Sho-Bud is a brand name for a manufacturer of pedal steel guitars. The founders were active steel players in the 1950s. In the 1970s they expanded their line and offered acoustic guitars, they made a line of resonator guitars in conjunction with Gretsch under the name Sho-Bro, a play on the word Dobro. The name is owned by Gretsch and there are no models in production. Early 1950′s Shot installs string pullers with pedals on Fender and other steel guitars. 1955 Buddy Emmons joins Shot to start Sho-Bud. 1963 Shot’s sons and Harry, accompany Shot in building Sho-Bud Steel Guitars. Duane Marrs joins the company. 1963 Buddy Emmons leaves Sho-Bud to start his Emmons Guitar Company with Ron Lashley Models produced include the Permanent, Crossover, Professional, Pro I, Pro II, Pro III, Super Pro and LDG. http://www.jacksonsteelguitars.com/ https://web.archive.org/web/20161026193248/http://www.locobox.com/shobudacoustic/ Pete Drake Member of the Musician's Hall of Fame for Steel Guitar and player of Sho-bud guitars
The Fender Telecaster, colloquially known as the Tele, is the world's first commercially successful solid-body electric guitar. Its simple yet effective design and revolutionary sound broke ground and set trends in electric guitar manufacturing and popular music. Introduced for national distribution as the Broadcaster in the autumn of 1950, it was the first guitar of its kind manufactured on a substantial scale and has been in continuous production in one form or another since its first incarnation. Just like the Fender Stratocaster, the Telecaster is a versatile guitar, usable for most styles of music and has been used in many genres, including country, rock, folk, soul and blues, jazz and heavy metal; the Fender Telecaster was developed by Leo Fender in Fullerton, California in 1950. In the period between 1932 and 1949, several craftsmen and companies experimented with solid-body electric guitars, but none had made a significant impact on the market. Leo Fender's Telecaster was the design that made bolt-on neck, solid body guitars viable in the marketplace.
Fender had an electronics repair shop called Fender's Radio Service where he first repaired designed and electromagnetic pickups for musicians-chiefly players of electric semi-acoustic guitars, electric Hawaiian lap steel guitars, mandolins. Players had been "wiring up" their instruments in search of greater volume and projection since the late 1920s, electric semi-acoustics had long been available. Tone had never, until been the primary reason for a guitarist to go electric, but in 1943, when Fender and his partner, Clayton Orr "Doc" Kauffman, built a crude wooden guitar as a pickup test rig, local country players started asking to borrow it for gigs, it sounded sustaining. Fender was intrigued, in 1949, when it was long understood that solid construction offered great advantages in electric instruments, but before any commercial solid-body Spanish guitars had caught on, he built a better prototype; that hand-built prototype, an anonymous white guitar, had most of the features of what would become the Telecaster.
It was designed in the spirit of the solid-body Hawaiian guitars manufactured by Rickenbacker — small, simple units made of Bakelite and aluminum with the parts bolted together — but with wooden construction. The initial single-pickup production model appeared in 1950, was called the Fender Esquire. Ash and maple were used to construct the body and neck and the guitar came in one color entitled, blond. Fewer than fifty guitars were produced under that name, most were replaced under warranty because of early manufacturing problems. In particular, the Esquire necks had no truss rod and many were replaced due to bent necks. In 1950, this single-pickup model was discontinued, a two-pickup model was renamed the Broadcaster. From this point onward all Fender necks incorporated truss rods; the Esquire was reintroduced in 1951 at a lower price. The so-called Nocaster was a short-lived variant of Telecaster. Produced in early to mid-1951, it was the result of legal action from the Gretsch company over the guitar's previous name, the Broadcaster.
In the interim, before Fender had come up with an alternate name and printed appropriately revised headstock decals, factory workers snipped the "Broadcaster" name from its existing stock of decals, so guitars with these decals are identified as "Fender", without any model name. By the summer of 1951 the guitar was renamed as the Telecaster and has been known as such since; the term Nocaster was coined by collectors to denote these transitional guitars that appeared without a model name on the headstock. Since they were manufactured in this form for only a few months early in the Broadcaster/Telecaster's history, original Nocasters are prized and expensive collector's items. There are no official production numbers, but experts estimate that fewer than 500 Nocasters were produced. Fender has since registered Nocaster as a trademark to denote its modern replicas of this famous rarity. In 1951, Fender released the innovative and musically influential Precision Bass as a similar looking stable-mate to the Telecaster.
