The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before and after World War II. Many variants of the Spitfire were built, using several wing configurations, it was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft, it was the only British fighter produced continuously throughout the war. The Spitfire continues to be popular among enthusiasts; the Spitfire was designed as a short-range, high-performance interceptor aircraft by R. J. Mitchell, chief designer at Supermarine Aviation Works, which operated as a subsidiary of Vickers-Armstrong from 1928. Mitchell pushed the Spitfire's distinctive elliptical wing with cutting-edge sunken rivets to have the thinnest possible cross-section, helping give the aircraft a higher top speed than several contemporary fighters, including the Hawker Hurricane. Mitchell continued to refine the design until his death in 1937, whereupon his colleague Joseph Smith took over as chief designer, overseeing the Spitfire's development through its multitude of variants.
During the Battle of Britain, from July to October 1940, the public perceived the Spitfire to be the main RAF fighter, though the more numerous Hurricane shouldered a greater proportion of the burden against Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. However, Spitfire units had a lower attrition rate and a higher victory-to-loss ratio than those flying Hurricanes because of the Spitfire's higher performance. During the battle, Spitfires were tasked with engaging Luftwaffe fighters—mainly Messerschmitt Bf 109E-series aircraft, which were a close match for them. After the Battle of Britain, the Spitfire superseded the Hurricane to become the backbone of RAF Fighter Command, saw action in the European, Mediterranean and South-East Asian theatres. Much loved by its pilots, the Spitfire served in several roles, including interceptor, photo-reconnaissance, fighter-bomber, trainer, it continued to serve in these roles until the 1950s; the Seafire was a carrier-based adaptation of the Spitfire that served in the Fleet Air Arm from 1942 through to the mid-1950s.
Although the original airframe was designed to be powered by a Rolls-Royce Merlin engine producing 1,030 hp, it was strong enough and adaptable enough to use powerful Merlins and, in marks, Rolls-Royce Griffon engines producing up to 2,340 hp. As a result, the Spitfire's performance and capabilities improved over the course of its service life. In 1931, the Air Ministry released specification F7/30, calling for a modern fighter capable of a flying speed of 250 mph. R. J. Mitchell designed the Supermarine Type 224 to fill this role; the 224 was an open-cockpit monoplane with bulky gull-wings and a large, spatted undercarriage powered by the 600-horsepower, evaporatively cooled Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine. It made its first flight in February 1934. Of the seven designs tendered to F7/30, the Gloster Gladiator biplane was accepted for service; the Type 224 was a big disappointment to Mitchell and his design team, who embarked on a series of "cleaned-up" designs, using their experience with the Schneider Trophy seaplanes as a starting point.
This led to the Type 300, with retractable undercarriage and a wingspan reduced by 6 ft. This design was submitted to the Air Ministry in July 1934, but was not accepted, it went through a series of changes, including the incorporation of a faired, enclosed cockpit, oxygen-breathing apparatus and thinner wings, the newly developed, more powerful Rolls-Royce PV-XII V-12 engine named the "Merlin". In November 1934, with the backing of Supermarine's owner Vickers-Armstrong, started detailed design work on this refined version of the Type 300. On 1 December 1934, the Air Ministry issued contract AM 361140/34, providing £10,000 for the construction of Mitchell's improved Type 300, design. On 3 January 1935, they formalised the contract with a new specification, F10/35, written around the aircraft. In April 1935, the armament was changed from two.303 in Vickers machine guns in each wing to four.303 in Brownings, following a recommendation by Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley of the Operational Requirements section at the Air Ministry.
On 5 March 1936, the prototype took off on its first flight from Eastleigh Aerodrome. At the controls was Captain Joseph "Mutt" Summers, chief test pilot for Vickers, quoted as saying "Don't touch anything" on landing; this eight-minute flight came four months after the maiden flight of the contemporary Hurricane. K5054 was fitted with a new propeller, Summers flew the aircraft on 10 March 1936. After the fourth flight, a new engine was fitted, Summers left the test flying to his assistants, Jeffrey Quill and George Pickering, they soon discovered that the Spitfire was a good aircraft, but not perfect. The rudder was oversensitive, the top speed was just 330 mph, little faster than Sydney Camm's new Merlin-powered Hurricane. A new and better-shaped wooden propeller allowed the Spitfire to reach 348 mph in level flight in mid-May, when Summers flew K5054 to RAF Martlesham Heath and handed the aircraft over to Squadron Leader Anderson of the Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment. Here, Flight Lieutenant Humphrey Edwardes-Jones took over the prototype for the RAF.
