For a list of honours won by Tipperary in hurling, football and handball competitions see Tipperary GAA honours. For a history of GAA in Tipperary in see History of Tipperary inter county teams; the Tipperary County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Tipperary GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in County Tipperary and the Tipperary inter-county teams. County Tipperary holds an honoured place in the history of the GAA as the organisation was founded in Hayes' Hotel, Thurles, on 1 November 1884. Tipperary GAA has jurisdiction over the area, associated with the traditional county of County Tipperary. There are 9 officers on the Board including Sean Nugent. In the early days of the GAA Tipperary did not have an official jersey. Tipperary wore the colours of the county champions. One example was a white jersey with a green diagonal sash; this jersey design is associated with Tipperary's most historic match in either code, the Bloody Sunday senior football encounter with Dublin at Croke Park in 1920.
The current jersey is blue with a gold central band. These colours were adopted from the Boherlahan who were county champions in 1925; these colours were the colours of the Tubberadora team which became Boherlahan. There have been several minor adjustments to the sleeve and collar areas over the years and since the introduction of sponsorship in recent decades which necessitates the reservation of space for company logos; the Tipperary GAA crest used was the coat of arms of the Butler family and Earls of Ormond, whose arms were adopted by local authorities within their geographic area of influence in South Leinster and East Munster, most notably the county councils of Tipperary, Kilkenny and Wexford and which among other refinements, included a central band of colours, surrounded by star-like designs. This crest was used until the late 1990s when the current crest, depicting the Rock of Cashel with two crossed hurleys and a football was adopted. Four Tipperary men have served as President of the GAA.
Maurice Davin is the only man to have served two terms as President while Seán Ryan represented Dublin from 1928 to 1932, though a native of Kilfeacle, County Tipperary. Mr. Ryan a solicitor based in the capital, was the Association's legal advisor over a long period and played a central role in the acquisition and vesting of many club and county grounds in the GAA. Maurice Davin 1884–1887 Maurice Davin 1888–1889 Seán Ryan 1928–1932 Séamus Gardiner 1943–1946 Séamus O'Ríain 1967–1970 In the All-Ireland series, Kilkenny are Tipp's main rivals; this rivalry has lasted since Kilkenny's coming to power in the early 20th century. Tipp are the only team to have beaten Kilkenny in the All Ireland senior hurling championship more times than they have lost. Another rival of Tipperary is Cork in the Munster Championship; these teams have met 80 times more than any other rivalry in hurling. They have met them countless times in the National League and pre-season challenge tournaments. A Tipp and Cork Munster hurling final in Semple Stadium is claimed by supporters of both counties to be the most traditional Munster final and the games between them are nearly always close.
The draw and replay games of 1987 and 1991 and the 1949–1954 rivalry encapsulates this rivalry and the 1991 replayed final in Thurles is claimed to be one of the greatest Munster hurling finals. This is one of the few rivalries in the provincial championships, contested by two teams of similar stature whose honours and titles complement each other on a equal basis. Kilkenny and Wexford in hurling have major difference in titles and in football and Meath have a gap between their respective winnings; the football teams of Galway and Mayo enjoy a similar rivalry and whose honours are divided in equal measure. Tipp have a strong rivalry with the other county teams in Munster and have had major tussles with Limerick in the 1930s and 40s when the latter's star was in the ascendent, though Tipp enjoy a major advantage in titles and honours won; the Tipp – Clare rivalry came with Clare's coming to power in the 1990s and the Tipp-Waterford rivalry was forged in the period 1957-63 and renewed again due to Waterford's resurgence in the 2000s, when that county enjoyed its most successful period of the modern era.