This body style was released as the Fender Telecaster Bass in 1968 after the Precision Bass had been changed in 1957 to make it more resemble the Fender Stratocaster guitar. This double cut away style was the shape. At the time Leo Fender began marketing the new, more refined Stratocaster in 1954, he expected it to replace the Telecaster, but the Telecaster's many virtues and unique musical personality have kept it in demand to the present day. Leo Fender's simple and modular design was geared to mass production and made servicing broken guitars easier. Guitars were not constructed individually, as in traditional luthiery. Rather, components were produced and inexpensively in quantity and assembled into a guitar on an assembly line; the bodies were bandsawn and routed from slabs, rather than hand-carved individually, as with other guitars made at the time, such as Gibsons. Fender did not use the traditional glued-in neck, but rather a "bolt-on" neck; this not only made production easier, but allowed the neck to be removed and serviced, or replaced entirely.
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Music of the Netherlands
The Netherlands has multiple musical traditions. Contemporary Dutch popular music is influenced by music styles that emerged in the 1950s, in the United Kingdom and United States; the style is sung in both English. Some of the latter exponents, such as Golden Earring and Shocking Blue, have attained worldwide fame. Another popular genre of Dutch music is known as "Levenslied", meaning "Song of/about life"; these songs have catchy, simple rhythms and melodies, are always built up on couplets and refrains. Themes are sentimental and include love and loneliness. Traditional Dutch musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are essential to levenslied, though in recent years many levenslied artists use synthesizers and guitars. Artists in this genre include the late André Hazes and Willy Alberti. Dutch techno, gabber and other styles in electronic dance music conquered the world. Most of the best-known DJs in the EDM scene hail from the Netherlands, including Tiësto, Don Diablo, Armin van Buuren, Ferry Corsten, Sander van Doorn, Fedde le Grand, Showtek, Oliver Heldens, Ran-D and Martin Garrix all of whom rank high in the DJ Mag Top 100 DJs and other rankings.
The Amsterdam dance event is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet. These artists contribute to the mainstream pop music played over the airwaves all around the world, as they collaborate and produce for many notable artists. Hip-hop in the Dutch language is popular in the Netherlands and Belgium. Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck was a Dutch composer and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras. Sweelinck was a master improviser, acquired the informal title of the "Orpheus of Amsterdam". Over 70 keyboard works of his have survived, many of them may be similar to the improvisations that residents of Amsterdam around 1600 were to have heard, his vocal music, more conservative than his keyboard writing, shows a striking rhythmic complexity and an unusual richness of contrapuntal devices. His influence was international; some of his music appears in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, which otherwise contains the work of English composers.
Sweelinck wrote variations on John Dowland's internationally famous Lachrimae Pavane, John Bull, the English keyboard composer, wrote a set of variations on a theme of Sweelinck, indicating the close connection between the different schools of composition across the North Sea. Jacob van Eyck was a blind recorder and organ virtuoso, who composed a unique collection of flute music. Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer was an accomplished baroque composer, whose work Concerti Armonici erroneously was attributed to Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. Igor Stravinsky used Unico's music for Pulcinella. Alphons Diepenbrock, he created a musical idiom which, in a personal manner, combined 16th-century polyphony with Wagnerian chromaticism, to which in years was added the impressionistic refinement that he encountered in Debussy's music. Willem Pijper is considered one of the most important figures in modern Dutch music. Between 1918 and 1922 he grew into one of the more advanced composers in Europe. In each successive work he went a step further and, from 1919, Pijper's music can be described as atonal.
