The ton is a unit of measure. It has acquired a number of meanings and uses over the years, it is used principally as a unit of mass. Its original use as a measurement of volume has continued in the capacity of cargo ships and in terms such as the freight ton. Recent specialised uses include the ton for truck classification, it is a colloquial term. It is derived from the term applied to a cask of the largest capacity; this could contain a volume between 175 and 213 imperial gallons, which could weigh around 2,000 pounds and occupy some 60 cubic feet of space. In the United Kingdom the ton is Statute measure, defined as 2,240 lb From 1965 the UK embarked upon a program of metrication and introduced metric units, including the tonne, defined as 1,000 kg; the UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded many units and terms from "use for trade", including the ton. In the United States and Canada a ton is defined to be 2,000 pounds. Where confusion is possible, the 2240 lb ton is called "long ton" and the 2000 lb ton "short ton".
In the UK the final "e" of "tonne" can be pronounced, or "metric ton" when it is necessary to make the distinction. Where precision is required the correct term must be used, but for many purposes this is not necessary: the metric and long tons differ by only 1.6%, the short ton is within 11% of both. The ton is the heaviest unit of weight used in colloquial speech; the term "ton" is used to refer to a number of units of volume, ranging from 35 to 100 cubic feet in capacity. It can be used as a unit of energy, expressed as an equivalent of coal burnt or TNT detonated. In refrigeration, a ton is a unit of power, sometimes called a ton of refrigeration, it is the power required to freeze one short ton of ice per day. The refrigeration ton hour is a unit of energy, the energy required to melt or freeze 1⁄24 short ton of ice. There are several similar units of mass or volume called the ton: The long ton is used for petroleum products such as aviation fuel. Deadweight ton is a measure of a ship's carrying capacity, including bunker oil, fresh water, ballast water and provisions.
It is expressed in long tons. This measurement is used in the U. S. tonnage of naval ships. Tonnes are being used rather than long tons in measuring the displacement of ships. See tonnage. Harbour ton, used in South Africa in the 20th century, was equivalent to 2000 pounds or one short ton. Both the long ton and the short ton are 20 hundredweight, the long hundredweight and the short hundredweight being 112 and 100 pounds respectively. Before the twentieth century there were several definitions. Prior to the 15th century in England, the ton was 20 hundredweight, each of 108 lb, giving a ton of 2,160 pounds. In the nineteenth century in different parts of Britain, definitions of 2240, 2352, 2400 lb were used, with 2000 lb for explosives. A short assay ton is 29 1⁄6 grams; these amounts bear the same ratio to a milligram as a long ton bears to a troy ounce. Therefore, the number of milligrams of a particular metal found in a sample weighing one assay ton gives the number of troy ounces of metal contained in a ton of ore.
In documents that predate 1960 the word ton is sometimes spelled tonne, but in more recent documents tonne refers to the metric ton. In nuclear power plants tHM and MTHM mean tonnes of heavy metals, MTU means tonnes of uranium. In the steel industry, the abbreviation THM means'tons/tonnes hot metal', which refers to the amount of liquid iron or steel, produced in the context of blast furnace production or specific consumption. A dry ton or dry tonne has the same mass value, but the material has been dried to a low, consistent moisture level. If the material is in its natural, wet state, it is called wet tonne. In the Imperial units system, the imperial ton is equivalent to 20 hundredweight, a hundredweight being eight stone, a stone weighing 14 pounds; the displacement the weight, of a ship is traditionally expressed in long tons. To simplify measurement it is determined by measuring the volume, rather than weight, of water displaced, calculating the weight from the volume and density. For practical purposes the displacement ton is a unit of volume, 35 cubic feet, the approximate volume occupied by one ton of seawater.
It is less than the 224 imperial gallons of the water ton. One measurement ton or freight ton is equal to 40 cubic feet, but it has had several different definitions, it is sometimes abbreviated as "MTON". It is used to determine the amount of money to be charged as "Freight" in carrying different sorts of cargo. In general if a cargo is heavier than salt water, the actual tonnage is used. If it is lighter than salt water, e.g. feathers, freight is calculated using Measurement Tons of 40 cubic feet. The freight ton represents the volume of a truck, train or other freight c
Oswego East High School, or OEHS, is a public four-year high school located in Oswego, Illinois, a southwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. It is part of Oswego Community Unit School District 308, which includes Oswego High School; the high school was established in 2004 due to the growing population in Illinois. From 2012–2013, Oswego East underwent expansions and renovations to prepare for an additional growth in student population; the additions were completed in August 2013, increasing the previous capacity of 2,400 students to 3,200 students. Oswego East High School is a part of the Southwest Prairie Conference and the Illinois High School Association; the school has boys' teams for a range of sports, including Baseball, Bowling, Cross Country, Soccer, Tennis, Track and Wrestling. There is a range of girls' sports teams including Badminton, Bowling, Cross Country, Soccer, Swimming, Tennis and Volleyball; the Academic Decathlon is a ten-event competition. Every team member competes 10 subjects: mathematics, economics, social science and literature, fine arts and impromptu speech, interview and superquiz.
Each team is made up of three honor students, three scholastic students, three varsity students, by GPA. The OEHS drama and theatre department puts on three main stage shows during each school year: a fall play, winter show, a spring musical. Most they have done the plays Figments, Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan, all earning a large amount for the Oswego East Theatre Department; the OEHS interact club is dedicated to doing community service and is sponsored by The Oswego Rotary club. Students volunteer in Honors Math classes. Mathletes coach makes the final selections. Mathletes compete against various schools in math contests as well as in the Southwest Prairie Conference. Membership is for freshman, sophomore and senior classes. Poms perform at basketball games as well as at student pep assemblies. There is a summer clinic and camp that students are expected to participate in to increase their skills. Fundraising activities are a major aspect of being a Pom. An engineering club, Gear it Forward was started in 2007.
The club has since grown to attract students from both Oswego High School and Oswego East High School to design and create robots through the FIRST Robotics organization. Membership on the Scholastic Bowl Team is made by the sponsor of the team. Students compete in College Bowl format of competition against various other schools as well as the I. H. S. A. State series. Speech Team is open to all students who stage skills. Competition at meets consists of the areas of oratory, oral declamation, verse, humorous/dramatic interpretation, humorous/dramatic duet acting, radio speaking and original comedy; the season runs from November through February. Students involved with East TV 16 produce the morning announcements via live TV hooked up to all OEHS classrooms. Experiences range from floor director, camera operator, videotape playback, video switching, video editing, computer graphics, audio engineering and producing. Broadcasting 1 and 2 students are the ones who create most of the advertisements on EAST TV.
Members of the Wolfpack Sports fan club are organized fans at sporting events for high school based athletic events. They support all sports teams for the school and a prominently represented at boys' basketball and football games; the organization was formally founded in 2008 at the school. Official Website
The Canton of Chârost is a canton situated in the Cher département and in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. A farming and forestry area in the valley of the Arnon, in the western part of the arrondissement of Bourges and centred on the town of Chârost; the altitude varies from 113m at Poisieux with an average altitude of 149m. The Canton of Chârost comprises a total of 14,168 inhabitants. Cher Arrondissements of the Cher department Cantons of the Cher department Communes of the Cher department The canton of Chârost on the Insee website This article is based on the equivalent article from the French Wikipedia, consulted on April 10, 2009