Ton Pentre is a village in the Rhondda Valley in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taf, Wales. Historically part of Glamorgan, Ton Pentre, a former coal mining village, is a district of the community of Pentre. The old district of Ystradyfodwg was named after the church at Ton Pentre, Ton Pentre is, perhaps, best known for an event in 1924, when the Duke of York played a round of golf with Frank Hodges. One of the earliest recorded settlements in Ton Pentre is an Iron Age hillfort located at Maindy Camp, although initially believed to have been from the Bronze Age period, the camp was misidentified due to items from a Bronze Age cairn that were found inside the camp perimeter. The area on which Ton Pentre now stands was originally the site of a cluster of houses or hafodi, small farming buildings. The site was settled by a farm and a few cottages. To distinguish the area from nearby Tonypandy, it known as Ton Pentre. When it became viable to mine coal in deep shaft pits in the mid-19th century, many pits were sunk in the Rhondda valley. It was the individual collieries that were at the heart of the villages that emerged on the valley floor as they were the major employers in the area. At the height of the mining industry Ton Pentre was home to a few thousand people living in high density terraced houses that spanned the whole valley. The largest colliery in the area, Maindy Colliery, was established in Ton-Pentre when the first mine was sunk by David Davies & Partners in 1864, Davies had rented land in the Rhondda Fawr and had searched for a workable seam for 15 months. When he had run out of money he gathered his workforce together. Digging his hand into his pocket he took out a half crown saying. Someone in the crowd replied, Well have that as well, impressed by this gesture, the men agreed to continue working for another seven days without pay. On the seventh day of digging with no pay, a seam of the best-quality steam coal was finally found. The mine was near closure in 1866 when the Six Feet seam was discovered and this sustained production of coal until 1948, when mining ceased at the colliery, though it remained open as a ventilation shaft for other mines. The village itself has seen a decline in commerce and industry associated with the area since the demise of the coal industry. This has also been a factor in the social deprivation that has stricken the area
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams also have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season. The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns, Vikings and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Rugby union, known in some parts of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using a ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts on each try line. Historically an amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, World Rugby, originally the International Rugby Football Board and from 1998 to 2014 the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886. Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland, early exponents of the sport included Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Georgia, Madagascar, New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga, Rugby union is played in over 100 countries across six continents, there are 101 full members and 18 associate members of World Rugby. The Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place four years with the winner of the tournament receiving the Webb Ellis Cup. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are major annual competitions. The origin of football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895, despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first football team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with pupils from Rugby. Other important events include the Blackheath Clubs decision to leave the Football Association in 1863, despite the sports full name of rugby union, it is known simply as rugby throughout most of the world. The first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England, by 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is also the year of the first rugby tournament, the Melrose Sevens. During the early history of union, a time before commercial air travel. The first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe, All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, and were far more successful than critics had expected. After Morgan began singing, the crowd joined in, the first time a national anthem was sung at the start of a sporting event, in 1905 France played England in its first international match
Cardiff City F.C.
Cardiff City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Cardiff, Wales that competes in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. The club was founded in 1899 as Riverside A. F. C. before changing its name to Cardiff City in 1908 and they play their home games at the Cardiff City Stadium, after moving from Ninian Park in 2009. The club reverted to their traditional blue in January 2015 and they have long-standing rivalries with nearby clubs Swansea City, known as the South Wales derby, and Bristol City, known as the Severnside derby. The club was founded in 1899 as Riverside A. F. C and their first season saw them playing friendlies against local sides at their Sophia Gardens ground, but in 1900 they joined the Cardiff & District League for their first competitive season. To combat this they arranged to join the South Wales Amateur League in 1907, with the club growing in stature, they were forced to turn down the opportunity to join the newly formed Southern League Second Division due to the lack of facilities at their Sophia Gardens ground. The club eventually secured land to build their own stadium, moving into Ninian Park, the club made its first signing the following year with the acquisition of Jack Evans from fellow Welsh club Cwmparc. With the new ground in place, Cardiff joined the Southern League Second Division, and appointed their first manager in Davy McDougall, who became player-manager. They went on to finish in place in their first year in the league but the board decided to replace McDougall with Fred Stewart. In 1920, the club submitted an application to join the Football League and were placed into the Second Division for the 1920–21 season. Stewart brought in players with Football League experience, breaking the clubs transfer record on two occasions to sign Jimmy Gill and later Jimmy Blair from The Wednesday. In the 74th minute, after collecting a throw George MacLachlan, dan Lewis, the Arsenal goalkeeper, appeared to collect the ball but, under pressure from the advancing Len Davies, clumsily allowed the ball to roll through his grasp. In a further attempt to retrieve the ball Lewis only succeeded in knocking the ball with his elbow into his own net, captain Fred Keenor received the FA Cup trophy from King George V only seven years after Cardiff City had entered the Football League. However, he was