However, Pijper remained a composer of strong emotional character, to which his Third Symphony bears witness. In Pijper's works the harmonic expression seems at times to approach monotonality; as a teacher Pijper had a great influence on modern Dutch music, teaching many prominent Dutch composers of the 1950s, 60s, 70s. He was senior master of instrumentation in the Amsterdam Conservatoire, from 1930 until his death in 1947 he was Head of the Rotterdam Conservatoire. Ton de Leeuw is known for his experiments with microtonality, he wrote Antigone. Lex van Delden was an important composer. Louis Andriessen is a composer whose early works show experimentation with various contemporary trends: post war serialism and tape. Andriessen's mature music combines the influences of American minimalism, his harmonic writing eschews the consonant modality of much minimalism, preferring post war European dissonance crystallised into large blocks of sound. Large-scale pieces such as De Staat, for example, are influenced by the energy of the big band music of Count Basie and Stan Kenton and the repetitive procedures of Steve Reich, both combined with bright, clashing dissonances.
Andriessen's music is thus anti-Germanic and anti-Romantic, marks a departure from post war European serialism and its offshoots. He has played a role in providing alternatives to traditional performance practice techniques specifying forceful, rhythmic articulations, amplified, non-vibrato, singing. Other notable works include Workers Union, a melodically indeterminate piece "for any loud sounding group of instruments".
Pedal steel guitar
The pedal steel guitar is a console-type of steel guitar with pedals and levers added to enable playing more varied and complex music which had not been possible with antecedent steel guitar designs. Like other steel guitars, it shares the ability to play unlimited glissandi and deep vibrati—characteristics in common with the human voice. Pedal steel is most associated with American country music. Pedals and knee levers were added to a steel guitar in the 1950s, allowing the performer to play scales without moving the bar and to push the pedals while striking a chord, making passing notes slur or bend up into harmony with existing notes; the latter creates a unique sound, embraced by country and western music—a sound not possible on a non-pedal steel guitar of any type. From its first use in Hawaii in the 19th century, the steel guitar sound became popular in the United States in the first half of the 20th century and spawned a family of instruments designed to be played with the guitar a horizontal position known as "Hawaiian-style".
The first instrument in this chronology was the Hawaiian guitar called a lap steel. The electric guitar pickup was invented in 1934, allowing steel guitars to be heard with other instruments. Electronic amplification enabled subsequent development of the electrified lap steel the console steel, the pedal steel guitar. Playing the pedal steel has unusual physical requirements in requiring simultaneous coordination of both hands, both feet and both knees. Pioneers in development of the instrument include Buddy Emmons, Bud Isaacs, Zane Beck, Paul Bigsby. In addition to American country music and Hawaiian music, the instrument is common in sacred music, Nigerian Music, Indian music; the instrument's ancestry is traced to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 19th century after the Spanish guitar was introduced there by European sailors and by Mexican vaqueros who came there to herd cattle. Hawaiians who did not want to take the time to learn how to play a Spanish guitar, re-tuned the instrument so it sounded a major chord when strummed thought to be an "unorthodox tuning".
This was known as "slack-key". To change chords, they used some smooth object a piece of pipe or metal, sliding it over the strings to the fourth or fifth position playing a three-chord song. To make playing easier, they played it while sitting; the problem with playing a traditional Spanish guitar this way was that the steel tone bar strikes against the frets making an unpleasant sound unless played lightly—this was corrected by raising the strings higher off the fretboard with a piece of metal or wood over the nut. This technique became popular throughout Hawaii. Joseph Kekuku was a Hawaiian from Oahu who became proficient in this style of playing around the turn of the century and popularized it—some sources say he invented the steel guitar, he moved to the United States mainland and became vaudeville performer and toured Europe performing Hawaiian music. The Hawaiian style of playing spread to the United States mainland and became popular during the first half of the 20th century, to the degree that it has been called the "Hawaiian craze", ignited by several events.
