A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera. Adult dragonflies are characterized by large, multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong, transparent wings, sometimes with coloured patches, an elongated body. Dragonflies can be mistaken for the related group, which are similar in structure, though lighter in build. Dragonflies are agile fliers. Many dragonflies have brilliant iridescent or metallic colours produced by structural coloration, making them conspicuous in flight. An adult dragonfly's compound eyes have nearly 24,000 ommatidia each. Fossils of large dragonfly ancestors in the Protodonata are found from 325 million years ago in Upper Carboniferous rocks. There are about 3,000 extant species. Most are tropical, with fewer species in temperate regions. Dragonflies are predators, both in their aquatic larval stage, they are known as nymphs or naiads, as adults. Several years of their lives are spent as nymphs living in fresh water, they are fast, agile fliers, sometimes migrating across oceans, live near water.
They have a uniquely complex mode of reproduction involving indirect insemination, delayed fertilization, sperm competition. During mating, the male grasps the female at the back of the head, the female curls her abdomen under her body to pick up sperm from the male's secondary genitalia at the front of his abdomen, forming the "heart" or "wheel" posture. Loss of wetland habitat threatens dragonfly populations around the world. Dragonflies are represented in human culture on artifacts such as pottery, rock paintings, Art Nouveau jewellery, they are used in traditional medicine in Japan and China, caught for food in Indonesia. They are symbols of courage and happiness in Japan, but seen as sinister in European folklore, their bright colours and agile flight are admired in the poetry of Lord Tennyson and the prose of H. E. Bates. Dragonflies and their relatives are an ancient group; the oldest fossils are of the Protodonata from the 325 Mya Upper Carboniferous of Europe, a group that included the largest insect that lived, Meganeuropsis permiana from the early Permian, with a wingspan around 750 mm.
The Protanisoptera, another ancestral group which lacks certain wing vein characters found in modern Odonata, lived from the Early to Late Permian age until the end Permian event, are known from fossil wings from current day United States and Australia, suggesting they might have been cosmopolitan in distribution. The forerunners of modern Odonata are included in a clade called the Panodonata, which include the basal Zygoptera and the Anisoptera. Today there are some 3000 species extant around the world; the relationships of anisopteran families are not resolved as of 2013, but all the families are monophyletic except the Corduliidae. On the cladogram, dashed lines indicate unresolved relationships; the distribution of diversity within the biogeographical regions are summarised below. Dragonflies live on every continent except Antarctica. In contrast to the damselflies, which tend to have restricted distributions, some genera and species are spread across continents. For example, the blue-eyed darner Rhionaeschna multicolor lives all across North America, in Central America.
The globe skimmer Pantala flavescens is the most widespread dragonfly species in the world. Most Anisoptera species are tropical, with far fewer species in temperate regions; some dragonflies, including libellulids and aeshnids, live in desert pools, for example in the Mojave Desert, where they are active in shade temperatures between 18 and 45 °C. Dragonflies live from sea level up to the mountains, their altitudinal limit is about 3700 m, represented by a species of Aeshna in the Pamirs. Dragonflies become scarce at higher latitudes, they are not native to Iceland, but individuals are swept in by strong winds, including a Hemianax ephippiger native to North Africa, an unidentified darter species. In Kamchatka, only a few species of dragonfly including the treeline emerald Somatochlora arctica and some aeshnids such as Aeshna subarctica are found because of the low temperature of the lakes there; the treeline emerald lives in northern Alaska, within the Arctic Circle, making it the most northerly of all dragonflies.
Dragonflies are heavy-bodied, strong-flying insects that hold their win
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai means "large", myō stands for myōden, meaning private land. Subordinate to the shōgun, nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyō of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history; the backgrounds of daimyō varied considerably. The term daimyō sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans called "Lord", it was though not from these warlords that a shōgun arose or a regent was chosen. Daimyō hired samurai to guard their land and they paid the samurai in land or food as few could afford to pay samurai in money; the daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871. The shugo daimyō were the first group of men to hold the title daimyō.