He had been given orders to fly the aircraft and to make his report to the Air Ministry on landing. Edwardes-Jones' report was positive.
Roger Anthony Black MBE is a British retired athlete. During his athletics career, he won individual silver medals in the 400 metres sprint at both the Olympic Games and World Championships, two individual gold medals at the European Championships, 4 × 400 metres relay gold medals at both the World and European Championships. Since retiring from athletics, he has worked as a television motivational speaker. In 2008, Black joined forces with fellow athlete Steve Backley and operate BackleyBlack LLP delivering Olympic Performance in the Workplace. Black has a collection of fifteen medals from major senior athletics competitions to add to his two European junior championship gold medals, he was born in Gosport, with a twin sister Julia. He attended Alverstoke Church of England Primary School and Portsmouth Grammar School, becoming Head Boy in 1983/84, it was whilst playing football with a local team that he began demonstrating his prowess as a runner, scoring numerous goals as a flying forward leaving many defenders in his wake.
He joined athletics clubs, re-took one of his A-level exams and began studying medicine at the University of Southampton, but he left his course after three months as he had begun to achieve success as an athlete. Black rose to prominence in 1985 when he won the European Junior Championships 400 m in a time of 45.43 at the age of 19. In 1986, Black graduated to the senior ranks and made a spectacular impact first winning at the Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh in 45.57, at the European Championships in Stuttgart, winning in a time of 44.59, his first British Record, breaking Derek Redmond's 44.82 record from the previous year. Having won golds in both 4 × 400 m relays at both of those events as well, Black's 1986 season had turned into a gold rush of four gold medals, his next three seasons were wiped out through illness and injuries and he only just made the relay team for the 1987 World Championships in Rome, where the GB team won the silver medal. He returned to the track in 1990 and his good form took him to the European Championships again, which were held in Split.
Black contested the 400 m final and retained his title with a time of 45.11, holding off his old rival Thomas Schonlebe. He anchored the GB team to an easy 4 × 400 m victory winning by a margin of 15 metres, a European record of 2:58.23, with his split time of 43.9. He thus achieved a rare double-double – two gold medals at consecutive championships. Black's outstanding 1990 season was followed by the 1991 World Championship season holding much expectation, his early season form at Crystal Palace saw him beat Olympic Champion Steve Lewis and Antonio Pettigrew but to only lose to a new athlete called Michael Johnson. Johnson would not contest the 400 m at the World Championships meaning the 400 m would be a contest between Black and Danny Everett as the main contenders. Black finished second in the individual 400 m in Tokyo to Antonio Pettigrew. Black entered the home straight two metres up on Pettigrew, he tired and was caught on the line. Pettigrew's time was 44.57 and Black finished in 44.62.
Everett nearly caught Black on the line. Pettigrew admitted the use of performance-enhancing drugs from 1997 onwards in June 2008. No clear evidence has emerged, Pettigrew never admitted anything further before his 2010 suicide, of him using performance-enhancing drugs during the 1991 season. In the final event of the Tokyo Championships, the men's 4 x 400 relay was billed as a two-way contest between the Great Britain team and the United States team. In an unusual change of tactics, the GB team members decided to put Black on the opening leg, followed by Redmond John Regis and, on anchor, the 400 m hurdler Kriss Akabusi. Black explained the tactics were to put him as first runner to give the team a lead or at least keep the team in close contention. Black's leg was 44.6 from a standing start. Redmond's leg was 44.1. Regis followed Everett round the third lap, clocking 44.3. While Everett handed to Pettigrew with a two-metre lead, Regis handed to Akabusi. Akabusi sat in behind the World Champion Pettigrew for the first 200 m of the final lap, closed around the crown of the final bend and the much improved Akabusi kicked past Pettigrew in the final 80 m to pull off a spectacular victory, winning in a time of 2:57.53 – a British and European record time.