One such event was a 1912 Broadway musical show called Bird of Paradise, which featured Hawaiian music and elaborate costumes. The show became a hit and, to ride this wave of success, it was subsequently taken on the road in the U. S. and Europe spawning a motion picture of the same name. Joseph Kekuku was a member of the show's original cast and toured Europe with the Bird of Paradise show for eight years; the Washington Herald in 1918 stated, "So great is the popularity of Hawaiian music in this country that'The Bird of Paradise' will go on record as having created the greatest musical fad this country has known". Another event fueling the popularity of Hawaiian music was a radio broadcast called "Hawaii Calls" which began broadcasting from Hawaii to the US west coast, it prominently featured Hawaiian songs sung in English. Subsequently, the program was heard worldwide on over 750 stations. One of pedal steel guitar's foremost virtuosos, Buddy Emmons, at age 11 trained at the "Hawaiian Conservatory of Music" in South Bend, Indiana.
The Hawaiian style was adapted to blues music. Blues musicians played a conventional Spanish guitar as hybrid between the two types of guitars, using one finger inserted into a tubular slide or a bottleneck while using frets with the remaining fingers; this is known as "slide guitar". One of the first southern blues musicians to adapt the Hawaiian sound to the blues was "Tampa Red" whose playing, says historian Gérard Herzhaft, "created a style that has unquestionably influenced all modern blues."The acceptance of the sound of the steel guitar referred to as "Hawaiian guitars" or "lap steels", spurred instrument makers to produce them in quantity and create innovations in the design to accommodate this style of playing. Hawaiian lap steel guitars were not loud enough to compete with other instruments, a problem that many inventors were trying to remedy. In Los Angeles in the 1920s, a steel guitar player named George Beauchamp saw some inventions which added a horn, like a megaphone, to steel guitars to make them louder.
Beauchamp became interested, went to a shop near his home to learn more. The shop
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal. It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output; the amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit. An amplifier can either be a separate piece of equipment or an electrical circuit contained within another device. Amplification is fundamental to modern electronics, amplifiers are used in all electronic equipment. Amplifiers can be categorized in different ways. One is by the frequency of the electronic signal being amplified. For example, audio amplifiers amplify signals in the audio range of less than 20 kHz, RF amplifiers amplify frequencies in the radio frequency range between 20 kHz and 300 GHz, servo amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers may work with low frequencies down to direct current.
Amplifiers can be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain. The first practical electrical device which could amplify was the triode vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912. Today most amplifiers use transistors; the first practical device that could amplify was the triode vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912. Vacuum tubes were used in all amplifiers until the 1960s–1970s when the transistor, invented in 1947, replaced them. Today, most amplifiers use transistors; the development of audio communication technology in form of the telephone, first patented in 1876, created the need to increase the amplitude of electrical signals to extend the transmission of signals over long distances. In telegraphy, this problem had been solved with intermediate devices at stations that replenished the dissipated energy by operating a signal recorder and transmitter back-to-back, forming a relay, so that a local energy source at each intermediate station powered the next leg of transmission.
For duplex transmission, i.e. sending and receiving in both directions, bi-directional relay repeaters were developed starting with the work of C. F. Varley for telegraphic transmission. Duplex transmission was essential for telephony and the problem was not satisfactorily solved until 1904, when H. E. Shreeve of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company improved existing attempts at constructing a telephone repeater consisting of back-to-back carbon-granule transmitter and electrodynamic receiver pairs; the Shreeve repeater was first tested on a line between Boston and Amesbury, MA, more refined devices remained in service for some time. After the turn of the century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, were tried in repeaters, with little success; the development of thermionic valves starting around 1902, provided an electronic method of amplifying signals. The first practical version of such devices was the Audion triode, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912.
Since the only previous device, used to strengthen a signal was the relay used in telegraph systems, the amplifying vacuum tube was first called an electron relay. The terms amplifier and amplification, derived from the Latin amplificare, were first used for this new capability around 1915 when triodes became widespread; the amplifying vacuum tube revolutionized electrical technology, creating the new field of electronics, the technology of active electrical devices. It made possible long distance telephone lines, public address systems, radio broadcasting, talking motion pictures, practical audio recording, radar and the first computers. For 50 years all consumer electronic devices used vacuum tubes. Early tube amplifiers had positive feedback, which could increase gain but make the amplifier unstable and prone to oscillation. Much of the mathematical theory of amplifiers was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories during the 1920s to 1940s. Distortion levels in early amplifiers were high around 5%, until 1934, when Harold Black developed negative feedback.