They arose from among the shugo during the Muromachi period. The shugo-daimyō held not only military and police powers, but economic power within a province, they accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period. Major shugo-daimyō came from the Shiba and Hosokawa clans, as well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ōuchi, Akamatsu; the greatest ruled multiple provinces. The Ashikaga shogunate required the shugo-daimyō to reside in Kyoto, so they appointed relatives or retainers, called shugodai, to represent them in their home provinces; some of these in turn came to reside in Kyoto, appointing deputies in the provinces. The Ōnin War was a major uprising. During this and other wars of the time, kuni ikki, or provincial uprisings, took place as locally powerful warriors sought independence from the shugo-daimyō; the deputies of the shugo-daimyō, living in the provinces, seized the opportunity to strengthen their position. At the end of the fifteenth century, those shugo-daimyō who succeeded remained in power.
Those who had failed to exert control over their deputies fell from power and were replaced by a new class, the sengoku-daimyō, who arose from the ranks of the shugodai and ji-samurai. Among the sengoku daimyō were many, shugo-daimyō, such as the Satake, Takeda, Rokkaku, Ōuchi, Shimazu. New to the ranks of the daimyō were the Asakura, Nagao, Miyoshi, Chōsokabe, Jimbō, Hatano and Matsunaga; these came from the ranks of their deputies. Additional sengoku-daimyō such as the Mōri, Ryūzōji arose from the ji-samurai; the lower officials of the shogunate and rōnin, provincial officials, kuge gave rise to sengoku-daimyō. The Battle of Sekigahara in the year 1600 marked the beginning of the Edo period. Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized 200 daimyō and their territories into han, which were assessed by rice production; those heading han assessed at 10,000 koku or more were considered daimyō. Ieyasu categorized the daimyō according to their relation to the ruling Tokugawa family: the shinpan were related to the Tokugawa.
The shinpan were collaterals of Ieyasu, such as the Matsudaira, or descendants of Ieyasu other than in the main line of succession. Several shinpan, including the Tokugawa of Owari and Mito, as well as the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu, held large han. A few fudai daimyō, such as the Ii of Hikone, held large han; the shogunate placed many fudai at strategic locations to guard the trade routes and the approaches to Edo. Many fudai daimyō took positions in the Edo shogunate, some rising to the position of rōjū; the fact that fudai daimyō could hold government positions while tozama in general, could not was a main difference between the two. Tozama daimyō held large fiefs far away from the capital, with e.g. the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku. Other famous tozama clans included the Mori of Chōshū, the Shimazu of Satsuma, the Date of Sendai, the Uesugi of Yonezawa, the Hachisuka of Awa; the Tokugawa regarded them as rebellious, but for most of the Edo period, marriages between the Tokugawa and the tozama, as well as control policies such as sankin-kōtai, resulted in peaceful relations.