Black set a new British Record of 44.37 seconds on 3 July 1996 in Switzerland. This was subsequently broken a year by Iwan Thomas who shaved 0.01s from Black's time. Fellow GB athlete Mark Richardson equalled Black's mark in 1998. Black's time stands as the second fastest of all time recorded by a British runner, his greatest individual achievement in track and field was in the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta when in the final of the 400 m he finished in second place behind Michael Johnson, winning the silver medal in the process. However due to injuries, he never rediscovered this form, subsequently retired from the sport only two years in 1998 after he was not selected for the 1998 European Championships. Black was coached by Mike Smith and Mike Whittingham, was sponsored by Reebok; the World Championships' 4 × 400 m saw the USA beat Great Britain by 0.18 seconds in a thrilling finale. Subsequently, US athlete, Antonio Pettigrew admitted to using performance-enhancing substances during this period.
On 7 January 2010, it was announced that Great Britain's 1997 World Championship 4 × 400 m relay team are to be awarded the gold medal due to the disqualification of the USA team. Black, running second leg, tied up and lost ground to his old rival Pettig
Parker Pen Company
The Parker Pen Company is a manufacturer of luxury pens, founded in 1888 by George Safford Parker in Janesville, United States. In 2011 the Parker factory at Newhaven, East Sussex, was closed, its production transferred to Nantes, France. George Safford Parker, the founder, had been a sales agent for the John Holland Gold Pen Company, he received his first fountain pen related patent in 1889. In 1894 Parker received a patent on his "Lucky Curve" fountain pen feed, claimed to draw excess ink back into the pen barrel when the pen was not in use; the company's first successful pen, released in 1899, was the Parker Jointless. The Lucky Curve feed was used in various forms until 1928. From the 1920s to the 1960s, before the development of the ballpoint pen, Parker was either number one or number two in worldwide writing instrument sales. In 1931 Parker created Quink. In 1941 the company developed the most used model of fountain pen in history, the Parker 51. Manufacturing facilities were set up over the years in Canada, United Kingdom, France, Mexico, USA, India, Germany and Argentina.
In 1955, the company introduced its Liquid Lead pencil which used liquid graphite to write like a pen. The Scripto company had introduced a similar product called Fluidlead a few months previously. To avoid a costly patent fight the companies agreed to share their formulas with each other; the company bought retailer and catalog company Norm Thompson in 1973, sold it in 1981. In 1976 Parker acquired Manpower. In time Manpower provided more revenue than the pen business. A 1982 spinoff, Sintered Specialties, Inc. became SSI Technologies, a manufacturer of automotive sensors. A management buyout in 1987 moved the company's headquarters to Newhaven, East Sussex, the original location of the Valentine Pen Company acquired by Parker. In 1993 Parker was purchased by the Gillette Company, which owned the Paper Mate brand - the best-selling disposable ballpoint. In 2000 Gillette sold its writing instruments division to the company Newell Rubbermaid, whose Sanford Stationery Division became the largest writing instrument manufacturers in the world at that time owning such brand names as Rotring, Reynolds as well as Parker, PaperMate and Liquid Paper.
With commercial competition increasing upon the Parker jotter's classic metal ink refill cartridge design from low cost generic copies produced in China, as Parker's unique design patent for the cartridge expired, Parker's sales began to be drastically adversely affected. In July 2009 Newell Rubbermaid Inc. in response announced that it had decided to close down the Parker production factory at Newhaven in England with the dismissal of 180 employees from the facility, relocate production to France. The following month, Newell Rubbermaid Inc. announced that the factory in Janesville, was to close the remaining operation there producing Parker Pens. The company press release stated: "This decision is a response to structural issues accelerated by market trends and is in no way a reflection on the valued work performed by our Janesville employees over the years." Newell Rubbermaid offered'transitional employment services' along with severance pay in compensation to the dismissed workforce. Subsequently, Parker has abandoned its traditional retail outlets in North America.