Other advances in the theory of amplification were made by Hendrik Wade Bode. The vacuum tube was the only amplifying device, other than specialized power devices such as the magnetic amplifier and amplidyne, for 40 years. Power control circuitry used magnetic amplifiers until the latter half of the twentieth century when power semiconductor devices became more economical, with higher operating speeds; the old Shreeve electroacoustic carbon repeaters were used in adjustable amplifiers in telephone subscriber sets for the hearing impaired until the transistor provided smaller and higher quality amplifiers in the 1950s. The replacement of bulky electron tubes with transistors during the 1960s and 1970s created another revolution in electronics, making possible a large class of portable electronic devices, such as the transistor radio developed in 1954. Today, use of vacuum tubes is limited for some high power applications, such as radio transmitters. Beginning in the 1970s, more and more transistors were connected on a single chip thereby creating higher scales of integration (small-scale, medium-scale, large-s
Merle Ronald Haggard was an American country singer, songwriter and fiddler. Along with Buck Owens and his band the Strangers helped create the Bakersfield sound, characterized by the twang of the Fender Telecaster mixed with the sound of the steel guitar, vocal harmony styles in which the words are minimal, a rough edge not heard on the more polished Nashville sound recordings of the same era. Haggard was born in Oildale, during the Great Depression, his childhood was troubled after the death of his father, he was incarcerated several times in his youth. After being released from San Quentin State Prison in 1960, he managed to turn his life around and launch a successful country music career, gaining popularity with his songs about the working class that contained themes contrary to the prevailing anti-Vietnam War sentiment of much popular music of the time. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, he had 38 number-one hits on the US country charts, several of which made the Billboard all-genre singles chart.
Haggard continued to release successful albums into the 2000s. He received many honors and awards for his music, including a Kennedy Center Honor, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, a BMI Icon Award, induction into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, Country Music Hall of Fame and Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, he died on April 6, 2016 — his 79th birthday — at his ranch in Shasta County, having suffered from double pneumonia. Haggard's last recording, a song called "Kern River Blues," described his departure from Bakersfield in the late 1970s and his displeasure with politicians; the song was recorded February 9, 2016, features his son Ben on guitar. This record was released on May 12, 2016. Haggard's Flossie Mae and James Francis Haggard; the family moved to California from their home in Checotah, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934. They settled with their two elder children and Lillian, in an apartment in Bakersfield, while James started working for the Santa Fe Railroad.
A woman who owned a boxcar placed in Oildale, a nearby town, asked Haggard's father about the possibility of converting it into a house. He remodeled the boxcar, soon after moved in purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937; the property was expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen, a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot. His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945, an event that affected Haggard during his childhood and the rest of his life. To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper. At 12, his brother, gave him his used guitar. Haggard learned to play alone, with the records he had at home, influenced by Bob Wills, Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams; as his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, but it worsened. Haggard committed a number of minor offenses, such as writing bad checks, he was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950.
When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague. He hitchhiked throughout the state; when he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released. Haggard was sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to Modesto, California, he worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, an oil well shooter. His debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named "Fun Center", for which he was paid US$5 and given free beer, he returned to Bakersfield in 1951, was again arrested for truancy and petty larceny and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the Preston School of a high-security installation, he was released 15 months but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt. After Haggard's release, he and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard was allowed to sing first.
He sang songs. Because of this positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs. Married and plagued by financial issues, he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse, he was sent to Bakersfield Jail, after an escape attempt, was transferred to San Quentin Prison on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard learned that his wife was expecting another man's child, which pressed him psychologically, he was fired from a series of prison jobs, planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed "Rabbit," but was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates. While at San Quentin, Haggard started a brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered Caryl Chessman, an author and death-row inmate. Meanwhile, "Rabbit" had escaped, only to shoot a police officer and be returned to San Quentin for execution. Chessman's predicament, along with the execution of "Rabbit," inspired Haggard to change his life.
He soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison's textile plant. He played for the prison's country music band, attributing a performance by Johnny Cash at the prison on New Year's Day 1959 as his main inspiration to join it, he was released from Sa