Tipperary's team colors are royal gold. Tipperary wear blue jerseys with a horizontal gold bar across the center along with white shorts and blue socks; the Tippeary team crest features the Rock of Cashel prominently with two crossed hurleys and a Gaelic football below. In the year'1884' when Tipperary GAA was founded is in the center of the crest; the teams of the Tipperary County Board, together with Kilkenny GAA and Cork GAA lead the roll of honour in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. The Board's teams have won 27 All-Ireland titles as of 2016 - the third most successful of all county boards. Three teams have the distinction of twice winning three All-Ireland Finals in a row and; the team of the 1960s is considered the greatest of all Tipperary teams. The County's fortunes have declined during the last half-century to the extent that only five All-Ireland Championships have been annexed in the period 1966 - 2014. For more detail on hurling history, see here. Manager: Liam Sheedy Selectors: Tommy Dunne, Darragh Egan S&C Coach: Cairbre Ó Cairealláin Physio: Paddy O'Brien Squad as per Tipperary v Clare, 2018 Munster Senior Hurling Ch
Croke Park is a Gaelic Athletic Association stadium located in Dublin, Ireland. Named in honour of Archbishop Thomas Croke, it is called Croker by some GAA fans and locals, it serves both as the principal headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Since 1891 the site has been used by the GAA to host Gaelic games, most notably the annual All-Ireland finals in football and hurling. Both the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special Olympics, as well as numerous music concerts by major international acts, have been held in the stadium. During the construction of the Aviva Stadium, Croke Park hosted games played by the Ireland national rugby union team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. In June 2012, the stadium was used to host the closing ceremony of the 50th International Eucharistic Congress during which Pope Benedict XVI gave an address over video link to eighty thousand people. In 2012, Irish pop vocal group Westlife had their record-breaking tour date in the stadium with tickets sold out in less than 5 minutes.
Following a redevelopment programme started in the 1990s, Croke Park has a capacity of 82,300, making it the third-largest stadium in Europe, the largest not used for association football. The area now known as Croke Park was owned in the 1880s by Maurice Butterly and known as the City and Suburban Racecourse, or Jones' Road sports ground. From 1890 it was used by the Bohemian Football Club. In 1901 Jones' Road hosted the IFA Cup football final. Recognising the potential of the Jones' Road sports ground a journalist and GAA member, Frank Dineen, borrowed much of the £3,250 asking price and bought the ground in 1908. In 1913 the GAA came into exclusive ownership of the plot when they purchased it from Dineen for £3,500; the ground was renamed Croke Park in honour of Archbishop Thomas Croke, one of the GAA's first patrons. In 1913, Croke Park had only two stands on what is now known as the Hogan stand side and grassy banks all round. In 1917, a grassy hill was constructed on the railway end of Croke Park to afford patrons a better view of the pitch.
This terrace was known as Hill 60 renamed Hill 16 in memory of the 1916 Easter Rising. It is erroneously believed to have been built from the ruins of the GPO, when it was constructed the previous year in 1915. In the 1920s, the GAA set out to create a high capacity stadium at Croke Park. Following the Hogan Stand, the Cusack Stand, named after Michael Cusack from Clare, was built in 1927. 1936 saw the first double-deck Cusack Stand open with 5,000 seats, concrete terracing being constructed on Hill 16. In 1952 the Nally Stand was built in memorial of another of the GAA founders. Seven years to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the GAA, the first cantilevered "New Hogan Stand" was opened; the highest attendance recorded at an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was 90,556 for Offaly v Down in 1961. Since the introduction of seating to the Cusack stand in 1966, the largest crowd recorded has been 84,516. During the Irish War of Independence on 21 November 1920 Croke Park was the scene of a massacre by the Royal Irish Constabulary.
The Police, supported by the British Auxiliary Division, entered the ground and began shooting into the crowd, killing or fatally wounding 14 civilians during a Dublin-Tipperary Gaelic football match. The dead included Tipperary player Michael Hogan. Posthumously, the Hogan stand built in 1924 was named in his honour; these shootings, on the day which became known as Bloody Sunday, were a reprisal for the killing of 15 people associated with the Cairo Gang, a group of British Intelligence officers, by Michael Collins"squad' earlier that day. In 1984 the organisation decided to investigate ways to increase the capacity of the old stadium; the design for an 80,000 capacity stadium was completed in 1991. Gaelic sports have special requirements. A specific requirement was to ensure; this resulted in the three-tier design from which viewing games is possible: the main concourse, a premium level incorporating hospitality facilities and an upper concourse. The premium level contains restaurants and conference areas.
The project was split into four phases over a 14-year period. Such was the importance of Croke Park to the GAA for hosting big games, the stadium did not close during redevelopment. During each phase different parts of the ground were redeveloped, while leaving the rest of the stadium open. Big games, including the annual All-Ireland Hurling and Football finals, were played in the stadium throughout the development; the first phase of construction was to build a replacement for Croke Park's Cusack Stand. A lower deck opened for use in 1994; the upper deck opened in 1995. Completed at a cost of £35 million, the new stand is 180 metres long, 35 metres high, has a capacity for 27,000 people and contains 46 hospitality suites; the new Cusack Stand contains three tiers from which viewing games is possible: the main concourse, a premium level incorporating hospitality facilities and an upper concourse. One end of the pitch was closer to the stand after this phase, as the process of re-aligning the pitch during the redevelopment of the stadium began.