While some of its former staple Jotter pens may be found in retailers such as Office Depot, the Parker line has been moved to upscale "luxury" retailers in an abandonment of its former business model of quality manufacture combined with mass market appeal and pricing. With this commercial strategic move Parker altered its traditional product warranty on its high end pens, changing the former lifetime guarantee to a two-year warranty limitation. Parker Jotters are said to have been a favorite choice of President John F. Kennedy for signing legislation and to give as gifts. Key models in the company's history include: The precursor to the Parker Vector was introduced in 1981, it was a simple cylindrical plastic cap and barrel roller-ball pen called the "Parker RB1". In 1984, Parker added the FP1, with the same design; the RB1 and FP1 models were produced until 1986, at which time Parker revised the pen by lengthening the cap and shortening the barrel and renaming the new pen the "Vector Standard".
Presently, there are four models available: the fountain pen, capped rollerball, pushbutton ballpoint, pushbutton pencil. Products offered by the Parker Pen Company as of 2012: List of pen types and companies Official site Information site for 130 years of Parker pens Parker pens gallery on Penhero site
Lyall Watson was a South African botanist, biologist, anthropologist and author of many books, among the most popular of, the best seller Supernature. Lyall Watson tried to make sense of supernatural phenomena in biological terms, he is credited with coining the "Hundredth Monkey" phenomenon in Lifetide. He was born in Johannesburg as Malcolm Lyall-Watson, he had an early fascination for nature in the surrounding bush, learning from Zulu and! Kung bushmen. Watson attended boarding school at Rondebosch Boys' High School in Cape Town, completing his studies in 1955, he enrolled at the University of the Witwatersrand in 1956, where he earned degrees in botany and zoology, before securing an apprenticeship in palaeontology under Raymond Dart, leading on to anthropological studies in Germany and the Netherlands. He earned degrees in geology, marine biology and anthropology, he completed a doctorate in ethology under Desmond Morris. He worked at the BBC writing and producing nature documentaries. Around this time he shortened his name to Lyall Watson.
He served as director of the Johannesburg Zoo, an expedition leader to various locales, Seychelles commissioner for the International Whaling Commission. In the late 1980s he presented Channel 4's coverage of sumo tournaments, he was married three times. His first two marriages ended in divorce, his third wife died in 2003, he was the eldest of three brothers, one of whom lived in Gympie, Australia. It was while visiting Andrew that he died of a stroke on 25 June 2008. Lyall Watson began writing his first book, Omnivore during the early 1960s while under the supervision of Desmond Morris, wrote more than 21 others. Omnivore: The Role of Food in Human Evolution Supernature: A Natural History of the Supernatural The Romeo Error Gifts of Unknown Things: An Indonesian Adventure Lifetide: a Biology of the Unconscious Whales of the World: A Field Guide to the Cetaceans Lightning Bird: An African Adventure Heaven's Breath: A Natural History of the Wind Bali Entranced: A Celebration of Ritual - published in Japanese only Earthworks: Ideas on the Edge of Natural History Beyond Supernature: A New Natural History of the Supernatural The Water Planet: A Celebration of the Wonder of Water Neophilia: The Tradition of the New Sumo: A Guide to Sumo Wrestling The Nature of Things: The Secret Life of Inanimate Objects Lasting Nostalgia: Essays Out of Africa - published in Japanese only Turtle Islands: Ritual in Indonesia Dark Nature: A Natural History of Evil Monsoon: Essays on the Indian Ocean - published in Japanese only Lost Cradle: A Collection of Dialogues - published in Japanese only Warriors and Wisdom: Growing up in Africa Jacobson's Organ and the Remarkable Nature of Smell Elephantoms: Tracking the Elephant The Whole Hog: Exploring the Extraordinary Potential of Pigs Rupert Sheldrake WATSON, Lyall International Who's Who.
Accessed 3 September 2006
Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977, that started with what Byte Magazine called the "trinity of 1977", which became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user; these computers were a distinct market segment that cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC, were less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers, their most common uses were playing video games, but they were regularly used for word processing, doing homework, programming. Home computers were not electronic kits. There were, commercial kits like the Sinclair ZX80 which were both home and home-built computers since the purchaser could assemble the unit from a kit. Advertisements in the popular press for early home computers were rife with possibilities for their practical use in the home, from cataloging recipes to personal finance to home automation, but these were realized in practice.