unable to turn the fortunes around by the end of the season. McCandless left the club soon after and was replaced by Cyril Spiers who led the club to promotion the in 1951–52 season, however, despite spending five seasons in the First Division, the club continually struggled in the bottom half of the table and were eventually relegated in 1957. They returned to the First Division for two seasons between 1960 and 1962 before again suffering relegation, during the 1960s, Cardiff began qualifying for European competition for the first time as a result of winning the Welsh Cup. They went on to reach the quarter-finals before being knocked out by Real Zaragoza, despite their exploits in Europe, the club were still struggling in league competition under the stewardship of Jimmy Scoular, finishing in 20th position in the Second Division. After a 1–1 draw in the first leg, just over 43,000 fans turned out at Ninian Park to watch Hamburg win 3–2, during the 1970–71 season, Cardiff reached the quarter-finals of the Cup Winners Cup where they faced Spanish side Real Madrid. The first leg of the tie was held at Ninian Park where 47,000 fans watched one of the most famous victories in the history when Brian Clark headed in to give Cardiff a 1–0 win
Welsh Premier League
The Welsh Premier League is the national football league for Wales. It has both professional and semi-professional status clubs and is at the top of the Welsh football league system, prior to 2002, the league was known as the League of Wales, but changed its name as part of a sponsorship deal. Currently, the sponsored name of the league is the Dafabet Welsh Premier League. At the end of the 2015/16 season the Welsh Premier League was ranked 48th out of 55 members by the UEFA coefficient. The league was formed in October 1991 by Alun Evans, Secretary General of the Football Association of Wales, the new league was formed for the 1992–93 season, and officially launched on 15 August 1992. At the time, despite the FAW being a FIFA and UEFA member it had not previously organised a national league, traditionally, the strongest teams in Wales had always played in the English leagues. Aberdare Athletic, Cardiff City, Merthyr Town, Newport County, Swansea City, the formation of the League of Wales saw the start of a bitter dispute between the Football Association of Wales and those non-League clubs who wanted to remain part of the English football pyramid. The Irate Eight, as they were dubbed, consisted of Bangor City, Barry Town, Caernarfon Town, Colwyn Bay, Merthyr Tydfil, Newport, Newtown and Rhyl. At the time, Cardiff City, Swansea City and Wrexham were playing in The Football League, prior to the inaugural season, Bangor City, Newtown and Rhyl reluctantly agreed to play in the League of Wales. However, as Rhyls application to join the league was late, because of FAW sanctions, the remaining five clubs were forced to play their home matches in England. Following a season in exile at Worcester City, five became four, conversely, in 1996 now-defunct English team Oswestry Town were accepted by the League of Wales and currently The New Saints are based in Oswestry. The PA added the results at the start of the 1996–97 season. One of the problems facing the league is its failure to attract teams from the major population centres of Wales. This is because the four most populous areas of Cardiff, Swansea, Newport, the Welsh Premier League is therefore made up of clubs from smaller towns and even villages. Clubs are promoted to the Welsh Premier League from the two feeder leagues, the Cymru Alliance in the north and the Welsh Football League Division One in the south. No teams were promoted to the Welsh Premier League following the 2005–06 season, however, Cardiff Grange Quins, who finished bottom of the Welsh Premier League resigned leaving the league to operate with an odd number of clubs for 2006–07. The 2009–10 season saw Bala Town promoted to the Welsh Premier League after they won the Cymru Alliance in 2008–09 and they replaced Caernarfon Town who were relegated to the Cymru Alliance. At the end of the 2009–10 season, due to league restructuring Connahs Quay, Porthmadog, Welshpool Town, Caersws, no teams were promoted to the Welsh Premier League from the feeder leagues
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world footballs governing body FIFA, UEFA consists of 55 national association members. Until 1959 the main headquarters were located in Paris, and later in Bern, in 1995, UEFA headquarters were transferred to Nyon, Switzerland. Henri Delaunay was the first general secretary and Ebbe Schwartz the first president, UEFA was founded on 15 June 1954 in Basel, Switzerland after consultation between the Italian, French, and Belgian associations. The European football union began with 25 members, that number doubled by the early 1990s, UEFA membership coincides for the most part with recognition as a sovereign country in Europe, although there are some exceptions. Some UEFA members are not sovereign states, but form part of a recognized sovereign state in the context of international law. Some UEFA members are transcontinental states, countries which had been members of the Asian Football Confederation were also admitted to the European football association, particularly Israel and Kazakhstan. Additionally some UEFA member associations allow teams from outside their associations main territory to take part in their domestic competition, saarland Football Union 1954–1956 German football association of the German Democratic Republic 1954–1990 Football Federation of the Soviet Union 1954–1991, in 1992 became Russian Football Union. The newly independent 14 Soviet Republics created their own football associations, Football Association of Yugoslavia 1954–1992, became Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia became independent, Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro 1992–2006, became Football Association of Serbia. Montenegro, which became independent, created its own football association, the main competition for mens national teams is the UEFA European Football Championship, started in 1958, with the first finals in 1960, and known as the European Nations Cup until 1964. It is also called UEFA or the EURO, UEFA also runs national competitions at Under-21, Under-19 and Under-17 levels. For womens national teams, UEFA operates the UEFA Womens Championship for senior sides as well as Womens Under-19. UEFA also organized the UEFA-CAF Meridian Cup with CAF for youth teams in an effort to boost youth football, UEFA launched the UEFA Regions Cup, for semi-professional teams representing their local region, in 1999. In futsal there is the UEFA Futsal Championship and UEFA Futsal Under-21 Championship, the Italian, German, Spanish and French mens national teams are the sole teams to have won the European football championship in all categories. A second, lower-ranked competition is the UEFA Europa League and this competition, for national knockout cup winners and high-placed league teams, was launched by UEFA in 1971 as a successor of both the former UEFA Cup and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. A third competition, the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, which had started in 1960, was absorbed into the UEFA Cup in 1999, in womens football UEFA also conducts the UEFA Womens Champions League for club teams. The competition was first held in 2001, and known as the UEFA Womens Cup until 2009, the UEFA Super Cup pits the winners of the Champions League against the winners of the Europa League, and came into being in 1973
