures and an architectural vanishing point to create the perception of true space on a painted, most-often frescoed, ceiling above the viewer. Quadratura, a term which was introduced in the century and is normally used in English. Although it can refer to the opening up of walls through architectural illusion. Due to its reliance on perspective theory, it more fully unites architecture and sculpture, the artist would paint a feigned architecture in perspective on a flat or barrel-vaulted ceiling in such a way that it seems to continue the existing architecture. The perspective of this illusion is centered towards one focal point, the steep foreshortening of the figures, the painted walls and pillars, creates an illusion of deep recession, heavenly sphere or even an open sky.
Paintings on ceilings could, for example, simulate statues in niches or openings revealing the sky, Quadratura may employ other illusionistic painting techniques, such as anamorphosis. Examples of illusionistic painting include, Andrea Pozzo at San Ignazio in Rome and he wrote the standard theoretical work of his artistic ideas in the two volumes of, Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum Andreae Putei a societate Jesu. Pietro da Cortona at the Palazzo Barberini, Gianbattista Tiepolo in the Ca Rezzonico in Venice, Villa Pisani at Stra, other examples were by Paolo Veronese at Villa Rotonda in Vicenza and Baldassare Peruzzi in the Villa Farnesina of Rome. His masterpiece was a series of frescoes that culminated in 1474 in the Camera degli Sposi of the Ducal Palace, in these works, he carried the art of illusionistic perspective to new limits. This was the prototype of illusionistic ceiling painting that was to become an important element of Italian baroque, in a visual continuity between the architectural interior and its painted surfaces, Corregios clouds and figures appear to inhabit the same architectural space in which the spectator stands.
Lanfrancos work in Rome and in Naples was fundamental to the development of illusionism in Italy, Pietro Berrettini, called Pietro da Cortona, developed the illusionistic ceiling fresco to an extraordinary degree in works such as the ceiling of the gran salone of Palazzo Barberini. From 1676 to 1679 Giovanni Battista Gaulli, called Baciccio, painted an Adoration of the Name of Jesus on the ceiling of the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit headquarters in Rome. From 1691 to 1694 Andrea Pozzo painted the Entrance of Saint Ignatius into Paradise on the vault of SantIgnazio, with theatricality. The Loves of the Gods Johann Paul Schor Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power Paul Troger, sjöström, studies in Italian ceiling painting, Stockholm,1978. Quadratura, Theorie, Technik, ed. Pascal Dubourg Glatigny and Matthias Bleyl, trevor Hunt, From Mantegna to Michelangelo, illusionistic ceiling paintings of the Renaissance pave the way for Baroque excess RomeArtLover, Baroque ceilings
Accademia di San Luca
Other founders included Girolamo Muziano and Pietro Olivieri. The Academy was named after Saint Luke the evangelist who, legend has it, made a portrait of the Virgin Mary, designed by the Baroque architect, Pietro da Cortona, its main facade overlooks the Forum. Included among its members, was the famous painter Melozzo da Forlì. In 1605, Pope Paul V granted the Academy the right to pardon a condemned man on the feast of St. Luke. In the 1620s, Urban VIII extended its rights to decide who was considered an artist in Rome and it came under the patronage of his nephew, in 1633, Urban VIII gave it the right to tax all artists as well as art-dealers, and monopolize all public commissions. These latter measures raised strong opposition and apparently were poorly enforced, over the early years, the papal authorities exerted a large degree of control over the leadership of the institution. Some modern critics have stated with the purpose of giving artists a higher education. The prìncipi of the institution have included some of the pre-eminent painters of the 17th century, including Domenichino, Cortona, many prominent artists never joined or were admitted to the academy.
Artistic issues debated within the Academy included the Cortona-Sacchi controversy about the number of figures in a painting, disdain was espressed by many academicians for the Bamboccianti. Giovanni Bellori gave famous lectures on painting in the Academy, in the early 18th century, the painter Marco Benefial was inducted, and expelled for criticizing the academy as an insider. The Academy is still active, the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca is its modern descendant, from the very beginning, the statutes of the Academy directed that each candidate-academician was to donate a work of his art in perpetual memory and, later, a portrait. Prominent artists to become Principi of the academy over the first 200 years include, Claude Lorrain was a member, the Academy can boast modern members, including sculptors Ernesto Biondi and Piccirilli Brothers. Accademia Nazionale di San Luca Official site Galleria Nazionale di San Luca Accademia San Luca The History of the Accademia di San Luca, 1590–1635, Documents from the Archivio di Stato di Roma