Middlesbrough is a large post-industrial town on the south bank of the River Tees in North Yorkshire, northeast England, founded in 1830. The local council, a unitary authority, is Middlesbrough Borough Council; the 2011 Census recorded the borough's total resident population as 138,400 and the wider urban settlement with a population of 174,700, technically making Middlesbrough the largest urban subdivision in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. Middlesbrough is part of the larger built-up area of Teesside which had an overall population of 376,333 at the 2011 Census. Middlesbrough became a county borough within the North Riding of Yorkshire in 1889. In 1968, the borough was merged with a number of others to form the County Borough of Teesside, absorbed in 1974 by the county of Cleveland. In 1996, Cleveland was abolished, Middlesbrough Borough Council became a unitary authority within North Yorkshire. Erimus was chosen as Middlesbrough's motto in 1830, it recalls Fuimus the motto of the Norman/Scottish Bruce family, who were lords of Cleveland in the Middle Ages.
The town's coat of arms is an azure lion, from the arms of the Bruce family, a star, from the arms of Captain James Cook, two ships, representing shipbuilding and maritime trade. In 686, a monastic cell was consecrated by St. Cuthbert at the request of St. Hilda, Abbess of Whitby and in 1119 Robert Bruce, Lord of Cleveland and Annandale and confirmed the church of St. Hilda of Middleburg to Whitby. Up until its closure on the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII in 1537, the church was maintained by 12 Benedictine monks, many of whom became vicars, or rectors, of various places in Cleveland; the importance of the early church at "Middleburg" known as Middlesbrough Priory, is indicated by the fact that, in 1452, it possessed four altars. After the Angles, the area became home to Viking settlers. Names of Viking origin are abundant in the area – for example, Stainsby and Tollesby were once separate villages that belonged to Vikings called Orm, Steinn and Toll, but now form suburbs of Middlesbrough.
The name Mydilsburgh is the earliest recorded form of Middlesbrough's name and dates from the Anglo-Saxon era, while many of the aforementioned villages are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Other links persist in the area through school or road names, to now-outgrown or abandoned local settlements, such as the medieval settlement of Stainsby, deserted by 1757, which amounts to little more today than a series of grassy mounds near the A19 road. In 1801, Middlesbrough was a small farm with a population of just 25. During the latter half of the 19th century, however, it experienced rapid growth; the Stockton and Darlington Railway had been developed to transport coal from Witton Park Colliery and Shildon in County Durham, to the River Tees in the east. It had always been assumed by the investors that Stockton as the lowest bridging point on the River Tees would be suitable to take the largest ships at the required volume. However, as the trade developed, with competition from the Clarence Railway which had established a new port on the north side of the river at Port Clarence, a better solution was required on the south side of the river.
In 1828 the influential Quaker banker, coal mine owner and S&DR shareholder Joseph Pease sailed up the River Tees to find a suitable new site down river of Stockton on which to place new coal staithes. As a result, in 1829 he and a group of Quaker businessmen bought the Middlesbrough farmstead and associated estate, some 527 acres of land, established the Middlesbrough Estate Company. Through the company, the investors set about the development of a new coal port on the banks of the Tees nearby, a suitable town on the site of the farm to supply the port with labour. By 1830 the S&DR had been extended to Middlesbrough and expansion of the town was assured; the small farmstead became the site of such streets as North Street, South Street, West Street, East Street, Commercial Street, Stockton Street and Cleveland Street, laid out in a grid-iron pattern around a market square, with the first house being built in West Street in April 1830. The town of Middlesbrough was born. New businesses bought up premises and plots of land in the new town and soon shippers, butchers, joiners, tailors and painters were moving in.
By 1851 Middlesbrough's population had grown from 40 people in 1829 to 7,600. The first coal shipping staithes at the port were constructed just to the west of the site earmarked for the location of Middlesbrough; the port was linked to the S&DR on 27 December 1830 via a branch that extended to an area just north of the current Middlesbrough railway station. The success of the port meant it soon became overwhelmed by the volume of imports and exports, in 1839 work started on Middlesbrough Dock. Laid out by Sir William Cubitt, the whole infrastructure was built by resident civil engineer George Turnbull. After three years and an expenditure of £122,000, first water was let in on 19 March 1842, the formal opening took place on 12 May 1842. On completion, the docks were bought by the S&DR; the Iron and Steel industry dominated the Tees area since Iron production started in Middlesbrough during the 1840s. In 1841, Henry Bolckow, who had come to England in 1827, formed a partnership with John Vaughan of Worcester, started an iron foundry and rolling mill at Vulcan Street in the town.