1916 Phase Two of the development started in late 1998 and involved extending the new Cusack Stand to replace the existing Canal End terrace. It is now known as The Davin Stand, after Maurice Davin, the first president of the GAA; this phase saw the creation of a tunnel which was
The Sligo County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Sligo GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in County Sligo. The county board is responsible for the Sligo inter-county teams. Sligo play in the Connacht Senior Football Championship but have only won three senior provincial titles, in 1928, 1975 and 2007. Sligo have never appeared in an All-Ireland final; the 1922 Championship is the closest they have come, defeating Roscommon and Galway to win the Connacht title, beating Tipperary in the subsequent All-Ireland semi-final that followed. However, "a flimsy technicality" led to a replay of the Connacht final against Galway, which Sligo lost. In club football, no Sligo team has appeared in an All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship final. St. Mary's is the only Sligo team to have won the Connacht Senior Club Football Championship, having won it three times in 1977, 1980 and 1983. Eastern Harps and Tourlestrane have all appeared in Connacht finals.
Due to its much smaller population than both County Galway and County Mayo, the two dominant forces in the province of Connacht, competition from professional League of Ireland soccer team Sligo Rovers in the county's capital town, Sligo's Gaelic football team have never been able to break free of the shackles inherent in the provincial championship format. They have won only three Connacht championships, with about 50 years between each win; these championships came in 1928, 1975 and 2007. Sligo have never appeared in an All-Ireland final; the 1922 Championship is the closest they have come, defeating Roscommon and Galway to win the Connacht title, beating Tipperary in the subsequent All-Ireland semi-final that followed. However an objection from Galway on what is described as "a flimsy technicality" led to the Connacht decider being brought to a replay, which Sligo went on to lose. Sligo met the same fate in the inaugural National Football League campaign of 1926, beating Laois to reach the final, only for Laois to object on the grounds of a Sligo player's name being misspelled.
This gives Sligo the unique position of having qualified for an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final and a National Football League Final, without having contested either. In 1954, Sligo reached the Connacht final against Galway, only for an equalising goal in the final minute to be disallowed. In 1962, Sligo reached the Connacht final against Roscommon, led for much of the match only to be blighted by a sudden string of injuries, miss a 50 while two points ahead in the final minute, gift soon-to-be All-Ireland finalists Roscommon a goal in what is considered "one of the great football tragedies in Connacht". In 1965, Sligo reached the Connacht final against Galway and gained a seven-point lead, only for one of their players to be "mysteriously sent to the full-forward spot", causing "the entire team momentum" and the match. Since the 2001 introduction to the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship of a qualifier system for teams eliminated from their provincial championship, despite having a poor record, has enjoyed some modest, though noteworthy, success.
The new format together with a prolonged period of competing in Division 1 of the National Football League helped bring about an upward turn in the county's fortunes. In 2002, having narrowly lost the Connacht Senior Football Final to Galway, the defending All-Ireland champions, Sligo went on to defeat Tyrone in Croke Park, turning over a seven-point deficit in the process. A similar comeback against the eventual All-Ireland champions Armagh two weeks led to a replay, but Sligo's run was halted when they had claims for a penalty in injury time of the second game turned down. On 8 July 2007, Sligo claimed their first Connacht title since 1975 with a one-point victory over Galway; the following year they were trashed by Mayo and ended up in the Tommy Murphy Cup, after a league campaign that had seen them relegated to Division 4. Star player Eamonn O'Hara said. On 27 June 2010, Sligo hosted Galway and led 1–8 to 0–2 at halftime but were shocked by an undeserved draw ending 1–10 each; the replay saw Sligo defeat the Tribesmen on the scoreline 1–14 to 0–16 to advance to the Connacht Senior Football Final.