Daimyō were required to maintain residences in Edo as well as their fiefs, to move periodically between Edo and their fiefs spending alternate years in each place, in a practice called sankin-kōtai. In 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyō, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. In 1871, the han were abolished and prefectures were established, thus ending the daimyō era in Japan. In the wake of this change, many daimyō remained in control of their lands, being appointed as prefectural governors. Despite this, members of former daimyō families remained prominent in government and society, in some cases continue to re
Honda Tadakatsu called Honda Heihachirō was a Japanese samurai, general of the late Sengoku through early Edo periods, who served Tokugawa Ieyasu. Honda Tadakatsu was one of the Tokugawa Four Heavenly Kings along with Ii Naomasa, Sakakibara Yasumasa and Sakai Tadatsugu. A native of Mikawa Province in Japan, he lived during the Azuchi -- Edo periods. Ieyasu promoted him from daimyō/lord of the Ōtaki han/domain to the Kuwana han as a reward for his service. In addition, his son Honda Tadatomo became daimyo of Ōtaki. In 1609, he retired, his other son Tadamasa took over Kuwana. Tadakatsu's daughter, Komatsuhime was Sanada Nobuyuki's lawful wife and mother of Sanada Nobumasa, daimyō of Matsushiro Domain, his grandson, married the granddaughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Senhime. Despite his years of loyal service, Tadakatsu became estranged from the Tokugawa shogunate as it evolved from a military to a civilian political institution; this was a fate shared by many other warriors of the time, who were not able to make the conversion from the chaotic lifetime of warfare of the Sengoku period to the more stable peace of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Such was Honda's reputation that he attracted notice from the most influential figures in Japan at the time. Oda Nobunaga, notoriously disinclined to praise his followers called him a "samurai among samurai". Moreover, Toyotomi Hideyoshi noted that the best samurai were "Honda Tadakatsu in the east and Tachibana Muneshige in the west". Takeda Shingen praised Honda, saying that "e is a luxury of Tokugawa Ieyasu", it was acknowledged that he was a reputed samurai and a loyal retainer of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Tadakatsu is referred to as "The Warrior who surpassed Death itself" because he never once suffered a significant wound, despite being the veteran of over 100 battles by the end of his life, because he was never defeated by another samurai. In theater and other contemporary works, Tadakatsu is characterized as polar opposite of Ieyasu's other great general, Ii Naomasa. While both were fierce warriors of the Tokugawa, Tadakatsu's ability to elude injury is contrasted with the common depiction of Naomasa enduring many battle wounds, but fighting through them.
Honda Tadakatsu is regarded as one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's finest generals, he fought in all of his master's major battles. He gained distinction at the Battle of Anegawa, helping in the defeat of the armies under the Azai and Asakura clans along with Tokugawa's ally, Oda Nobunaga. Tadakatsu served at Tokugawa's greatest defeat, the Battle of Mikatagahara, where he commanded the left wing of his master's army, facing off against troops under one of the Takeda clan's more notable generals, Naitō Masatoyo. Although that battle ended in defeat, Honda Tadakatsu was one of those Tokugawa generals present to exact vengeance upon the Takeda at the Battle of Nagashino. Honda commanded a rank of musketeers as the combined Oda-Tokugawa forces annihilated Takeda Katsuyori's army thanks to the skillful use of ranked muskets, as they fired in cycling volleys. One would fire while another was reloading and another was cleaning the barrel of the musket; this enabled the muskets to fire without stopping destroying the Takeda army.
His finest moment came in the Komaki Campaign. Left at Komaki while Ieyasu departed to engage Toyotomi troops at Nagakute, Tadakatsu observed a huge host under Hideyoshi himself move out in pursuit. With a handful of men, Tadakatsu rode out and challenged the Toyotomi army from the opposite bank of the Shōnai River. Toyotomi Hideyoshi was said to have been struck by the bravery of this warrior, ordered that no harm come to him, his men, or Ishikawa Yasumichi, who accompanied him on this bid to buy time for Ieyasu. Tadakatsu had a major role in the 1600 Battle of Kuisegawa, where he rescued the Tokugawa officers Nakamura Kazuhide and Arima Toyouji, who were ambushed by the Western Army officers Shima Sakon and Akashi Teruzumi Honda Tadakatsu was present at the Battle of Sekigahara, where Tokugawa Ieyasu's forces defeated the western alliance of daimyo under Ishida Mitsunari, allowing Tokugawa to assume control of the country, bringing the Sengoku era to a close. Tadakatsu seems to have been a colorful figure, around whom a few legends have sprung up - it is said that of all the battles in which he served, he never once received a wound.
His helmet, famously adorned with deer antlers, ensured that he was always a recognizable figure on the field of battle. His horse was known as Mikuniguro, his spear was named Tonbo-Giri, or Dragonfly Cutter, because legend held that the tip of the spear was so sharp that a dragonfly that landed on it was cut in two. His fighting prowess with it was so great that it became known as one of the "Three Great Spears of Japan". Aside from this incredible spear, Tadakatsu used the katana Nakatsukasa Masamune, a 67 cm blade, another national treasure of Japan. In Sengoku Basara games and anime, he was described to be a robot, with no voice and armed with a drill spear. In Samurai Warriors and Warriors Orochi game series, he was one of the strongest playable characters. "Tadakatsu Honda". Kuwana-city Tourist guide. Kuwana-City. Retrieved April 30, 2017
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616, his given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen, he was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province. Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces, his territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west.