For example, using a typical 1980s home computer as a home automation appliance would require the computer to be kept powered on at all times and dedicated to this task. Personal finance and database use required tedious data entry. By contrast, advertisements in the specialty computer press simply listed specifications. If no packaged software was available for a particular application, the home computer user could program one—provided they had invested the requisite hours to learn computer programming, as well as the idiosyncrasies of their system. Since most systems shipped with the BASIC programming language included on the system ROM, it was easy for users to get started creating their own simple applications. Many users found programming to be a fun and rewarding experience, an excellent introduction to the world of digital technology; the line between'business' and'home' computer market segments blurred or vanished once IBM PC compatibles became used in the home, since now both categories of computers use the same processor architectures, operating systems, applications.
The only difference may be the sales outlet through which they are purchased. Another change from the home computer era is that the once-common endeavour of writing one's own software programs has vanished from home computer use; as early as 1965, some experimental projects such as Jim Sutherland's ECHO IV explored the possible utility of a computer in the home. In 1969, the Honeywell Kitchen Computer was marketed as a luxury gift item, would have inaugurated the era of home computing, but none were sold. Computers became affordable for the general public in the 1970s due to the mass production of the microprocessor starting in 1971. Early microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 had front-mounted switches and diagnostic lights to control and indicate internal system status, were sold in kit form to hobbyists; these kits would contain an empty printed circuit board which the buyer would fill with the integrated circuits, other individual electronic components and connectors, hand-solder all the connections.
While two early home computers could be bought either in kit form or assembled, most home computers were only sold pre-assembled. They were enclosed in plastic or metal cases similar in appearance to typewriter or hi-fi equipment enclosures, which were more familiar and attractive to consumers than the industrial metal card-cage enclosures used by the Altair and similar computers; the keyboard - a feature lacking on the Altair - was built into the same case as the motherboard. Ports for plug-in peripheral devices such as a video display, cassette tape recorders and disk drives were either built-in or available on expansion cards. Although the Apple II series had internal expansion slots, most other home computer models' expansion arrangements were through externally accessible'expansion ports' that served as a place to plug in cartridge-based games; the manufacturer would sell peripheral devices designed to be compatible with their computers as extra cost accessories. Peripherals and software were not interchangeable between different brands of home computer, or between successive models of the same brand.
To save the cost of a dedicated monitor, the home computer would connect through an RF modulator to the family TV set, which served as both video display and sound system. By 1982, an estimated 621,000 home computers were in American households, at an average sales price of US$530. After the success of the Radio Shack TRS-80, the Commodore PET and the Apple II in 1977 every manufacturer of consumer electronics rushed to introduce a home computer. Large numbers of new machines of all types began to appear during the early 1980s. Mattel, Texas Instruments and Timex, none of which had any previous connection to the computer industry, all had short-lived home computer lines in the early 1980s; some home computers were more successful – the BBC Micro, Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Atari 800XL and Commodore 64, sold many units over several years and attracted third-party software development. Universally, home computers had a BASIC interpreter combined with a line editor in permanent read-only memory which one could use to type in BASIC programs and execute them
Look Around You
Look Around You is a British television comedy series devised and written by Robert Popper and Peter Serafinowicz, narrated in the first series by Nigel Lambert. The first series of eight 10-minute shorts was shown in 2002, the second series of six 30-minute episodes in 2005, both on BBC Two; the first series of Look Around You was nominated for a BAFTA award in 2003. In the first series, the episodes satirise and pay homage to early 1980s educational films and school programmes such as ITV's "Experiment" series and BBC's "For Schools and Colleges". A different scientific subject is covered in each episode; the modules were, in order of transmission: Calcium Maths Water Germs Ghosts Sulphur Music Iron BrainThe humour is derived from a combination of patent nonsense and faithful references and homages. For instance, fictional items that have a passing resemblance to everyday objects are shown and discussed; such items include the "boîte diabolique", a box at the top of a piano scale which housed the "forbidden notes".