Once there, after all their hard work and continued misfortune, Roscommon defeated them by 0–14 to 0–13. Sligo football descended to a new depth on 26 May 2013 when they were dumped out of the Connacht Championship by London in their first game; the scoreline was 1-12 to 0-14. This was London's first victory in the Connacht Championship since 1977. Lorcan Mulvey scored the vital London goal; the county Vocational Schools team reached two All-Ireland finals in 1962 and 1963, losing both to Dublin City. Four Sligo players have won All-Stars: Mickey Kearns of St. Pat's, Barnes Murphy of St. Mary's, Eamonn O'Hara of Tourlestrane, Charlie Harrison of St. John's. Sligo's club football scene is not dominated by any single team. Sligo's team colours are white. Sligo's jerseys have alternated between white over the years. In the 1990s, Sligo opted for predominantly white shirts with black shorts with exceptions in 1995 and 1996 when they wore an all-black strip. In 2001, Sligo was fined by the GAA for not wearing their registered county colours and after a win over Kildare decided to make the all-black kit their first choice.
Sligo's crest features Benbulbin in the backgroun
The Munster Council is a Provincial Council of the Gaelic Athletic Association sports of hurling, Gaelic football, camogie and handball in the province of Munster. Railway Cups: 44 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1934, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1976, 1978, 1981, 1984, 1985, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2005, 2007 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championships: 70 Cork: 1890, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1902, 1903, 1919, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1966, 1970, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1999, 2004, 2005 Tipperary: 1887, 1895, 1896, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1906, 1908, 1916, 1925, 1930, 1937, 1945, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1971, 1989, 1991, 2001, 2010, 2016 Clare: 1914, 1995, 1997, 2013 Limerick: 1897, 1918, 1921, 1934, 1936, 1940, 1973 Waterford: 1948, 1959 Kerry: 1891 Tom Cheasty Eamon Cregan Ray Cummins John Doyle Jimmy Doyle Nicky English Eamon Grimes Pat Hartigan John Keane Ger Loughnane Jack Lynch Mick Mackey Justin McCarthy Tony Reddin Christy Ring Jimmy Smyth Railway Cup: 15 1927, 1931, 1941, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1972, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1999, 2008 All-Ireland Senior Football Championships: 50 Kerry: 1903, 1904, 1909, 1913, 1914, 1924, 1926, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1937, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1953, 1955, 1959, 1962, 1969, 1970, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2007,2009,2014 Cork: 1890, 1911, 1945, 1973, 1989, 1990, 2010 Tipperary: 1889, 1895, 1900, 1920 Limerick: 1887, 1896 The Munster camogie team won the premier representative competition in the women’s team field sport of camogie, the Gael Linn Cup on 20 occasions in.
1961, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1980, 1982, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009, The Munster provincial junior camogie team won the Gael Linn Trophy on 17 occasions in 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008 and 2011. Munster Senior Hurling Championship Munster Senior Football Championship Munster Minor Hurling Championship Munster Minor Football Championship Munster Under-21 Hurling Championship Munster Under-21 Football Championship Munster Intermediate Hurling Championship Munster Junior Hurling Championship Munster Junior Football Championship McGrath Cup Waterford Crystal Cup Munster Senior Club Hurling Championship Munster Senior Club Football Championship Munster Intermediate Club Hurling Championship Munster Intermediate Club Football Championship Munster Junior Club Hurling Championship Munster Junior Club Football Championship Munster GAA website
Gaelic football referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch; the objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team's goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres above the ground. Players advance the football, a spherical leather ball, up the field with a combination of carrying, kicking, hand-passing, soloing. In the game, two types of scores are possible: goals. A point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag. Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, comprise one goalkeeper, six backs, two midfielders, six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes. Gaelic football is one of four sports controlled by the Gaelic Athletic Association, the largest sporting organisation in Ireland.
Along with hurling and camogie, Gaelic football is one of the few remaining amateur sports in the world, with players and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment. Gaelic football is played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in other areas of the British Isles and continents such as North America and Australia; the final of the All-Ireland Senior Championship, held annually at Croke Park, draws crowds of more than 80,000 people. Outside Ireland, football is played among members of the Irish diaspora. Gaelic Park in New York City is the largest purpose-built Gaelic sports venue outside Ireland. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs; the All-Ireland Senior Championship is considered the most prestigious event in Gaelic football. Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a male-only sport.
Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules football, a hybrid sport, a series of Test matches has been held since 1998. While Gaelic football as it is known today dates back to the late 19th century, various kinds of football were played in Ireland before this time; the first legal reference to football in Ireland was in 1308, when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard. A field near Newcastle, South Dublin is still known as the football field; the Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably; the games had grown in popularity and were played. This was due to the patronage of the gentry. Now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games.
Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas; the earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted. However "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling for those caught playing sports, it proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712, about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta". A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, 100 years there were accounts of games played between County sides. By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and.
"Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, carrying the ball were all allowed. During the 1860s and 1870s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, the rules of the Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which allowed tripping. Association football started to take hold in Ulster, in the 1880s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, adapted by other clubs in the city. Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst sh
TG4 is an Irish free-to-air television channel for Irish-language speakers. It launched on 31 October 1996. TG4 is available to watch online live and to view broadcast programmes from around the world through the TG4 Player. TG4 was known as Teilifís na Gaeilge or TnaG, before a rebranding campaign in 1999. TG4 was the third national station to be launched in Ireland; the channel has 650,000 viewers who tune into the channel each day to view a broad programming policy. It has been reported to have a share of 2% of the national television market in the Republic of Ireland and 3% of the national television market in Northern Ireland; the daily Irish-language programme schedule is its core service: seven hours of programming in Irish supported by a wide range of material in other languages English. TG4 launched its high-definition channel in 2012 on Virgin Media Ireland. TG4 TG4 HD TG4 HD launched on 2 October 2012 on UPC Ireland; the first HD broadcast featured the 2012 TG4 Ladies Gaelic Football Championship final.
TG4 HD, similar to RTÉ Two HD, broadcasts sporting programming from national to international events, movies and US programming in high-definition where available. It is anticipated that TG4 will itself start broadcasting its own programming produced in high-definition in the future. Format The channel simulcasts content from TG4 SD and upscales SD content into HD. All other content on the channel will be made available in HD. In 1969, Lelia Doolan, Jack Dowling and Bob Quinn published Sit down and Be Counted, a book describing their campaign for a separate Irish-language television service. Bob Quinn is a film director who produced many documentaries and fiction films through the Irish language on limited budgets, including the first Irish-language feature film Poitín starring Niall Tóibín, Cyril Cusack and Donal McCann; the three writers proposed small temporary buildings for Gaeltacht regional television services broadcasting a limited number of hours each night with programming coming from each of the Gaeltacht regions around the country.
RTÉ and the Irish government had sought to improve the availability of Irish-language programming on RTÉ services. In 1972, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta was set up to provide Irish-language radio services across the country. All radio and television services provided by RTÉ provided some Irish-language programming. In 1980, a new group called. In 1987 they set up the pirate television station Telefís na Gaeltachta, after years of delays, including the sudden death of their technician, to build the transmitter. Eighteen hours of live and pre-recorded programming was broadcast between 2 and 5 November 1987; the transmitter was built at a cost of IR£4,000 through donations from local Gaeltacht communities. In December 1988, further broadcasts were transmitted from three different sites, broadcasting pre-recorded programming; the movement for a national Irish-language television service continued to gain momentum afterwards. In 1989, Ciarán Ó Feinneadha, one of the members of Coiste ar son Teilifís Gaeltachta, moved to Dublin and set up a similar organisation in the capital called Feachtas Náisiúnta Teilifíse.
FTN outlined their demands: A television station to be set up in the Gaeltacht regions serving the Gaeltacht and Irish speakers across the country. It should independent from both editorial and organisational points of view. A special authority set up to run it with representatives from RTÉ, the Department of Communications, Údarás na Gaeltachta, it was suggested that the cap on advertising on RTÉ be removed and the additional funds be designated for the new services. Ray Burke had limited the advertising minutes on RTÉ a few years previously. Hence, there would be no cost to the Exchequer, funding would come from the National Lottery and the television Licence. FTN suggested two hours of programming each day, with the rest of the broadcast hours used for Open University type programming. In the early 1990s, Irish language programmes amounted to only 5% of total programming broadcast by RTÉ, was reduced during the summer months. Programmes included Echo Island for children, current affairs programme Cúrsaí.
Before the birth of TG4, RTÉ had suggested the use of RTÉ Two's prime-time schedule for Irish-language programming. The outgoing coalition parties of Fianna Fáil and the Progressive Democrats called for the establishment of an Irish language television station in their 1989 manifestos. Fianna Fáil stated that they would set up an Irish language television service in the Galway Gaeltacht that would service the whole country; the PDs looked for the setting up of what they called "Teilifís na Gaeltachta". The Green Party's manifesto from 1987 called for the establishment of such a channel. Fianna Fáil entered into coalition with The Labour Party in 1993 and as part of their programme for government they included the setting up of TnaG. Taoiseach Albert Reynolds appointed Michael D. Higgins as Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht and the responsibility for broadcasting moved to his department; this government was replaced by the Rainbow Coalition. The new programme for government sought to launch TnaG as the 3rd channel.
