The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Bjørn Einar Romøren is a Norwegian former ski jumper who competed from 2001 to 2014. His career highlights include eight individual World Cup wins, two ski flying world records, a team bronze medal at the 2006 Winter Olympics. Bjørn Einar is the younger brother of Jan-Erik Romøren, best known by the stage name Nag, frontman of black metal band Tsjuder. Romøren achieved his first World Cup victory in Bischofshofen during the 2002–03 Four Hills Tournament, he won several more World Cup competitions as well as two World Championship bronze medals in the team large hill event in Val di Fiemme and Oberstdorf. At the 2006 Winter Olympics in Pragelato, Romøren won a bronze medal in the team large hill event, he has four medals in the team event at the Ski Flying World Championships with two golds, one silver and a bronze. On 20 March 2005 in Planica, Romøren set the world record for the sport's longest jump with a distance of 234.5 metres which he improved to 239 m on the same day. This record stood until 11 February 2011, but his 239 m jump remained the hill record at Planica until 20 March 2015 a decade to the day.
Bjoern Einar Romoeren at the International Ski Federation Official website Video of Romøren's 239 m world record jump at YouTube
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin and of the Piedmont region, was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865; the city is located on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 878,074 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, churches, opera houses, parks, theatres, libraries and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.
The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, the first capital of the unified Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour; the city hosts some of Italy's best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry and trade, is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.
With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F. C. and Torino F. C. the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat and Alfa Romeo, as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres; the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history, it is believed that a Roman colony was established in 9 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum. Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.
In the 1st century BC, the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama; the Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but conquered again by the Lombards and the Franks of Charlemagne; the Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control.
While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century; the University of Turin was founded during this period. Emmanuel Philibert known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquir
Letalnica bratov Gorišek
Letalnica bratov Gorišek is a ski flying hill and the biggest of eight hills located at the Planica Nordic Centre in Planica, Slovenia. It was built in 1969 and is named after the original constructors and brothers Vlado and Janez Gorišek. With a total of 28 world records set; the world's steepest zip-line with average incline of 38.33% and maximum incline of 58.7% incline opened at the hill on 19 September 2015. Yugoslavian ski jumper Miro Oman made the premiere test jump of 135 metres on 6 March 1969; the first FIS Ski Flying World Championships were organized on this hill in 1972. After Matti Nykänen set a world record jump of 191 metres at the SFWC 1985, a new rule was instituted by the FIS that no points for jumps over this distance would be awarded in order to prevent world record hunting. On 17 March 1994 Andreas Goldberger touched the snow with his hand at 202 metres for the first albeit disqualified over two hundred metre jump. Just a few minutes Toni Nieminen landed on his feet at 203 metres and became the first man in history to jump over two hundred metres.
In addition, the first jumps over 160 m, 170 m, 180 m, 190 m, 200 m, 210 m, 220 m and 230 m were recorded at the hill. The hill will host the FIS Ski Flying World Championships in 2020; the hill is known for annually hosting Red Bull 400 world series event, the stepeest 400 metres uphill run in the world, with over 1,000 competitors from around the globe. Velikanka bratov Gorišek was planned and developed by Slovenian constructors and brothers, Vlado and Janez Gorišek. At the time, a lead engineer of Planica was a Bloudek's successor Stano Pelan, who proposed to enlarge Bloudkova velikanka. At that time, Janez Gorišek was working as an engineer in Libya, where he prepared a plan and profile for a new hill. Construction started in summer of 1967 and was completed in late 1968. During the construction, Janez was still working in Africa, so his older brother Vlado was in charge of the construction site. Original construction point was at K153, with inrun 145 metres long and height difference between take-off table and bottom of the hill 127 metres.
On 6 March 1969, the hill was tested for the first time and Miro Oman from Yugoslavia was selected to be the first man to jump. He set the first hill record; the hill was opened and hosted a three-day competition called Planica Ski Flying Week from 21 to 23 March 1969. There were 60 competitors from 15 countries with Jiří Raška winning the competition. A total of 90,000 people has gathered in the three days of competition; the world record was improved five times and stopped at 165 metres, set by Manfred Wolf from East Germany. In 1972, the hill hosted the first FIS Ski Flying World Championships, where the Swiss ski jumper Walter Steiner became the first ski flying world champion. In 1984, in the honour of Planica's 50th anniversary, organizing committee decided to modernize the hill. First big renovation works were done in summer and fall of 1984. Soldiers from the Yugoslav Army and different working organizations helped at the construction site under the command of Gorišek brothers. 1,500 cubic metres of material was filled into the landing zone.
