SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tonality

Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities and directionality. In this hierarchy, the single pitch or triadic chord with the greatest stability is called the tonic; the root of the tonic chord forms the name given to the key. Simple folk music songs start and end with the tonic note; the most common use of the term "is to designate the arrangement of musical phenomena around a referential tonic in European music from about 1600 to about 1910". Contemporary classical music from 1910 to the 2000s may practice or avoid any sort of tonality—but harmony in all Western popular music remains tonal. Harmony in jazz includes many but not all tonal characteristics of the European common practice period, sometimes known as "classical music". "All harmonic idioms in popular music are tonal, none is without function". Tonality is an organized system of tones in which one tone becomes the central point for the remaining tones; the other tones in a tonal piece are all defined in terms of their relationship to the tonic.

In tonality, the tonic is the tone of complete relaxation and stability, the target toward which other tones lead. The cadence in which the dominant chord or dominant seventh chord resolves to the tonic chord plays an important role in establishing the tonality of a piece. "Tonal music is music, unified and dimensional. Music is unified if it is exhaustively referable to a precompositional system generated by a single constructive principle derived from a basic scale-type; the term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. According to Carl Dahlhaus, the term tonalité was only coined by Castil-Blaze in 1821. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period. Major-minor tonality is called harmonic tonality, diatonic tonality, common practice tonality, functional tonality, or just tonality.

At least eight distinct senses of the word "tonality", some mutually exclusive, have been identified: The word tonality may describe any systematic organization of pitch phenomena in any music at all, including pre-17th century western music as well as much non-western music, such as music based on the slendro and pelog pitch collections of Indonesian gamelan, or employing the modal nuclei of the Arabic maqam or the Indian raga system. This sense applies to the tonic/dominant/subdominant harmonic harmonic constellations in the theories of Jean-Philippe Rameau as well as the 144 basic transformations of twelve-tone technique. By the middle of the 20th century, it had become "evident that triadic structure does not generate a tone center, that non-triadic harmonic formations may be made to function as referential elements, that the assumption of a twelve-tone complex does not preclude the existence of tone centers". For the composer and theorist George Perle, tonality is not "a matter of'tone-centeredness', whether based on a'natural' hierarchy of pitches derived from the overtone series or an'artificial' pre compositional ordering of the pitch material.

This sense is susceptible to ideological employment, as Schoenberg, did by relying on the idea of a progressive development in musical resources "to compress divergent fin-de-siècle compositional practices into a single historical lineage in which his own music brings one historical era to a close and begins the next." From this point of view, twelve-tone music could be regarded "either as the natural and inevitable culmination of an organic motivic process or as a historical Aufhebung, the dialectical synthesis of late Romantic motivic practice on the one hand with a musical sublimation of tonality as pure system on the other". In another sense, tonality means any rational and self-contained theoretical arrangement of musical pitches, existing prior to any concrete embodiment in music. For example, "Sainsbury, who had Choron translated into English in 1825, rendered the first occurrence of tonalité as a'system of modes' before matching it with the neologism'tonality'. While tonality qua system constitutes a theoretical abstraction from actual music, it is hypostatized in musicological discourse, converted from a theoretical structure into a musical reality.

In this sense, it is understood as a Platonic form or prediscursive musical essence that suffuses music with intelligible sense, which exists before its concrete embodiment in music, can thus be theorized and discussed apart from actual musical contexts". To contrast with "modal" and "atonal", the term tonality is used to imply that tonal music is discontinuous as a form of cultural expression from modal music on the one hand and atonal music on the other. In some literature, tonality

USS Maartensdijk (ID-2497)

USS Maartensdijk was a freighter seized by U. S. Customs when the United States declared war against Germany in World War I. Maartensdijk – a Dutch-owned vessel—was used by the Navy to transport military cargo across the Atlantic Ocean in support of Allied troops in Europe. Maartensdijk, a steel cargo steamer, was built as Rapallo by Furness Co. Ltd.. West Hartlepool, England, in 1902. Prior to World War I, she sailed the Atlantic sealanes and in 1918 was owned by Holland-American Line, Netherlands. Maartensdijk was seized by U. S. Customs at New York City 20 March 1918. After loading Army cargo, Maartensdijk departed in convoy for European waters 10 April. Steaming via Halifax, Nova Scotia, she reached St. Nazaire, France, 14 May, discharged her cargo, sailed for the United States 15 June. During the closing months of World War I she made two more cargo runs out of New York and Boston, Massachusetts, to French ports, she returned to New York City 2 days after the signing of the Armistice. Sailing from Boston 12 December, she carried additional cargo to French ports and returned Army supplies to the United States.