Hirotada's main enemy was the father of Oda Nobunaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa, his mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan; this gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well; as a result, Hirotada sent her back to her family. As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu had 11 half-brothers and sisters.
As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage. Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was just five years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6, his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide's second son.
Sessai offered to give up the siege. Nobunaga agreed, so Ieyasu was taken as a hostage to Sumpu. At Sumpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated well as a useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 15 years old. In 1556 Ieyasu came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, he was briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. One year at the age of 13, he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu. Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe; the castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga.
This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew; as anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army. He succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka. By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army invaded Oda clan territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune; as a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.
With Yoshimoto dead, the Imagawa clan in a state of confus
Tokyo National Museum
The Tokyo National Museum, or TNM, established in 1872, is the oldest Japanese national museum, the largest art museum in Japan and one of the largest art museums in the world. The museum collects and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia, focusing on Japan; the museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure holdings and 610 Important Cultural Property holdings. The museum conducts research and organizes educational events related to its collection; the museum is located inside Ueno Park in Tokyo. The facilities consist of the Honkan, Tōyōkan, Hyōkeikan, Heiseikan, Hōryū-ji Hōmotsukan, as well as Shiryōkan, other facilities. There are restaurants and shops within the museum's premises, as well as outdoor exhibitions and a garden where visitors can enjoy seasonal views; the museum's collections focus on Asian art along the Silk Road. There is a large collection of Greco-Buddhist art; the museum came into being in 1872, when the first exhibition was held by the Museum Department of the Ministry of Education at the Taiseiden Hall.
This marked the inauguration of the first museum in Japan. Soon after the opening, the museum moved to Uchiyamashita-cho in 1882 moved again to the Ueno Park, where it stands today. Since its establishment, the museum has experienced major challenges such as the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, a temporary closing in 1945, during World War II. In more than the 120 years of its history, the museum has gone under much evolution and transformation through organizational reforms and administrative change; the museum went through several name changes, being called the Imperial Museum in 1886 and the Tokyo Imperial Household Museum in 1900, until it was given its present title in 1947. The growth and development of today's museum has been an evolving process: 1872—The Ministry of Education holds the first public exhibition in Japan at the Taiseiden Hall of the former Seido at Bunkyō special ward of Tokyo. 1875—The Ministry of Interior accepts responsibility for Museum collections which are divided into eight categories: nature, agriculture & forestry, fine art, education and land & sea.
1882—The museum was moves to its present location, a site occupied by the headquarters of the Kan'ei-ji Temple in Ueno. 1889—The Imperial Household Ministry accepts control of Museum collections, the institution is renamed the "Imperial Museum". 1900—The museum is renamed "Tokyo Imperial Household Museum". 1923—The museum's main building is damaged in the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923. 1925—Objects in the Nature division are transferred to the "Tokyo Museum of the Ministry of Education", now renamed the "National Science Museum." 1938—The museum's new main building is opened. 1947—The Ministry of Education accepts responsibility for Museum collections. 1978—The Hyokeikan building is designated an "Important Cultural Property". 1999—The "Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasures" and the "Heisei-kan" buildings are opened. 2001—The museum is renamed "Tokyo National Museum" of the "Independent Administrative Institution National Museum". 2001—The Hon-kan building is designated an "Important Cultural Property".
2005—The IAI National Museum is expanded with addition of Kyushu National Museum. 2007—The IAI National Museum is merged into the Independent Administrative Institution National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, combining the four national museums with the former National Institutes for Cultural Preservation at Tokyo and Nara The original main building was designed by the British architect Josiah Conder. It was damaged in the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923. In contrast to the original building's more Western style, the design of the present main building by Hitoshi Watanabe is the more nativist Imperial Crown style. Construction began in 1932, the building was inaugurated in 1938, it was designated an Important Cultural Property of Japan in 2001. The Japanese Gallery provides a general view of Japanese art, containing 24 exhibition rooms on two floors, it consists of exhibitions from 10,000 BC up to the late 19th century, exhibitions of different types of art such as ceramics, sculpture and others.