It was Vaughan who realised the economic potential of local ironstone deposits when he discovered Ironstone in the Eston Hills in
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Bradford City A.F.C.
Bradford City Association Football Club is a professional football club in Bradford, West Yorkshire, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. Gary Bowyer is the club's manager, appointed on 4 March 2019; the club was founded in 1903 and elected into the Football League Second Division. Promotion to the top tier followed in 1908 and the club won the FA Cup in 1911, its only major honour. After relegation in 1922 from Division One, the club spent 77 years outside the top flight until promotion to the Premier League in 1999. Relegation followed in 2000–01 and since a series of financial crises have pushed the club to the brink of closure and resulted in two more relegations to League Two. In the 2012–13 season, they became the first team from the fourth tier of English football to reach the League Cup Final, losing 5–0 to Swansea City. In the same season, they returned to Wembley for the playoff final and won promotion to League One with a 3–0 win over Northampton Town; the club's colours are claret and amber and they play home games at Valley Parade.
The ground was the site of the Bradford City stadium fire on 11 May 1985 which took the lives of 56 supporters. Bradford City were formed in 1903 as a result of a series of meetings called by James Whyte, a sub-editor of the Bradford Observer, with Football Association representatives and officials at Manningham F. C. a rugby league side. The Football League saw the invitation as a chance to promote association football in the rugby league-dominated county of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it duly elected the new club in place of Doncaster Rovers. Four days at the 23rd annual meeting of Manningham FC, the committee decided to change code from rugby league to association football. Bradford City Association Football Club were formed without having played a game, taking over Manningham's colours of claret and amber, their Valley Parade ground. Robert Campbell was appointed the club's first manager and with the help of the new committee, he assembled a playing squad at the cost of £917 10s 0d. City's first game was a 2–0 defeat at Grimsby Town on 1 September 1903, six days before their first home game attracted 11,000 fans.
The club finished 10th in their first season. Peter O'Rourke took over as manager in November 1905, he led City to the Division Two title in 1907–08 and with it promotion to the Division One. Having narrowly avoided relegation in their first season in the top flight, City recorded their highest finish of 5th in 1910–11; the same season they won the FA Cup, when a goal from captain Jimmy Speirs won the final replay against Newcastle United. City's defence of the cup, which included the first Bradford derby against Bradford Park Avenue, was stopped by Barnsley after a run of 12 consecutive clean sheets. City remained in the top flight in the period up to the First World War and for three seasons afterwards, but were relegated in 1921–22 along with Manchester United. Back in Division Two, attendances dropped and City struggled for form, with five consecutive finishes in the bottom half of the table, they suffered a second relegation to Division Three in 1926–27. Two seasons O'Rourke, who had retired in 1921 following the death of his son and guided City to promotion with a record haul of 128 goals.
O'Rourke left for a second time after one more season, although City spent a total of eight seasons back in Division Two, they looked like earning promotion back to the top flight. Instead in 1936–37, the club were relegated back to Division Three. City won their third piece of silverware two seasons when they lifted the Third Division North Challenge Cup, but they were unable to defend the trophy because competitive football was suspended for the Second World War. After the war, City went through two managers in the first two seasons, were in the bottom half of the Division Three table until 1955–56. After three successive top half finishes, City were placed in the new Division Three in 1958–59. Bradford spent just three seasons in Division Three, but during their relegation season in 1960–61, they upset Division One side Manchester United in the inaugural season of the League Cup. With 34 goals from David Layne, City nearly earned an instant promotion the following season 1961–62, but it did include a record 9–1 defeat to Colchester United.
Layne left for Sheffield Wednesday, without him City finished second from bottom of the league and had to apply for re-election. Bradford City just failed to win promotion in 1963–64, winning more games than any other team in the division that season, twenty five, with Rodney Green top scoring with 29 league goals. There followed three difficult seasons during which time manager Grenville Hair died following a heart attack in training, City returned to Division Three getting promoted in 1968–69. City's stay in Division Three lasted just three years, when they finished bottom in 1971–72. Promotion via fourth spot was won again in 1976–77 but it was followed by a relegation season. City failed to win promotion for three successive seasons, until the board appointed former England centre back Roy McFarland as manager in May 1981. McFarland won promotion in his first season, but was poached by his former club Derby County just six months later. City won compensation from Derby and installed another England international Trevor Cherry as McFarland's replacement.
Cherry, with former teammate Terry Yorath as his assistant manager, failed to win for two months, but the pair guided City to safety from relegation. During the summer, the club chairman Bob Martin had to call in the official receivers; the club was saved by former chairman Stafford Heginbotham and former board member Jack Tordoff
Southend United F.C.