They dug out 300 cubic metres of material from inrun. Old wooden inrun tower was replaced with steel and take-off table was pushed back for five metres. During the 1986–87 season, two World Cup ski flying individual events were organized on the hill for the first time. Polish ski jumper Piotr Fijas set the last parallel style world record on the first day of competition when he jumped 194 metres. However, this record was only recognized seven years at FIS congress in Rio de Janeiro when they cancelled the "191 metres" rule. At the first round of the training on 17 March 1994, Austrian ski jumper Andreas Goldberger landed at 202 metres, making the first jump over 200 metres. Just a few minutes Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen landed on his feet at 203 metres and became the first man in history who jumped over 200 metres. In the 1999–2000 season, ski flying team event was organized at the hill for the first time in history. Two world records were set by Austrian ski jumpers Thomas Hörl with 224.5 metres and Andreas Goldberger with 225 metres.
Germany became the first team ski flying winner. In 2010, Planica got new chairlift, judge tower renovated, landing zone widened, profile adjusted, take-off angle lowered to keep jumpers closer to the ground. All this was needed to fulfill international FIS standards. In 2015, the hill was renovated and opened after one-year break. A new profile was drawn by Janez Gorišek with the help of his son Sebastjan Gorišek, a constructor; the hill's new construction point was at K200 and the hill size at HS 225. The take-off table was moved five metres higher and pushed back for twelve metres compared to the old one. In 2017, the hill size was changed from HS225 to HS240. Since 1969, a total of 28 official world records has been set at the hill; the longest jump at the hill was set by Gregor Schlierenzauer in March 2018 when he reached 253.5 metres, but the jump was invalid due to him touching the hill after landing. Specifications: K-point – 200 m hillsize – 240 m inrun angle – 35.1° inrun length – 133.8 m takeoff table height – 2.93 m landing zone angle – 30.6° to 35.6° takeoff table to
Jacob Tullin Thams
Jacob Tullin "Tulla" Thams was a Norwegian Olympian. He won the first Olympic ski jumping gold medal in 1924, became the third person to medal in both the Winter and Summer Olympics in 1936 as a member of the silver medal-winning Norwegian 8-metre sailing team. Thams won the individual large hill at the 1926 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Lahti, earned the Holmenkollen medal in 1926, would develop the Kongsberger technique in ski jumping that would be the standard until it was superseded by the Daescher technique in the 1950s. Thams is one of the few athletes who have competed in both the Winter Olympic games. Jacob Tullin Thams at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen medalists – click Holmenkollmedaljen for downloadable pdf file at the Wayback Machine ISAF 1936 Summer Olympic Results at the Wayback Machine Jacob Tullin Thams at the International Olympic Committee Jacob Tullin Thams at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Sigmund Ruud was a Norwegian ski jumper. Together with his brothers Birger and Asbjørn, he dominated ski jumping in the 1930s. At the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Sigmund earned a silver medal. At the 1929 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, he won the ski jumping competition while earning a bronze at the 1930 event. Sigmund competed in the ski jumping competition at the Holmenkollen ski festival, which first began in 1933, he competed at the 1932 Winter Olympics in the ski jumping event, but finished seventh due to appendicitis. Additionally, Sigmund wanted to compete in the first alpine skiing events at the 1936 Winter Olympics, though he did not start. For his contributions in ski jumping, Sigmund earned the Holmenkollen medal in 1949, the last of the three Ruud brothers to do so. Sigmund was the only one of the three not to win the Holmenkollen ski jumping competition. Sigmund Ruud and fellow Norwegian ski jumper Jacob Tullin Thams are considered co-creators of the Kongsberger technique after World War I, a ski jumping technique, the standard until it was superseded by the Daescher technique in the 1950s.
Ruud served as chairman of the FIS Ski Jumping Committee in 1946–1955 and 1959–1967. He ran a sport shop in Oslo. Sigmund Ruud at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen medalists – click Holmenkollmedaljen for downloadable pdf file Swiss Olympic Committee St. Moritz 1928, 1928. Swiss Olympic Committee Résultats DES concours DES IImes jeux Olympiques d'Hiver, 1928. Organizing Committee III Olympic Winter Games Lake Placid 1932, 1932 Organizing Committee, IV. Olympische Winterspiele 1936 Amtlicher Bericht, Reichssportverlag Berlin SW 68, 1936