The 1st room – The 10th room: The title is "The flow of Japanese art". It interlaces theme exhibitions such as "Art of Buddhism", "Art of Tea ceremony", "The clothing of Samurai", "Noh and Kabuki", etc. One national treasure object is exhibited by turns every time in the 2nd room as "The national treasure room"; the 11th room – The 20th room: There are exhibition rooms according to the genres such as Sculpture, Pottery, Katana, Ethnic material, Historic material, Modern art, etc. The extra exhibition rooms: There are small exhibition rooms where planning such as "new objects exhibitions"; the extra room: This is an event meeting place for children. This building was designed by Yoshirō Taniguchi; this is a three-storied building. Because there are large floors arranged in a spiral ascending from the 1st floor along the mezzanines to the 3rd floor, many stairs, it has been made huge colonnade air space to reach from the first floor to the third floor ceiling inside, placement of an exhibition room is complicated.
There is a restaurant and museum shop on the
The Nanboku-chō period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the formative years of the Muromachi bakufu of Japanese history. During this period, there existed a Northern Imperial Court, established by Ashikaga Takauji in Kyoto, a Southern Imperial Court, established by Emperor Go-Daigo in Yoshino. Ideologically, the two courts fought for fifty years, with the South giving up to the North in 1392. However, in reality the Northern line was under the power of the Ashikaga shōguns and had little real independence. Since the 19th century the Emperors of the Southern Imperial Court have been considered the legitimate Emperors of Japan. Other contributing factors were the Southern Court's control of the Japanese imperial regalia, Kitabatake Chikafusa's work Jinnō Shōtōki, which legitimized the South's imperial court despite their defeat; the consequences of events in this period continue to be influential in modern Japan's conventional view of the Tennō Seika. Under the influence of State Shinto, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911, established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the Southern Court.
After World War II, a series of pretenders, starting with Kumazawa Hiromichi, claimed descent from the Southern Court and challenged the legitimacy of the modern imperial line, descended from the Northern Court. The destruction of the Kamakura shogunate of 1333 and the failure of the Kenmu Restoration in 1336 opened up a legitimacy crisis for the new shogunate. Furthermore, institutional changes in the estate system that formed the bedrock of the income of nobles and warriors alike decisively altered the status of the various social groups. What emerged from the exigencies of the Nanboku-chō War was the Muromachi regime, which broadened the economic base of the warriors while undercutting the noble proprietors, a trend that had started with the Kamakura bakufu; the main conflicts that contributed to the outbreak of the civil war were the growing conflict between the Hōjō family and other warrior groups in the wake of the Mongol invasions of Japan of 1274 and 1281 and the failure of the Kemmu Restoration, which triggered the struggle between the supporters of the imperial loyalists and supporters of the Ashikaga clan.
Disaffection towards the Hōjō-led Kamakura regime appeared among the warriors towards the end of the thirteenth century. This resentment was caused by the growing influence of the Hōjō over other warrior families within the regime; the Mongol invasions were the main cause behind this centralization of power that took place during the regency of Hōjō Tokimune. During the crisis, three things occurred: Hōjō family appointments to the council of state increased. Note a They narrowed down their constituents by including only Hōjō family members and direct vassals, at the expense of a broader base of support; when a coalition against the Hōjō emerged in 1331, it took only two years to topple the regime. Wealth in agrarian societies is tied to land, medieval Japan was no different. In fact, land was the main reason for much of the discontent among the warrior class. Since the rise of the warriors under the Minamoto, it was expected that victory in battle would be rewarded by land grants given to those who served on the victorious side.