UEFA Intertoto Cup
The competition was discontinued after the 2008 tournament. Teams who originally would have entered the Intertoto Cup now directly enter the qualifying stages of the UEFA Europa League from this point, the tournament was founded in 1961–62, but was only taken over by UEFA in 1995. Any club who wished to participate had to apply for entry, the cup billed itself as providing both an opportunity for clubs who otherwise would not get the chance to enter the UEFA Cup and as an opportunity for sports lotteries to continue during the summer. This reflects its background, which was as a tournament solely for football pools, in 1995, the tournament came under official UEFA sanctioning and UEFA Cup qualification places were granted. Initially, two were provided, this was increased to three after one year, but in 2006, it was increased to the final total of 11. The Intertoto Cup was the idea of Malmö FF chairman Eric Persson, thommen, and the Austrian coach Karl Rappan, who coached the Swiss national team at the 1938 FIFA World Cup and at the 1954 World Cup. The Cup for the Cupless was also promoted by the Swiss newspaper Sport. It derived its name from Toto, the German term for football pool, thommen, who had set up football betting pools in Switzerland in 1932, had a major interest in having purposeful matches played in the summer break. UEFA were initially disinclined to support the tournament, finding its betting background distasteful, nevertheless they permitted the new tournament, clubs which qualified for one of the official continental competitions, such as the European Champions Cups and Cup Winners Cup, were not allowed to participate. The first tournament was held in 1961 as the International Football Cup, initially the Cup had a group stage, which led to knock-out matches culminating in a final. By 1967, it had become difficult to organize the games, and so the knock-out rounds, instead, group winners received prizes of CHF10, 000-15,000. By 1995, UEFA had reconsidered its opinion, took control of the tournament. Initially, two winners were given a place in the UEFA Cup, the success of one of the first winners, Bordeaux, in reaching the final of the 1995–96 UEFA Cup encouraged UEFA to add a third UEFA Cup place in 1996. Many clubs disliked the competition and saw it as disruptive in the preparation for the new season, as a consequence, they did not nominate themselves for participation even if entitled. Following the threat of bans of English teams from all UEFA competitions, in following years, UEFA made it possible for nations to forfeit Intertoto places. Other clubs have built upon their success in the UI Cup, furthermore, UEFA rejected this assertion that the tournament is disruptive. In December 2007, following the election of new UEFA president Michel Platini and this was a part of a range of changes that were to be made to the UEFA Cup/Champions League System. Instead of teams qualifying for the Intertoto Cup, they now qualify directly for the qualifying stages of the UEFA Europa League
Barry Town United F.C.
Barry Town United Football Club is an association football team based in Barry. They are known for representing Wales in Europe as winners of the Welsh Premier League and Welsh Cup during the 1990s and early 2000s, the team, which has contained more than 50 full internationals, is now run by supporters. They play at their home of Jenner Park, Barry. Barry Town Uniteds history dates back to 1892 when a football team named Barry. During the early years, this side endured many upheavals, playing on five different grounds under various identities, including Barry Unionist Athletic, Barry United Athletic and Barry District. Players who featured during these years included Ted Vizard and Billy Jennings, in November 1912, a meeting at The Windsor public house in Holton Road saw townsfolk choose to pursue membership of the thriving Southern League as Barry AFC. The club would secure land owned by the Jenner family and the people of the came together to build Jenner Park. On 6 September 1913, Barry played their first ever fixture, the game attracted 4,000 spectators, including 1,000 travelling supporters. Fittingly, the new team would register a surprise, albeit merited, victory, with Barrys Ralph Isherwood scoring the very first goal at Jenner Park just three minutes in. His second, midway through the half, sealed a 2–1 victory, a fine start for the Barry side on, coincidentally. The ensuing two seasons would see Stoke City, Brentford, Coventry City and others visit the new ground, however, the Great War would soon interrupt any competitive proceedings, with Barry captain Major James Wightman one of the many casualties of The Battle of the Somme. The 1920–21 season ranks as one of the finest in Barrys history, the achievement was all the more impressive when considering the small Barry squad played over 100 matches in all competitions during the course of the season. Competing simultaneously in both the Welsh and Western League, the Barry board gave priority to Southern League fixtures, Barry retained membership of the Southern League for more than 60 years – their highest finish being fourth in the 1930s. Among the notable players of the era were Johnny Gardner, Dai Ward, meanwhile, Barry-born sportsman Ernie Carless combined his footballing exploits with a successful cricketing career with Glamorgan. At the end of the 1920s, a crowd of 6,000 at Upton Park saw Barry beat Dagenham 1–0 to progress to the FA Cup 2nd Round and it proved to be their most successful run in the competition. Barry would reach the 1st Round again in 1934–35, losing 1–0 to Northampton Town at Jenner Park, Football again took a backseat in 1939, with the eruption of World War II. In the 1949–50 season, Jenner Park became one of the first grounds in the country to introduce floodlights, with Newport County, Swansea City, two seasons later, an all-Welsh showdown in the FA Cup 1st Round saw Barry beaten by Newport, 4–0. Nevertheless, the town’s most celebrated footballing achievement was right around the corner, in May 1955, following a 1–1 draw at the Racecourse in Wrexham, Barry beat Chester City 4–3 at Ninian Park to lift the Welsh Cup for the first time
Welsh Football League