Each episode begins with a "countdown clock", similar to the one used on ITV Schools programmes from 1979 to 1987. The music that accompanies the countdown is in the same spirit as the original, but is played on a solo guitar, at the beginning of the "Brain" module, the guitarist can be heard tuning; the module subjects are distorted beyond recognition. The maths module features a distorted and inaccurate version of the ancient'seven cats' puzzle by Ahmes. Additionally, subjects are mixed: for example, a chemistry experiment about eggs turns into a French language lesson; each episode follows a general format, beginning with an introduction to the subject, followed by a series of silly experiments performed by the hapless scientists, played by Popper and Edgar Wright, among others. The colour and overall look of the film was purposely altered to replicate 1980s' television for schools, passably authentic incidental music written by Serafinowicz and Popper under the pseudonym "Gelg" was overdubbed to complete the parody of the original programmes.
A running gag throughout the series is the fastidious labelling of all items in Dymo tape, such as hairdryers, magnets, a bottle of maths, or a jar of nuts. Another recurring joke is the use of fictional apparatus and materials used in the experiments—items such as the "Besselheim plate" pokes fun at real lab equipment named after their designers. Pencils are always used to point at key elements of the experiments, as the'scientists' do not speak: this is sometimes taken to ridiculous levels—pointing out pencils using a pencil; the series instructs viewers to keep a notebook, described as a "copy book," and to inscribe random and worthless details of the lessons taking place with the spoken instruction to "write this down in your copy book." The series was commissioned based on a 20-minute pilot episode. The DVD extras include a music video for the song "Little Mouse", a selection of mock-Ceefax pages, a creator's commentary; the joke is taken further by presenting the DVD subtitles in the same format as those broadcast via teletext.
At the end of each episode, reference is made to the "next module"—although these episodes were never made. The episodes that are promised, but never seen are: Champagne Cosmetics Dynamite Flowers Hitchhiking Italians Reggae RomanceOn the DVD Ceefax pages there were two unseen modules: Blood Further Maths The second series is composed of six 30-minute episodes and is presented in the pop-science vein of programmes such as Tomorrow's World; the series was directed by Tim Kirkby, Ash Atalla worked as executive producer. Running from 31 January to 7 March 2005 on BBC Two at 10 p.m. Series 2 comprised the following episodes: Music 2000 Health Sport Food Computers "Live" Inventor of the Year FinalThe DVD commentary confirms that this was not the intended order, explaining why some running gags appear to build inconsistently. According to the audio commentary, the programme is set around 1980-1981. To reinforce the show's retro look, each episode's opening continuity announcement played over the 3-dimensional BBC Two ident from 1979–1986.
Unlike the first series, 16:9 widescreen, the second series is presented in 4:3 to emulate the television format used in the early'80s. Additionally, location footage was shot on 16mm film, of the type used for location filming at the time. Episode 1 features a Top of the Pops-style introduction complete with the real TOTP theme music from the early 1980s, Yellow Pearl by Phil Lynott. Features such as the song contest in the "Music 2000" episode ground the series in the 1980s. Contestants showcase the futuristic songs they believe we could expect to hear in the far-off year 2000. Runners-up "Machadaynu", performed by Tony Rudd and Anthony Carmichael's "The Rapping Song" are beaten in the contest by Toni Baxter's track, "Sex
Sir John Phillip William Dankworth, CBE known as Johnny Dankworth, was an English jazz composer, saxophonist and writer of film scores. With his wife, jazz singer Dame Cleo Laine, he was a music educator and her music director. Born in Woodford, Essex, he grew up, within a family of musicians, in Hollywood Way, Highams Park, a suburb of Chingford, attended Selwyn Boys' School in Highams Park and Sir George Monoux Grammar School in Walthamstow, he had violin and piano lessons before settling on the clarinet at the age of 16, after hearing a record of the Benny Goodman Quartet. Soon afterwards, inspired by Johnny Hodges, he learned to play the alto saxophone, he began his career on the British jazz scene after studying at London's Royal Academy of Music and national service in the Royal Air Force, during which he played alto sax and clarinet for RAF Music Services. He played with Charlie Parker. Parker's comments about Dankworth led to the engagement of the young British jazz musician for a short tour of Sweden with the soprano-saxophonist Sidney Bechet.