Michael D. Higgins remained as Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht under Taoiseach John Bruton. TnaG launched in 1996; the total cost in establishing the transmission and links networks, the constru
All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final is played by the "35th Sunday of the year" at Croke Park in Dublin, with the winning team receiving the Sam Maguire Cup. Contested by the top inter-county football teams in Ireland, the tournament has taken place every year since 1887, except in 1888, when the competition was not played due to a tour of the United States by would-be competitors; the first Championship to be held featured club teams who represented their respective counties after their county championship. The 21 a-side final was between Commercials of Young Irelands of Louth; the final was played in Beech Hill, Clonskeagh on 29 April 1888 with Commercials winning by 1–4 to 0–3. Unlike All-Ireland competitions, there were no provincial championships, the result was an open draw; the second Championship was unfinished owing to the American Invasion Tour.
The 1888 provincial championships had been completed but after the Invasion tour returned, the All-Ireland semi-final and final were not played. English team London reached the final four times in the early years of the competition. In 1892, inter-county teams were introduced to the All-Ireland Championship. Congress granted permission for the winning club to use players from other clubs in the county, thus the inter-county teams came into being; the rules of hurling and football were altered: goals were made equal to five points, teams were reduced from 21 to 17 a-side. The 1903 Championship brought Kerry's first All-Ireland title, they went on to become the most successful football team in the history of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The first half of the twentieth century brought the rise of several teams who won two or more All-Ireland titles in that period, such as Kildare, Cavan and Roscommon. In the 1990s, a significant sea change took place, as the All-Ireland was claimed by an Ulster team in four consecutive years.
Since Ulster has produced more All-Ireland winning teams than any other province. The All-Ireland Qualifiers were introduced in 2001; that year, the 2001 final brought victory for Galway who became the first football team to win an All-Ireland by springing through "the back door." In 2013, Hawk-Eye was introduced. It was first used to confirm that Offaly substitute Peter Cunningham's attempted point had gone wide 10 minutes into the second half of a game against Kildare. 2013 brought the first Friday night game in the history of the Championship - a first round qualifier between Carlow and Laois.2018 saw the introduction of the All Ireland Super 8s. The county is a geographical region in Ireland, each of the thirty-two counties in Ireland organise their own gaelic games affairs through a County Board; the county teams play in their respective Provincial Championships in Connacht, Leinster and Ulster. Kilkenny is unique among the 32 Irish county associations in not participating in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship.
The Provincial Championships operate through a knock-out cup competition format. They take place during the months of June; the winners of each of the four Provincial Championships earn a place in the All-Ireland Super 8s, a round robin group stage new to the 2018 Championship, which takes place in the months of July and August. Each provincial championship match is played as a single leg. If a match is drawn extra time is played. However, if both sides are still level at the end of extra time a replay takes place. In the case of a provincial final if matches end level a replay takes place without extra time; the twenty-nine teams that fail to win their respective Provincial Championships receive a second opportunity to reach the All-Ireland Series via the All Ireland Qualifiers. The qualifiers series takes place in the months of June and July and operates as follows: Qualifiers Round 1: All teams that fail to reach the semi-finals of their respective Provincial Championships compete in round one.
An open draw system is used to divide the teams into eight individual match-ups. The winning eight teams progress to Round 2, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 2: Each of the eight winning teams of Round 1 are drawn against the eight losing teams from the semi-finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning eight teams progress to Round 3, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 3: The eight winning teams from Round 2 are divided into four individual match-ups. An open draw is made to determine the four pairings; the winning four teams progress to Round 4, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 4: Each of the four winning teams of Round 3 are drawn against the four losing teams from the finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning four teams proceed to the All-Ireland Series, joining the four Provincial Champions, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship.
The All-Ireland Championship All-Ireland Super 8s: The four Provincial Champions and the winning four teams from Round 4 of the All-Ireland Qualifiers take part in a group stage that takes place in the months of July and August. The group stage is organised on a league basis with two groups of four