The Welsh Football League is a club football league in Wales. Division One of the Welsh Football League is at Level 2 of the Welsh football league system, the Welsh Football Leagues history stretches back to 1904 when the competition was first formed and Aberdare were crowned first champions of a seven-team First Division. Abergavenny were champions of Division 2 and Trelewis the winners of Division 3 and its current title was adopted in 1912 when it changed from the Glamorgan League. Prior to that it was known as the Rhymney Valley League, during the early days of the Rhymney Valley and Glamorgan Leagues there was also the South Wales League but this competition had no connection with the origins of the Welsh Football League. The Cymru Alliance and feeder leagues to the Cymru Alliance are its equivalent in North Wales and it also has its own knock-out competition, the Nathaniel Car Sales Welsh Football League Cup. Cardiff City Reserves has the record of trophies won with 7 titles, in April 1904 the Merthyr Express newspaper reported that a new football league would be formed in addition to the South Wales League which had been in existence since 1891. Interest in the new league was high and the formation of three divisions attracted no fewer than 25 clubs, including Corinthians from Cardiff. Seven clubs formed the new top division and Aberdare were crowned as the inaugural champions, the league is made up of three divisions each having 16 clubs. There is promotion and relegation between the divisions, with the top three teams in each division being promoted to the one above and the three being relegated to the one below. The winner of the First Division may be promoted to the national Welsh Premier League and this number totalled four in 2011, despite only two teams being promoted, in order for the three divisions to number 16 clubs. This division has changed its name on numerous occasions,22 Clubs won Top Division of the Welsh League in South Wales
The Welsh Cup is a knock-out football competition contested annually by teams in the Welsh football league system. The Football Association of Wales is the body of this competition. The winning team qualifies to play in the following seasons UEFA Europa League, until 1995, Welsh clubs playing in the Welsh or English leagues were invited to play in the Welsh Cup. On occasion some English clubs, mostly those from border areas such as Shrewsbury, Hereford, however, in the event of an English club winning the Welsh Cup, they were not allowed to progress to the European Cup Winners Cup. Instead, the best placed Welsh club in the Welsh Cup competition would take the European place, from 1996 to 2011, only clubs playing in the Welsh football league system were allowed to enter the Welsh Cup. This rule excluded the six Welsh clubs who played in the English football league system, Cardiff City, Colwyn Bay, Merthyr Tydfil Town, Newport County, Swansea City and Wrexham. On 20 April 2011, the Football Association of Wales invited these six clubs to rejoin the Welsh Cup for the 2011–12 season, between the 1961–62 and 1984–85 seasons, the final was played as a two-leg match, originally on a points basis rather than aggregate score. In the 1985–86 season, it reverted to a game, to be decided by extra time. The last English winner of the Welsh Cup was Hereford United in 1990, for a list of Welsh Cup finals including venue and attendance information see List of Welsh Cup finals
Moses Richard Russell was a Welsh international footballer, who played most of his career with Plymouth Argyle. A full back, he attained 23 caps for the Wales national football team, Russell was born in Tredegar, in Monmouthshire and after leaving school he began work as a coal-miner. In his leisure time he played association football and rugby as well as being a boxer and competent swimmer, once rescuing a drowning child from a river. His first professional club was Ton Pentre, whom he joined in 1911 before transferring to Merthyr Town later that year, whilst with Merthyr Town, Russell helped them win the South Wales & Monmouthshire FA Cup. He made his debut for Wales playing at left half against Scotland on 2 March 1912, although he was not selected for the next international, against England, he was called up to play Ireland on 13 April, this time in his preferred position at left back. Both matches ended in defeats, with Wales taking the wooden spoon in the 1912 British Home Championship, whilst with Merthyr, he gained his third cap, against England on 16 March 1914. As a result of a bout of fever, Russell lost most of his hair. As a result, several clubs rejected him as a veteran. I must write to let you know the wonderful benefit I have received through taking the Builth Wells saline, yours faithfully, Moses Russell,34 Bickham Park, Peverall, Plymouth. The above is quoted from A Pictorial History of Builth Wells, in the summer of 1914, Russell signed for Plymouth Argyle for a club record fee of £400. He made his debut for Argyle on 2 September 1914 in a 2–0 victory over Brighton & Hove Albion, despite the outbreak of the First World War, the Southern League season continued, although international football was suspended. During his first season at Home Park, Russell soon became the choice at left back. Following the completion of the 1914–15 season, normal league football was suspended until 1919, during the war, Russell served as a private in the mechanised transport section of the Army Service Corps, receiving the British War Medal and Victory Medal. Described as a player with unquenchable enthusiasm and gritty determination, Russell was an inspiration throughout the 1920s at club, a big, strong defender, he was quick, had good positional sense and was of inestimable value to Plymouth Argyle. In 1922, Russell joined the Players Union, along with Howard Matthews, Charlie Buchan, Russell became club captain and led his side to the runners-up position in the Football League Division Three South for six successive seasons between 1921–22 and 1926–27. With only the champions being promoted to the Second Division, Argyle continued to out on promotion until 1930. As a result of the failure to reach the top place in the table, in the summer of 1924, a Plymouth Argyle team visited South America to play some exhibition football in Uruguay and the Argentine. Russell captained the side and played in all nine matches, after a half hour delay, the referee restarted the match, but a further invasion was sparked when the referee awarded a penalty against the home side. When the match was restarted, the Argyle players had agreed that Patsy Corcoran would take the spot-kick