However, unlike any war, fought until the Mongol invasions presented a problem since this war, seen by most Japanese as a patriotic duty, did not take place against another warrior family, but against a foreign enemy. After the foreign enemy's defeat there were no lands to hand out to the victors; this was a problem for those warriors who had fought valiantly and petitioned the Hōjō regents for land. In the beginning of the fourteenth century this discontent put a tremendous pressure on any regime that emerged, they had to satisfy this group in order to succeed. When Kamakura's rule was destroyed in 1333, Kyoto's court society emerged again to confront the warriors. In the transition from the Heian to the Kamakura period, the warriors emerged from the domination of court patrimonialism as an independent political force. With the demise of Kamakura, the imperial court attempted once again to restore its de jure power as an alternative to warrior rule; the Kemmu Restoration was the last desperate attempt on the part of the court to restore their leadership, not just to preserve their institutions.
Not until the Meiji Restoration of the 19th century did this occur again. In the spring of 1333, the Emperor Go-Daigo and his supporters believed that the moment had arrived to restore the glory of the imperial court; the Emperor Daigo, who lived at a time when the court had no rivals and effective rule was exercised directly from the throne, became Go-Daigo's adopted name and model. Of cardinal importance was the ideology that emerged with the Kemmu Restoration: it was a conscious movement to restore the imperial power vis-a-vis the warriors. Two of the movement's greatest spokesmen were Kitabatake Chikafusa. Prince Morinaga was Daigo's son, archrival to Ashikaga Takauji: he advocated the militarization of the nobles as a necessary step towards effective rule. Kitabatake Chikafusa epitomized what Prince Morinaga was looking for: a Kyoto noble who became the greatest of the imperialist generals, combining the ways of the warrior to his noble upbringing. During the long siege in Hitachi
Kyōhō pronounced Kyōho, was a Japanese era name after Shōtoku and before Gembun. This period spanned the years from July 1716 through April 1736; the reigning emperors were Nakamikado-tennō and Sakuramachi-tennō. 1716 Kyōhō gannen: The era name of Kyōhō was created in response to the death of Tokugawa Ietsugu. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Shōtoku 6, on the 22nd day of the 6th month. 1717: Kyōhō reforms are directed and overseen by Shōgun Yoshimune. 1718: The bakufu repaired the Imperial mausolea. 1718: The bakufu established a petition-box at the office of the machi-bugyō in Heian-kyō. 1720: The 26th High Priest of Nichiren Shōshū, Nichikan Shōnin, considered a great reformer of the sect, inscribed the Gohonzon which the lay Buddhist organisation SGI uses to bestow upon its members, after the Nichiren Shōshū priesthood, under the leadership of 67th High Priest Nikken, refused to do so. 1721: Edo population of 1.1 million is world's largest city. 1730: The Tokugawa shogunate recognizes the Dojima Rice Market in Osaka.
The transactions relating to rice exchanges developed into securities exchanges, used for transactions in public securities. The development of improved agriculture production caused the price of rice to fall in mid-Kyohō. August 3, 1730: A fire broke out in Muromachi and 3,790 houses were burnt. Over 30,000 looms in Nishi-jin were destroyed; the bakufu distributed rice. 1732: The Kyōhō famine was the consequence after swarms of locusts devastated crops in agricultural communities around the inland sea. 1733: Ginseng grown in Japan begins to be available in the Japanese food markets. 1735: Sweet potatoes were introduced into the Japanese diet. Adams, Thomas Francis Morton.. Japanese Securities Markets: A Historical Survey. Tokyo: Seihei Okuyama. OCLC 4376900 Foreign Press Center.. Japan: Eyes on the Country, Views of the 47 Prefectures. Tokyo: Foreign Press Center/Japan. Hall, John Whitney.. Early Modern Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521223553; the Economic History of Japan: 1600–1990, Vol. 1, Emergence of Economic Society in Japan, 1600–1859.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198289050. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. B.. Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794–1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby-Fane Memorial. OCLC 36644 Screech, Timon.. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-203-09985-8. Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan. London: Allen & Unwen, republished by Routledge ISBN 0415323789/ISBN 9780415323789 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection