Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities and directionality. In this hierarchy, the single pitch or triadic chord with the greatest stability is called the tonic; the root of the tonic chord forms the name given to the key. Simple folk music songs start and end with the tonic note; the most common use of the term "is to designate the arrangement of musical phenomena around a referential tonic in European music from about 1600 to about 1910". Contemporary classical music from 1910 to the 2000s may practice or avoid any sort of tonality—but harmony in all Western popular music remains tonal. Harmony in jazz includes many but not all tonal characteristics of the European common practice period, sometimes known as "classical music". "All harmonic idioms in popular music are tonal, none is without function". Tonality is an organized system of tones in which one tone becomes the central point for the remaining tones; the other tones in a tonal piece are all defined in terms of their relationship to the tonic.
In tonality, the tonic is the tone of complete relaxation and stability, the target toward which other tones lead. The cadence in which the dominant chord or dominant seventh chord resolves to the tonic chord plays an important role in establishing the tonality of a piece. "Tonal music is music, unified and dimensional. Music is unified if it is exhaustively referable to a precompositional system generated by a single constructive principle derived from a basic scale-type; the term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. According to Carl Dahlhaus, the term tonalité was only coined by Castil-Blaze in 1821. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period. Major-minor tonality is called harmonic tonality, diatonic tonality, common practice tonality, functional tonality, or just tonality.
At least eight distinct senses of the word "tonality", some mutually exclusive, have been identified: The word tonality may describe any systematic organization of pitch phenomena in any music at all, including pre-17th century western music as well as much non-western music, such as music based on the slendro and pelog pitch collections of Indonesian gamelan, or employing the modal nuclei of the Arabic maqam or the Indian raga system. This sense applies to the tonic/dominant/subdominant harmonic harmonic constellations in the theories of Jean-Philippe Rameau as well as the 144 basic transformations of twelve-tone technique. By the middle of the 20th century, it had become "evident that triadic structure does not generate a tone center, that non-triadic harmonic formations may be made to function as referential elements, that the assumption of a twelve-tone complex does not preclude the existence of tone centers". For the composer and theorist George Perle, tonality is not "a matter of'tone-centeredness', whether based on a'natural' hierarchy of pitches derived from the overtone series or an'artificial' pre compositional ordering of the pitch material.
This sense is susceptible to ideological employment, as Schoenberg, did by relying on the idea of a progressive development in musical resources "to compress divergent fin-de-siècle compositional practices into a single historical lineage in which his own music brings one historical era to a close and begins the next." From this point of view, twelve-tone music could be regarded "either as the natural and inevitable culmination of an organic motivic process or as a historical Aufhebung, the dialectical synthesis of late Romantic motivic practice on the one hand with a musical sublimation of tonality as pure system on the other". In another sense, tonality means any rational and self-contained theoretical arrangement of musical pitches, existing prior to any concrete embodiment in music. For example, "Sainsbury, who had Choron translated into English in 1825, rendered the first occurrence of tonalité as a'system of modes' before matching it with the neologism'tonality'. While tonality qua system constitutes a theoretical abstraction from actual music, it is hypostatized in musicological discourse, converted from a theoretical structure into a musical reality.
In this sense, it is understood as a Platonic form or prediscursive musical essence that suffuses music with intelligible sense, which exists before its concrete embodiment in music, can thus be theorized and discussed apart from actual musical contexts". To contrast with "modal" and "atonal", the term tonality is used to imply that tonal music is discontinuous as a form of cultural expression from modal music on the one hand and atonal music on the other. In some literature, tonality
Tone (Jeff Ament album)
Tone is the debut solo album of American rock bassist and Pearl Jam-member Jeff Ament, released September 16, 2008 on Monkeywrench Records. 3,000 copies of the album were pressed and distributed through independent record stores across the United States, as well as through Pearl Jam's official website. The album has been made available as a digital download via Pearl Jam's official website for US$4.99. The album contains ten songs written over a span of 12 years, it features a raw, experimental sound and was recorded by Ament over an eight-year period at Horseback Court in Blue Mountain, Ament's home studio, completed in 2008. Tone was mixed by Brett Eliason, who had worked with Ament as Pearl Jam's sound engineer, its cover art was created by Ament. Former Three Fish drummer and frequent Ament collaborator Richard Stuverud contributed his drumming to seven songs on the album, King's X frontman Doug Pinnick contributed lead vocals to the song "Doubting Thomasina". Pinnick would in 2010 feature as the lead singer of another Ament/Stuverud project, Tres Mts.