Southend United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Southend-on-Sea, England. The team competes in the third tier of English football. Southend are known as "The Shrimpers", a reference to the area's maritime industry included as one of the quarterings on the club badge. Founded on 19 May 1906 in the Blue Boar pub, Southend has been a member of the Football League since 1920; the club has spent most of its League career in the English lower divisions, with seven seasons in the League's second tier. The club is based at Roots Hall Stadium in Prittlewell, with plans to move to a new stadium at Fossetts Farm; the club has played at five grounds: the original Roots Hall, the Kursaal, the Southend Stadium, the rented New Writtle Street Stadium and again at Roots Hall. Roots Hall was the first stadium that the club owned and was built on the site of their original home, albeit at a lower level; the site previous to Southend purchasing it in 1952 had been used as a sand quarry, by the council as a landfill site and by the local gas board.
It took 10 years to complete the building of Roots Hall. The first game was played on 20 August 1955, a 3–1 Division Three victory over Norwich City, but the ground was far from complete; the main East Stand had been fitted and ran along only 50 yards of the touchline, only a few steps of terracing encircled the ground, with the North and the huge South Bank still unconcreted. The North Stand had a single-barrelled roof which ran only the breadth of the penalty area, the West Bank was covered at its rear only by a similar structure. Although the ground was unfinished, during the inaugural season this was the least of the club's worries, for the pitch at Roots Hall showed the consequences of having been laid on top of thousands of tonnes of compacted rubbish. Drainage was a problem, the wet winter turned the ground into a quagmire; the pitch was re-laid in the summer of 1956 and a proper drainage system, still in place, was constructed, the West Bank roof was extended to reach the touchline, creating a unique double-barrelled structure.
The terracing was completed soon after, but the task of terracing all 72 steps of the South Bank was not completed until 1964. The North Bank roof was extended in the early 1960s, the East Stand was extended to run the full length of the pitch in 1966. Floodlights were installed during this period. Roots Hall was designed to hold 35,000 spectators, with over 15,000 on the South Bank alone, but the highest recorded attendance at the ground is 31,090 for an FA Cup third round tie with Liverpool in January 1979; until 1988 Roots Hall was still the newest ground in the Football League, but the ground saw a significant change. United had hit bad times in the mid-1980s and new chairman Vic Jobson sold all of the South Bank for development, leaving just a tiny block of 15 steps. In 1994, seats were installed onto the original terracing, a second tier was added; the West Bank had become seated in 1992 upon United's elevation to Division Two while the East Stand paddock received a new seating deck and elevated from the terracing below.
In 1995 the West Stand roof was extended to meet up with the North and South Stands, with seating installed in each corner, thus giving the Roots Hall its current form, with a capacity of just under 12,500. On 24 January 2007, Southend Borough Council unanimously agreed to give planning permission for a new 22,000-seater stadium at the proposed Fossetts Farm site, with Rochford District Council following suit 24 hours later; the application was subsequently submitted to Ruth Kelly Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, for government approval. However, the application was "called in" at the beginning of April 2007; the inquiry began in September 2007, followed in October 2007 by a "final" inquiry, when chairman Ron Martin called for supporters to show in numbers at Southend's local government headquarters. On 6 March 2008, permission to develop Fossetts Farm was given by the government; the club has a fierce local rivalry with fellow Essex side Colchester United. The two clubs were promoted from League One at the end of the 2005–06 season after a long battle for top spot was won by Southend.
The rivalry extends back many years. At the end of the 1989–90 season Southend's promotion from the Football League Fourth Division coincided with Colchester's fall from the Football League and the clubs had to wait 15 years before meeting once again in competition when they met in the Southern Final of the Football League Trophy; the two clubs met again in an Essex derby match in the same competition the following season, with Southend emerging as the victors once more after a penalty shootout. The overall competitive head to head record for the rivalry stands at 30 wins to Southend, 25 wins for Colchester with 17 draws; the last meeting between Southend and Colchester came in October 2018, when Colchester won 2-0 in the group stage of the Checkatrade Trophy. There is a fierce rivalry between Southend and Leyton Orient; this is due to a period of time when the Essex club were Orient's geographically closest league rivals between 1998 and 2005. Although the games between the two teams are eagerly anticipated by both sets of fans and Southend are considered as Orient's main rivals, the Shrimpers would see the London club as secondary rivals behind Colchester United due to geographical and historical reasons.
The Shrimpers beat the O's in the 2012/13 Johnstone's Paint Southern Area Final to book a place
Walsall Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Walsall, West Midlands, England. The team play in the third tier in the English football league system; the club was founded in 1888 as Walsall Town Swifts, an amalgamation of Walsall Town F. C. and Walsall Swifts F. C; the club was one of the founder members of the Second Division in 1892, but have spent their entire existence outside English football's top division. Their first match at Wembley Stadium was the 2015 Football League Trophy Final, which they lost to Bristol City. Walsall moved into their Bescot Stadium in 1990, having played at nearby Fellows Park for a century; the team play in a red and white kit and their club crest features a swift. The club's nickname, "The Saddlers", reflects Walsall's status as a traditional centre for saddle manufacture. Walsall were formed as Walsall Town Swifts in 1888 when Walsall Town F. C. and Walsall Swifts F. C. amalgamated. Walsall Town had been founded in 1877 and Walsall Swifts in 1879.
Both clubs had played at the Chuckery, the new club remained at the same ground. Walsall Town Swifts' first match was a draw against Aston Villa. Two players from this early era received international caps. In 1882, Alf Jones won the first two of his three caps while with Walsall Swifts, in 1889 Albert Aldridge received the second of his two caps while playing for Walsall Town Swifts; the club were first admitted to the Football League in 1892, as founder members of the new Second Division. They moved to the West Bromwich Road ground in 1893. After finishing 14th out of 16 teams in 1894–95 the club failed to be re-elected to the Football League. At the start of the 1895 season the club moved to Hilary Street renamed Fellows Park. In 1896 they changed their name to Walsall F. C. and joined the Midland League. A year they returned to the Second Division, three teams having failed re-election in 1896; the team finished in sixth place in 1898–99, but once again failed re-election two years dropping back into the Midland League.
A move to the Birmingham League followed in 1903, in 1910, the club were elected to the Southern League. With the expansion of the Football League after World War I, Walsall became a founding member of the Third Division North in 1921. Walsall's highest "home" attendance was set in 1930, when they played in of front of 74,646 fans against Aston Villa in the FA Cup Fourth Round Although a home match for Walsall, the tie was played at their opponents' Villa Park ground, it remains the highest attendance that Walsall have played in front of. In 1933, Walsall won 2–0 in the FA Cup against Arsenal at Fellows Park. Arsenal went on to win the First Division that season, the cup defeat to Third Division North side Walsall is still regarded as one of the greatest upsets in FA Cup history. In 1958, following a reorganisation of the Football League, Walsall became founder members of the Fourth Division. Under the management of Bill Moore, the club achieved successive promotions, scoring 102 goals on their way to winning Division Four in 1959–60 and finishing as Division Three runners-up in 1960–61 to reach the second tier of English football for the first time since the early 1900s.
Players such as Bill'Chopper' Guttridge, Tony Richards and Colin Taylor were intrinsically important to the success of the side. After just two seasons in the Second Division, the club were relegated back to Division Three in 1962–63, remained there until a further demotion to the Fourth Division, in 1978–79; the club has always had a rich history of producing players. Allan Clarke went on to win the League Championship under Don Revie at Leeds United after beginning life at Fellows Park. Bert Williams and Phil Parkes both became England goalkeepers in the years after they progressed from their roots in Walsall. David Kelly had a long career at the top level after leaving Walsall in 1988, representing the Republic of Ireland at the highest level of international football. More Michael Ricketts represented England after blossoming at Bolton Wanderers. In recent years, Matty Fryatt and Ishmel Demontagnac have both represented England age-groups; the 1980s were a period of considerable activity for Walsall.
In 1983–84 they defeated First Division club Arsenal in the League Cup at Highbury, advanced to the semi-final, where an estimated 10,000 Saddlers saw a 2–2 draw against Liverpool at Anfield, however a second leg 2–0 defeat in front of 19,591 at Fellows Park saw Walsall lose the tie 4–2 on aggregate. This cup run saw Walsall famously only 90 minutes away from playing in Europe, once the name of a Fanzine no longer running. Walsall narrowly missed out on promotion to the Second Division in the same season. In 1986 plans were announced to move Walsall to Birmingham; the town rallied behind Barrie Blower. Walsall were subsequently bought by millionaire entrepreneur and racehorse owner Terry Ramsden and with his money came high-profile signings and the attention of the national media. In 1986–87, under new manager Tommy Coakley, Walsall narrowly missed the play-offs, but made considerable progress in the FA Cup as they defeated First Division Charlton Athletic and Birmingham City and took Watford to two replays in the fifth round.