In 1949, Dankworth was voted Musician of the Year. In 1950, Dankworth formed a small group, the Dankworth Seven, as a vehicle for his writing activities as well as a showcase for several young jazz players, including himself, Jimmy Deuchar, Eddie Harvey, Don Rendell, Bill Le Sage, Eric Dawson and Tony Kinsey. Vocalist and percussionist Frank Holder sang and recorded with this ensemble. After three successful years, the group was wound up, although it re-formed for several reunions over the years. Dankworth formed his big band in 1953; the band was soon earning plaudits from the critics and was invited to the 1959 Newport Jazz Festival, the first British group to receive an invite. The New York Times critic said of this appearance "Mr. Dankworth's group... showed the underlying merit that made big bands successful many years ago – the swinging drive, the harmonic colour and the support in depth for soloists, possible when a disciplined, imaginatively directed band has worked together for a long time.
This English group has a flowing, rhythmic drive that has disappeared from American bands". More succinctly, Gerard Lascelles of The Tatler, noted that'The Dankworth orchestra blew magnificently'; the band performed at the Birdland jazz club in New York City, shortly afterwards shared the stage with the Duke Ellington Orchestra for a number of concerts. Dankworth's band performed at a jazz event at New York's Lewisohn stadium where Louis Armstrong joined them for a set. By now, Cleo Laine's singing was a regular feature of Dankworth's recordings and public appearances. After her divorce from George Langridge became final, in 1957, Dankworth married Cleo in secret at Hampstead Registry Office in 1958; the only witnesses at the wedding were Johnny's friend, pianist Ken Moule, arranger David Lindup. In 1959, Dankworth became chair of the Stars Campaign for Inter-Racial Friendship, set up to combat the fascist White Defence League. In 1961, Dankworth's recording of Galt MacDermot's "African Waltz" reached the UK Singles Chart, peaked at No.
9, remained in the chart for 21 weeks. American altoist Cannonball Adderley sought and received Dankworth's permission to record the arrangement and had a minor hit in the US as a result; the piece was covered by many other groups. In 1967 drummer Ronnie Stephenson's part on "African Waltz" was adapted by the Jimi Hendrix Experience's Mitch Mitchell to form the basis of the drum part on "Manic Depression". Dankworth's friendship with trumpeter Clark Terry led to Terry's being a featured soloist on Dankworth's 1964 album The Zodiac Variations, together with Bob Brookmeyer, Zoot Sims, Phil Woods, Lucky Thompson and other guests. Other Dankworth recordings during this period featured many other respected jazz names; some were full-time members of the Dankworth band at one time or another, like Tony Coe, Mike Gibbs, Peter King, Dudley Moore, George Tyndale, Daryl Runswick, John Taylor and Kenny Wheeler, while others such as Dave Holland, John McLaughlin, Tubby Hayes and Dick Morrissey were occasional participants.
Dankworth began a second career as a composer of television scores. Among his best-known credits are the original themes for two British TV programmes, The Avengers and Tomorrow's World, he wrote the scores for the films Darling and Modesty Blaise and Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment. He appeared in the film All Night Long alongside Dave Brubeck and Charles Mingus – playing himself - and played on the theme to the satirical BBC show The Frost Report in 1966. Dankworth was commissioned to write a piece for the 1967 Farnham Festival. During this active period of recording, the Dankworth band found time for frequent live appearances and radio shows, including tours in Britain and Europe with Nat King Cole, Sarah Vaughan and Gerry Mulligan, concerts and radio performances with Lionel Hampton and Ella Fitzgerald. Dankworth's friendship with Duke Ellington continued until the latter's death in 1974, he recorded an album of symphonic arrangements of many Ellington tunes featuring another Ellingtonian trumpet soloist Barry Lee Hall.
Dankworth retained his Ellington links by performing with the Ellington Orchestra under the direction of Duke's son, Mercer Ellington. Dankworth recorded various symphonic albu