In all, she transported more than 27,000 tons of supplies during her four cargo runs to France. Maartensdijk returned to New York City 9 February 1919, she decommissioned there 25 February 1919. S. Shipping Board the same day. United States Navy World War I This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Maartensdijk.

R. K. Selvamani

R. K. Selvamani is an Indian film director, he was known to make films in the whodunit genres. R. K. Selvamani, an assistant of Manivannan, narrated a story line to Vijayakanth who insisted Selvamani narrate the story to his friend, film producer Ibrahim Rowther. After being told that the actor was busy, Selvamani with the help of his friend Jothi decided to narrate the story through drawn pictures by having Hollywood films as reference and was given the opportunity to make the film; the action thriller Pulan Visaranai was based on a real life confession by criminal Auto Shankar that he had kidnapped many girls at the behest of some political bigwigs and featured Vijayakanth alongside Rupini, Radha Ravi and Sarathkumar in his first major role. R. K. Selvamani imposed many rules and conditions which led to the cancelling of shooting for 6 months after the actor became displeased, but with the help of Manivannan, shooting was continued; the film was released in January 1990 and became successful film at the box-office going on to win critical acclaim by reviewers.

The success of the film prompted Rowther to offer the actor and director another venture, with Selvamani making Captain Prabhakaran. The title of the film was an homage to Prabhakaran, the LTTE leader, while the plotline was based on the forest brigand Veerappan, it marked the hundredth project of Vijayakanth and featured Rupini and Sarath Kumar again in pivotal roles. The film became a large commercial success and Selvamani began to gain plaudits for his ability as a film director in the action genre. Selvamani agreed to work on a film produced by Ravi Yadav with music scored by Ilaiyaraaja, having late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi's assassination and the Sri Lankan civil war as its backdrop. Production work for the film, Kuttrapathirikai began in 1991 and it would feature Ramki, Ramya Krishnan and Roja, in her second film, in the leading roles; the film was launched in July 1991 and completed after short delays during December 1992. The film was stuck for fourteen years as the censor board refused to allow such a film with a drastic political message to be released, with Selvamani having no option but to move on to direct other films.

In December 2006, in a landmark judgement, the Madras High Court dismissed a petition filed on behalf of the Central Board of Censors against an earlier verdict by the court, allowing the screening of the film with an'A' certificate after certain cuts. The court subsequently directed the board to award an'A' certificate to the film within four weeks of their judgement; the petition had alleged that the film supported the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, while sections of the Tamil Nadu Congress had taken exception to some scenes in the film. Selvamani revealed that the court had said there is no need to delete the portions, which the earlier verdict wanted to be cut; the scenes, which the censors wanted to cut, included the Tigers' training and police officers fleeing the venue, where Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated. The film won positive reviews after release in March 2007 with a critic stating "it is an interesting attempt to thread reality and some wonderful domestic drama; the style of the narration and the camera angles are dated.

But you cannot hold the director responsible for that." Other critics questioned the ban, citing it was just "another run of the mill action film", with lookalikes used to represent real life characters. He made Chembaruthi an unusual love story starring Roja and Prashanth in 1992. In 1995, he worked again with Prashanth, making another romantic action film Kanmani, which featured him alongside Mohini; the film won average reviews with a critic noting "though not convincing and as powerful a story as he might have intended this to be, R. K. Selvamani still manages to keep one engrossed for most of the time with a narration sans hitches." Selvamani next worked on a political film titled Makkal Aatchi with Mammootty in the lead, which won critical and commercial acclaim after release in October 1995. The film's dialogues by Liaquat Ali Khan, won rave reviews, he collaborated with another film maker Velu Prabhakaran, writing the script for two of his films and Rajali. He produced and directed Athiradi Padai, film was flopped and Selvamani incurred huge losses.

He made a quick action film Adimai Changili with Arjun and Rambha in the leading roles. During the making of the film, it was reported that Rambha fell out with the director due to his excessive promotion of the film's other heroine Roja over her; the story was taken in forest areas and is based on a true story where a small community fights against majority rule. The film became a disaster at the box office; the success of Makkal Aatchi, prompted the actor and director to come together in another political film titled Arasiyal. The director, prior to release, played down any potential controversial story plots and indicated it would be more about a politician's personal life rather than his work; the team shot across North India in 1997 with scenes filmed at the Harmandir Sahib, Punjab. The film fared less well critically than the previous collaboration, with a reviewer noting "the director is caught in a cross-fire between, coming out with a realistic movie, at the same time, one with the hero running around the trees, the heroine."

It, went on to win the third plaze award in the category for Best Film at the Tamil Nadu State Awards. Selvamani once again launched another political drama venture titled Indian Express in 1997, which would narrate the happenings of an event which had occurred in Trivandrum. However, despite signing up Sarath Kumar to play th