Walsall earned promotion through the old Division Three play-offs in 1988, beating Bristol City in a replayed final at Fellows Park, 13,007 where there to see it. 1988–89 saw the club relegated from Division Two and Ramsden's business empire collapsed alongside the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Walsall were minutes from being taken over by Jap
Chelsea Football Club is a professional football club in Chelsea, England, that competes in the Premier League, the highest tier of English football. The club has won six top division titles, eight FA Cups, five League Cups, four FA Community Shields, two UEFA Cup Winners' Cups, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Super Cup. Founded in 1905, the club's home ground since has been Stamford Bridge. Chelsea won its only First Division title in 1955, but saw limited success in various cup competitions until 2003, when the club was purchased by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich. Chelsea saw heavy investment, have since won 18 honours under Abramovich, second in that time only to Manchester United. José Mourinho is the club's most successful manager in terms of the number of major honours won, his title-winning team set an English record for points between 2004 and 2005. Chelsea have traditionally wore a royal blue kit with white socks, the club's crest features a ceremonial lion rampant regardant holding a staff.
The club have rivalries with neighbouring clubs Fulham and Tottenham Hotspur. In terms of club value, Chelsea are the seventh most valuable football club in the world, worth £1.54 billion, are the eighth highest-earning football club in the world, with earnings of over €428 million in the 2017–18 season. Based on attendance figures, the club have the sixth-largest fanbase in England. In 1904, Gus Mears acquired the Stamford Bridge athletics stadium with the aim of turning it into a football ground. An offer to lease it to nearby Fulham was turned down, so Mears opted to found his own club to use the stadium; as there was a team named Fulham in the borough, the name of the adjacent borough of Chelsea was chosen for the new club. Chelsea were founded on 10 March 1905 at The Rising Sun pub, opposite the present-day main entrance to the ground on Fulham Road, were elected to the Football League shortly afterwards; the club won promotion to the First Division in their second season, yo-yoed between the First and Second Divisions in their early years.
They reached the 1915 FA Cup Final, where they lost to Sheffield United at Old Trafford, finished third in the First Division in 1920, the club's best league campaign to that point. Chelsea attracted large crowds and had a reputation for signing big-name players, but success continued to elude the club in the inter-war years. Former Arsenal and England centre-forward Ted Drake became manager in 1952 and proceeded to modernise the club, he removed the club's Chelsea pensioner crest, improved the youth set-up and training regime, rebuilt the side with shrewd signings from the lower divisions and amateur leagues, led Chelsea to their first major trophy success – the League championship – in 1954–55. The following season saw UEFA create the European Champions' Cup, but after objections from The Football League and the FA, Chelsea were persuaded to withdraw from the competition before it started. Chelsea failed to build on this success, spent the remainder of the 1950s in mid-table. Drake was replaced by player-coach Tommy Docherty.
Docherty built a new team around the group of talented young players emerging from the club's youth set-up and Chelsea challenged for honours throughout the 1960s, enduring several near-misses. They were on course for a treble of League, FA Cup and League Cup going into the final stages of the 1964–65 season, winning the League Cup but faltering late on in the other two. In three seasons the side were FA Cup runners-up. Under Docherty's successor, Dave Sexton, Chelsea won the FA Cup in 1970, beating Leeds United 2–1 in a final replay. Chelsea took their first European honour, a UEFA Cup Winners' Cup triumph, the following year, with another replayed win, this time over Real Madrid in Athens; the late 1970s through to the'80s was a turbulent period for Chelsea. An ambitious redevelopment of Stamford Bridge threatened the financial stability of the club, star players were sold and the team were relegated. Further problems were caused by a notorious hooligan element among the support, to plague the club throughout the decade.
In 1982, Chelsea were, at the nadir of their fortunes, acquired by Ken Bates for the nominal sum of £1, although by now the Stamford Bridge freehold had been sold to property developers, meaning the club faced losing their home. On the pitch, the team had fared little better, coming close to relegation to the Third Division for the first time, but in 1983 manager John Neal put together an impressive new team for minimal outlay. Chelsea won the Second Division title in 1983–84 and established themselves in the top division, before being relegated again in 1988; the club bounced back by winning the Second Division championship in 1988–89. After a long-running legal battle, Bates reunited the stadium freehold with the club in 1992 by doing a deal with the banks of the property developers, bankrupted by a market crash. Chelsea's form in the new Premier League was unconvincing, although they did reach the 1994 FA Cup Final with Glenn Hoddle, it was not until the appointment of Ruud Gullit as player-manager in 1996 that their fortunes changed.
He added several top international players to the side, as the club won the FA Cup in 1997 and established themselves as one of England's top sides again. Gullit was replaced by Gianluca Vialli, who led the team to victory in the League Cup Final, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final and the UEFA Super Cup in 1998, the FA Cup in 2000 and their first appearance in the UEFA Champions League. Vialli was sacked in favour of Claudio Ranieri, who guided Chelse