Alexander Graham Lawless is a Welsh professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for League Two club Yeovil Town. Lawless began his career with Cardiff Citys youth system playing for Welsh Football League club Ton Pentre. He joined Premier League club Fulham in 2003 and he was released in 2005 and he spent a season in League Two with Torquay United, before joining Forest Green Rovers in the Conference National. He spent three seasons with them, winning the players player of the season award in the 2007–08 season. He joined York City in 2009 and played for them in the 2010 Conference Premier play-off Final at Wembley Stadium and he then signed for Luton Town, initially on loan, in 2010. After taking part in two unsuccessful play-off campaigns with the club, Lawless was part of the Luton team that won the Conference Premier title and he has represented Wales at various levels. He earned two caps for the team, before making one appearance for the under-21 team in 2006. He has made two appearances for the team, making his debut against Italy in 2007 and scoring against England C in a 2–1 defeat in 2008. Born in Tonypandy, Rhondda Cynon Taf, Lawless was educated at Tonypandy Comprehensive School, after being released by Cardiff he stayed at school and studied for his A-levels. Following a six-week trial, he signed terms with Premier League club Fulham on 21 August 2003. He was released by Fulham in May 2005, and he was offered a trial with League Two club Torquay United in July. Lawless signed for the club on a transfer and manager Leroy Rosenior said Its important that the supporters are patient with these youngsters and give them time to learn. He made his debut on 6 August 2005 in a 0–0 draw at home to Notts County and his return from an injury after nearly a month out came in a 2–1 victory over Shrewsbury Town in September, which was Torquays first win of the season. He picked up another injury in November 2005, and made his return three months of not playing by starting in a 1–0 victory over Bristol Rovers on 17 December 2005. He scored an own goal after 86 minutes against Wycombe Wanderers on 26 December 2005 and his final appearance of the 2005–06 season came in a 2–0 defeat to Lincoln City in February 2006. He was released by Torquay after making 16 appearances, Lawless joined Conference National club Forest Green Rovers on non-contract terms on 4 August 2006. He made his debut in a 1–0 defeat to Dagenham & Redbridge on 12 August 2006, Lawless scored his first goal for the club with a spectacular strike from long-range to give Forest Green the lead against Morecambe on 24 February 2007, but they went on to lose 3–1. He finished the 2006–07 season with 40 appearances and one goal and he scored the only goal for Forest Green in their 1–0 victory over Crawley Town on 10 February 2008, after scoring in the 73rd minute
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Afan Lido F.C.
Afan Lido Football Club is a football team based in Port Talbot playing in Welsh League Division One. The club was founded in 1967 and they play at the Marston Stadium, Port Talbot. Afan Lido F. C. were founded in 1967 shortly after the opening of the Afan Lido Sports Centre in Aberavon, a football team was set up in order to give the Centres users a proper organisation. Phil Robinson and Ken Williams were the movers behind the club then and Phil remains as the current day as Club Secretary. Lido gained admission to the Port Talbot and District League for the 1967/68 season, Afan Lido became founder members of the League of Wales in 1992, and won the League Cup in 1992/93 and 1993/94. The next year the porous defence was addressed, and the finished in second place in the League, winning a UEFA Cup place. This was a taste of things to come, and Afan Lido were relegated from the League of Wales before winning their place back after an absence of two years. Lidos young team that emerged during the spell out of the League of Wales grew together, lidos policy of choosing players from within the clubs huge junior structure paid off, when they finished 5th place in 2001/02. If the club had scored a point more, in fact. Leaner years followed that near miss, and in 2005 the club left the Welsh Premier in controversial circumstances, the points deducted sunk the Lido into the relegation zone below NEWI Cefn Druids, which sealed their fate. In 2011 Lido secured a return to the Welsh Premier and their first season in the top flight saw the club survive the drop, the club also won the Welsh Premier League Cup, defeating Newtown on penalties at Aberystwyth. Off-field issues surfaced the following season, however, and Lido had to assemble a squad under the guidance of Paul Reid. On July 42013, Afan Lido appointed former club captain, for the 2016–17 season, the club found themselves in the same division as town rivals Port Talbot. The Marsdon Stadium is in need of a lot of repairs, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, in 1998 a multi disabled football team was formed to play at under 12 and under 16 levels. In 2004 Afan Lido played in their first competitive tournament in Northampton and won at age levels. This led on to things for the new club. In 2007 Afan Lido were accepted into the pan Welsh disability league, both age groups moved up a level so the under 12s became the new under 16s and the old under 16s became seniors
Cwmamman United A.F.C.
This is a list of current football clubs located in Wales and the leagues and divisions they play in. Some Welsh clubs play outside the Welsh football league system and are noted as such, see also Category, Football clubs in Wales, Category, Defunct football clubs in Wales 1 Located in Wales but they play in the English football league system. 2 Located in England but they play in the Welsh football league system, Football in Wales Welsh football league system Welsh Cup Welsh League Cup FAW Premier Cup List of stadiums in Wales by capacity
Haverfordwest County A.F.C.
Haverfordwest County Association Football Club is a football team, playing in the Welsh Football League Division One, currently managed by Wayne Jones and his assistant Sean Cresser. The teams first choice strip is blue shirts, shorts, and socks, Haverfordwest Football Club was formed in 1899, and was quickly renamed Haverfordwest Town in 1901. In 1936, the name of Haverfordwest Athletic was adopted and the first team switched to the Welsh Football League, in 1956 they gained promotion to the Welsh League Premier Division, having won the First Division title. The present name of Haverfordwest County was adopted and the club embarked on a stay in the top flight. Disaster struck in 1975–76 when the club won four league matches and was relegated to the First Division. Promotion eluded them until 1980 and they went on to take the championship in their first season back, in 1983 the Welsh League was reorganised to create a form of premiership for the leading clubs and Haverfordwests facilities, administration and playing record secured their admittance. In the nine years of existence of this National Division, Haverfordwest were out of the top six only once and their opportunity to take the championship came in 1990, once Barry had decided to move to English non-league football. Haverfordwest County were founder members of the League of Wales in 1992–93, the decision to take a long-term view was fully vindicated by their return to the League of Wales three years later. The league has changed its name to the Welsh Premier League. In 2004 Haverfordwest County qualified for Europe via league position in the League of Wales, in the 2010–11 season Haverfordwest County were involuntarily relegated from the Welsh Premier League for the first time. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Llanelli Town A.F.C.
Llanelli Town Association Football Club is a Welsh football club that plays in the Welsh Football League Division 2. The original club was wound up on 22 April 2013 at the High Court in London following a petition presented by HM Revenue and they were reformed later that year as Llanelli Town AFC and now play in the Welsh Football League Division Two. The team is based at Stebonheath Park from 1920, having previously playing at the Halfway athletics ground, formed in 1896, the clubs first honour was the Welsh League division one title claimed in 1913–14 with further wins coming in 1929–30 and 1932–33. Llanelli made several attempts to join The Football League, in 1922,1923,1929,1930,1931,1932,1933,1947,1950 and 1951, despite making an effort to turn professional, the club was not elected. The closest they came was in 1933, where the club received 20 votes compared to 26 for Newport County and 45 for Swindon Town who were re-elected to the Football League Third Division South. Llanelli was a member of the Welsh Premier League in 1992. Promotion back to the top division was achieved in 1998–99, in 2005 a wealthy business man and his consortium, The Jesco group bought the club. Since then, the clubs fortunes have transformed remarkably on the pitch and they have played in Europe for 7 consecutive seasons, they won the Welsh premier league and Loosemores challenge cup in 2008 and won the Welsh Cup in 2011. 2012–13 was difficult financially with three petitions to wind the club up presented by HM Revenue and Customs, the club was wound up on 22 April 2013 at the High Court in London following a petition presented by HM Revenue and Customs. However, the town of Llanelli will still be represented in Welsh football through the club of Llanelli Town in the Welsh Third Division in season 2013-14. Llanelli Town were crowned Division 3 champions for the 2014-2015 and will now compete in the Welsh Second Division, the club entered into the Swansea and District League and played their home matches firstly at Tunnel Road and thence to Penyfan Fields. In season 1911–12 after seven years of consolidation Llanelli AFC became League champions and were losing finalists in the League Cup. A further move was necessary to entertain the professional game and Halfway Park some two miles from the centre was chosen as the new venue. Their first season 1912–13 was a success finishing in 6th position of the Southern League. They were also invited to participate in the FA Cup for the first time and it was also during this season that the club achieved its best win to date beating Treharris 17–0 at home in a League game. In the 1919–20 season the reformed clubs formats of pre-war years when the 1st team squad contested in both leagues and the reserve side participated in the Swansea Senior League. By 1922 it was obvious that to further their ambitions of achieving Football League status a new stadium near the centre would have to be sought. A piece of ground in the Stebonheath area of the town was purchased and plans were afoot to move the club lock stock and this was achieved just in time for the 1922–23 season, when Bridgend Town were the first visitors
Monmouth Town F.C.
Monmouth Town Football Club is a Welsh football club based in the historic town of Monmouth. The team currently play in the Welsh Football League Division One, the Monmouthshire Beacon reports on 7 October 1876 that Monmouth Town FC will commence its season on 12 October. There is evidence to suggest that an ’association club’ was playing in all white at Dixton Road in the town in the year 1906, the Monmouth Beacon of 14 December recalls this and adds a comment about a period when football had been extinct in Monmouth. Indeed, research shows that Monmouth were joint champions of the Monmouth, nearly 20 years later, in 1958, the Town lifted the Monmouthshire Amateur cup beating Cefn Fforest 3–0 at Pontllanfraith. The following season saw victories in both the Monmouthshire senior and Monmouth Amateur cups, towns only appearance in the FA Cup was a 2nd preliminary round defeat away at Llanelli on 6 October 1945. More recently the Town were relegated to the tier of the Gwent County just three years ago. The returning Andrew Smith took up the reins and gained promotion in his first season in charge finishing runners up to Rogerstone, at the beginning of 2005–06 season the club adopted ‘the Kingfishers’ nickname and logo in homage to a peculiar legend outlined later. The season ended with fourteen match winning run as Town clinched the Gwent County Division Two title ahead of Newport Civil Service, 2006–07 almost saw a repeat but were Town were pipped by Civil for the title. However, The Kingfishers were offered the chance to take the step into the Welsh league for the first time in their history and their first ever season in Division One ended with a seventh-place finish after topping the table as late as March. The Kingfishers were also finalists in the Gwent Senior Cup for the first time since 1940, a sixth-place finish was offset by winning the Gwent Senior cup for the first time since 1940 in a stunning 8–0 win against Panteg. During the four rounds Town scored 22 goals with just 2 against, the club is a member of Gwent County F. A. On 8 August 2011, Monmouth Town F. C. entered into an agreement to be purchased by internet venture fivepoundfootballclub. com, in September 2011 the Club established itself as a Community Interest Company, the first of its kind in Wales. The clubs rally cry is Kingfishers All The Way, the main colours for Monmouth Town F. C. are yellow and blue, which have been used throughout their recent history. The Monmouth Town F. C. crest is a yellow crest with a blue circle. The top of the circle has the name of the club in English, prominently positioned in the middle is a picture of the Kingfisher and the numbers 19 and 30 on either side of the bird. The name of the club in Welsh, Clwb Pêl-Droed Trefynwy, until then Monmouth had been a magnet for ornithologists from all over the country to see Britain’s most beautiful bird in all its glory. It was in the days before the Magic Marker so it could not be proven that the ball had been lost in a game at the Town’s sportsground, and so. one loose shot saved the entire Kingfisher population of the Wye and Monnow rivers. Monmouth Town F. C. has spent over eight decades playing at Chippenham Sports Ground, the current grandstand was originally sited at the Monmouth Racecourse on Vauxhall Fields and relocated in around 1920
Pen-y-Bont Football Club is a Welsh football club formed in 2013 following the merger of Bridgend Town F. C. and Bryntirion Athletic F. C. and plays in the Welsh Football League Division One. Pen-y-Bont play their matches at the Kymco Stadium. The club installed third generation artificial turf at Bryntirion Park and the Bridgend College Football Academy in Pencoed and this allows the club to maintain a high pitch quality standard in adverse conditions and was funded through the sale of Bridgend Towns former Coychurch Road ground to superstore giant ASDA. The club began the season with a stretch of games as the 3G pitch installation was incomplete until January,2014. The merged clubs first league game was away against Ton Pentre, the new pitch was officially opened by ex-Cardiff City manager Malky Mackay on January 7,2014 with a friendly game played against a Cardiff Developmental XI on the same afternoon. Cardiffs development team won the match 5–0, the clubs first manager was Francis Ford who managed Bryntirion Athletic prior to the merger of the club with Bridgend Town to form Pen-Y-Bont FC. The merged club ended its season in a respectable third place in Welsh League Division One. On 18 January 2015 the club announced that it had reached an agreement with Bridgend-based KYMCO Healthcare UK which included stadium naming rights. Bryntirion Park would be renamed The KYMCO Stadium as part of the deal, the club finished the season in 5th place in Welsh League Division One. On September 12,2015 the club announced that it had applied for a Football Association of Wales Domestic License for the Welsh Premier League and this indicated that the club were committed to improving the facilities at the Kymco Stadium in order to make the club applicable for promotion. In May 2016 Francis Ford resigned from his post as manager to be replaced by former Plymouth Argyle, Newport County, on 11 June, former Cardiff City and Newport County player Martyn Giles was appointed as assistant manager
Port Talbot Town F.C.
Port Talbot Town Football Club is a Welsh football club from Port Talbot. It was founded in 1901 as Port Talbot Athletic, one of the first clubs in the country, the club plays in the Welsh Football League Division One, and is based at Victoria Road, also known as the Genquip Stadium for sponsorship purposes. Formed in 1901, Port Talbot began life as a member of the Swansea Senior League, although the club can trace rather tenuous roots back to 1901, the modern club originated shortly after World War II as Port Talbot Athletic. The club gained promotion to Division 1 in 1956–57, but was relegated one season. It regained promotion as Division 2 West champions in 1961–62 but was relegated again after one season, the pattern of promotion and relegation after a year was repeated for the third time when Port Talbot went down at the end of the 1970–71 season. Port Talbot was promoted into the League of Wales in 2000, Port Talbots rivalry with Afan Lido, located less than half a mile away, is considered one of the fiercest in South Wales. Port Talbot finished third in 2009–10, gaining a berth in the Europa League 2010–11, during the 2015–16 Welsh Premier League season Andy Dyers Blues make it to the semi-final stage of the Welsh Cup against Airbus, but lost in a 7–0 drubbing. Weeks later the Football Association of Wales relegated Port Talbot from the Welsh Premier League although the club had finished above the relegation places in tenth spot, the relegation was the consequence of the FWAs decision to refuse Port Talbot a Domestic License on financial grounds. The club appealed the decision but the appeal was rejected, the club then overhauled its internal structure, appointing a new chairman, vice-chairman, secretary and treasurer, and forming a steering committee consisting of both staff and supporters. The wage bill for the 2016/2017 was cut massively in order to keep the club financially sustainable and this was done largely by replacing some of the existing squad with players from the Academy. Also, an estimated 400 supporters travelled to the 2010 Welsh Cup final in Llanelli between Port Talbot and three-time winners Bangor City, won by Bangor 3–2. Port Talbot has become renowned for its following in recent years. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Taff's Well A.F.C.
Taffs Well Association Football Club are a Welsh association football team founded in 1946. They are based in Taffs Well, near Cardiff, and are playing in the Welsh Football League Division One. They play at the Rhiw Ddar stadium and they are the current holders of the Welsh Football League Cup. Assistant Manager, Darren Buttle Assistant Manager, Adrian Needs 1st team coach, Andy Thomas 1st team GK coach, Liam Edwards http, //www. clubwebsite. co. uk/taffswellafc/
Football Association of Wales
The Football Association of Wales is the governing body of association football in Wales. It is a member of FIFA, UEFA and the IFAB, the FAW was founded at a meeting held on 2 February 1876 at the Wynnstay Arms Hotel in Wrexham, initially to formalise the arrangements for the forthcoming match against Scotland. In May 1876, a meeting was called, this time in the ballroom of the Wynnstay Arms Hotel in Ruabon where the name Football Association of Wales was agreed. The arguments and discussions continued so long that the local policeman came in to call time, the meeting ended with Llewelyn Kenrick appointed as the first chairman and honorary secretary with John Hawley Edwards as first treasurer. Kenrick continued to serve the FAW until 1884, when he left, in 1897, when the FAW secretary was charged with fraud, Kenrick returned to guide the association through the crisis. He made the break a few months later over the minor issue of the allocation of gate money to Welsh Cup semi-finalists and finalists. The FAW is also responsible for all actions against players in teams associated with the FAW. This includes Welsh teams playing in the English football pyramid, superseding the English FA disciplinary system with the exception of Cardiff City, the FAW is based at Neptune Court, Vanguard Way, Cardiff. It is governed by a council including nineteen councillors who are either elected, in 2012, chief executive Jonathan Ford claimed the FAW had an income of £14 million, funded from FIFA, UEFA, grants, sponsorship and TV revenue. All finances were spent on the development of the game. In 2013, Dragon Park, the Wales National Football Development Centre, Wales national football team List of football clubs in Wales Official website Wales at FIFA site Wales at UEFA site A Bibliography of Association Football in Wales
Dragon Park is the Wales National Football Development Centre in the city of Newport, South Wales. The centre is located at the Newport International Sports Village, Lliswerry in the east of Newport near Newport Stadium and it was officially opened 20 April 2013 by Michel Platini, President of UEFA. The £5M complex was a joint venture between UEFA, the Football Association of Wales, Sport Wales and Newport City Council, the Centre is intended to develop the Wales under-21, Wales womens and younger age-group squads. The centre includes two pitches and one artificial turf pitch. The centre also provides headquarters for the Welsh Football Trust, the development body, with analysis suites, sports science laboratories
Professional Footballers' Association
The Professional Footballers Association is the trade union for professional association footballers in England and Wales. The worlds oldest professional sport trade union, it has 4,000 members, the aims of the PFA are to protect, improve and negotiate the conditions, rights and status of all professional players by collective bargaining agreements. The PFA is affiliated with the Professional Footballers Association Scotland, the Northern Ireland PFA disbanded in 1995. The PFA was formed on 2 December 1907 as the Association of Football Players and Trainers Union, on that date, Charlie Roberts and Billy Meredith, both of Manchester United, convened the Players Union at Manchester’s Imperial Hotel. This was the attempt to organise a union of professional footballers in England, after the Association Footballers Union. Like the AFU before it, the Players Union intended to challenge the maximum wage, in response, the Union threatened strike action. The Football Association in turn banned players affiliated with the AFPTU before the start of the 1909–10 season, the ban saw membership of the Union fall. However, players from Manchester United refused to relinquish their membership, the Manchester United players were called Outcasts FC. The deadlock swung in favour of the Union when Tim Coleman of Everton came out in support of the Union, colemans intervention resuscitated support for the Union, which regained its strength of numbers. Agreement was reached on official recognition for the Union in exchange for allowing bonus payments to be made to players to supplement the maximum wage, the maximum wage remained for more than another half century. The 1910s saw the Union backing a challenge by Herbert Kingaby against the retain, Kingaby brought legal proceedings against his former employers, Aston Villa, for preventing him from playing. The Players Union funded the proceedings, erroneous strategy by Kingabys counsel resulted in the suit ending disastrously for the Union. The Union were almost ruined financially and membership fell drastically, although membership increased from 300 in 1915 to well over 1000 by 1920 this did not herald a new era of radicalism among the rank-and-file. Inevitably, this financial difficulties at many clubs. Clubs believed their problems were due to players excessive wages rather than over-expansion, in the spring of 1922, they persuaded the League authorities to arbitrarily impose a £1 cut to the maximum wage and force clubs to reduce the wages of players who were on less than the maximum. Legal proceedings backed by the Players Union this time established that clubs could not unilaterally impose a cut in players contracted wages, between 1946 and 1957 the Chairman of the Union was former Portsmouth captain Jimmy Guthrie. In 1956, Jimmy Hill became secretary of the Players Union and he soon changed the unions name to the Professional Footballers Association, changing a blue collar image to one in keeping with the new wave of working-class actors and entertainers. In 1957, Jimmy Hill became chairman of the PFA and campaigned to have the Football Leagues £20 maximum wage scrapped and his Fulham teammate Johnny Haynes became the first £100 player
Wales national football team
The Wales national football team represents Wales in international football. It is controlled by the Football Association of Wales, the body for football in Wales. During their history, Wales have qualified for two international tournaments. They reached the quarter-finals of the 1958 FIFA World Cup and they reached the semi-finals of UEFA Euro 2016 after beating Belgium in the quarter-final match on 1 July 2016. This was, therefore, the first time that Wales had reached the semi-final of a major tournament, Wales also progressed through UEFA Euro 1976 qualifying to the quarter-final, which was played on a home and away leg basis but they did not feature in the finals tournament. At all levels including the teams the Welsh national team draws players primarily from clubs in the English football league system. The main professional Welsh clubs play in the English leagues, with some full-time and part-time professional clubs playing in the Welsh football league system. Wales played its first competitive match on 25 March 1876 against Scotland in Glasgow, Scotland took the spoils winning 2–0. Wales first match against England came in 1879 – a 2–1 defeat at the Kennington Oval, London and in 1882 Wales faced Ireland for the first time, the associations of the four Home Nations met in Manchester on 6 December 1882 to set down a set of worldwide rules. This meeting saw the establishment of the International Football Association Board to approve changes to the rules, the 1883–84 season saw the formation of the British Home Championship, a tournament which was played annually between England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales, until 1983–84. Wales were champions on 12 occasions, winning seven times whilst sharing the title five times. As a result, Wales did not enter the first three World Cups, in 1932 Wales played host to the Republic of Ireland, the first time they played against a side from outside the four home nations. A year later, Wales played a match outside the United Kingdom for the first time when they travelled to Paris to take on France in a match which was drawn 1–1. The top two teams were to qualify for the finals in Brazil, but Wales finished bottom of the group. The 1950s were an age for Welsh football with stars such as Ivor Allchurch, Cliff Jones, Alf Sherwood, Jack Kelsey, Trevor Ford, Ronnie Burgess, Terry Medwin. Wales made its only World Cup finals tournament appearance in the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, however, their path to qualification was unusual. In the Asian/African qualifying zone Egypt and Sudan had refused to play against Israel following the Suez crisis, as a result, FIFA proclaimed Israel winners of their respective group. However, FIFA did not want a team to qualify for the World Cup finals without actually playing a match and so lots were drawn of all the second placed teams in UEFA