"The Forest" was recorded by Pearl Jam. The instrumental version by Pearl Jam is featured in the 2007 Pearl Jam concert film, Immagine in Cornice; the version of the song on Tone features vocals by Ament and music taken from the original demo version of the song. All tracks written by Jeff Ament. Jeff Ament – all instruments, additional recording, artworkAdditional musicians and productionMatt Bayles, John Burton – additional recording Brett Eliason – recording, mixing Joe Gastwirt – mastering Doug Pinnick – vocals on "Doubting Thomasina" Richard Stuverud – drums, background vocals Download at pearljam.com
Tone (TVXQ album)
Tone is the fifth Japanese studio album by South Korean pop group Tohoshinki, released on September 28, 2011 by Avex Trax. It is Tohoshinki's first Japanese album since becoming a two-piece band, with members Yunho and Changmin. Tone was released in three physical versions -- a CD+DVD version with music videos. Composing sessions for the album began in 2009, bull full production began in early 2011. Musically, Tone is a pop music album consisting of uptempos and ballads with R&B, electropop and rock influences. Tone received positive reviews upon its release, with some critics praising it as one of Tohoshinki's most cohesive Japanese album to-date; the album was a major commercial success: it was Tohoshinki's first studio album to top the Oricon Albums Chart, selling 205,000 copies on its first week of release. Earning a platinum certification by the Recording Industry Association of Japan two weeks Tone became Tohoshinki's best-selling original Japanese studio album, with over 330,000 copies sold.
The second single "Superstar" was written with English lyrics and titled "Everyday Superstar". When the song was translated into Japanese the lyrics and meaning were changed apart from the single word "Superstar". Co-writer Lars Halvor Jensen told HitQuarters that the translator kept it in because "it's a catchy word that everybody understands"; the original English language song was recorded by the Irish pop duo Jedward and included on their second album Victory. It was included as the bonus track on the Japanese release of their debut album Planet Jedward. On July 30, 2011, while attending the a-Nation 10th Anniversary for Life Charge & Weider in Jelly concert, U-Know revealed that their upcoming Japanese album was slated for release on September 28. There Max revealed that their 5th Nationwide Japanese tour would be starting in January of next year. July 31 it was revealed that released tracks "Why?", "Maximum", "Superstar", "I Don't Know" would be included on the album and that three versions: CD+DVD, CD+DVD and CD of the album would be released.
On August 15 it was revealed that one of the songs off the album "Back to Tomorrow" would be used as the CM song for Illuneige, a product by Menard Cosmetics. A 1-minute, 12-second preview of the song was available on the Illuneige site. On August 27 the track list for all three versions of Tone were revealed on Tohoshinki's official Japanese website, along with a 17-second preview of the song "B. U. T"; the limited edition bonuses were revealed to be a jacket sized card and event application, "Superstar" PV shoot off shot movie, special miniphotobooklet. On September 2, 2011 Tohoshinki revealed the jacket covers for all three versions of Tone, as well as a 30-second teaser for "Duet" on their Japanese site. From September 2–4 Tohoshinki participated in SMTown Live'10 World Tour, where they performed their yet-to-be released song "B. U. T". September 6, Avex Trax's official YouTube page released a 15-second MV teaser of "B. U. T". 5 days a 1-minute, 30-second version of "B. U. T" was shown, along with three behind-the-scenes footage clips, on Fuji TV's Mezamashi TV.
September 19 the full music video for "B. U. T" was released through various sites. On September 27, 2011, the first day of album release, Tone topped the Oricon Daily Album Chart at first place by selling 105,484 copies, surpassing their previous studio album The Secret Code's first day sales of 82,891 copies, the album maintained the daily #1 rank for the remainder of the week. On October 4, 2011, Oricon reported that Tone has sold over 204,980 copies for the week of 9/26~10/2, again surpassing The Secret Code's first week sales of 157,954 copies; this is the first time in over 11 years that a foreign male artist has sold over 200,000 copies in the first week since Bon Jovi's Crush. On November 7, 2011, Oricon reported that Tone has sold over 278,057 copies for the month of October, topping the Oricon Monthly Album Chart at first place, making this the first time Tohoshinki has achieved the monthly #1 rank with a studio album release. On October 7, 2011, Tone was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for shipping over 250,000 copies.
On December 19, 2011, Oricon reported that Tone has sold over 293,674 copies in 2011, ranked 20th for the year on the Oricon Yearly Album Chart. TVXQ albums discography List of Oricon number-one albums of 2011 Special Website Official website of TVXQ
Wellington is a small market town in rural Somerset, a county in the west of England, situated 7 miles south west of Taunton in the Taunton Deane district, near the border with Devon, which runs along the Blackdown Hills to the south of the town. The town has a population of 14,549, which includes the residents of the parish of Wellington Without, the villages of Tone and Tonedale. Known as Weolingtun in the Anglo-Saxon period, its name had changed to Walintone by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086. Wellington became a town under a royal charter of 1215 and during the Middle Ages it grew as a centre for trade on the road from Bristol to Exeter. Major rebuilding took place following a fire in the town in 1731, after which it became a centre for cloth-making. Wellington gave its name to the first Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, commemorated by the nearby Wellington Monument. Following his victory at the Battle of Talavera in the Peninsular War, Arthur Wellesley was offered a peerage; the question was.
His brother, Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, looked around and discovered that a manor in the parish of Wellington was available. It was reasonably close to the family name; because Arthur was still in Spain in command of the army fighting the French, Richard oversaw the purchase. By this process Arthur therefore became Marquess of Wellington. According to the book Wellington as Military Commander by Michael Glover, Arthur Wellesley first signed himself'Wellington' on 16 September 1809. At the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, Arthur Wellesley was further elevated to the peerage rank of the Duke of Wellington. At the time he became Ambassador to France, The London Gazette of 4 June 1814 refers to him as having that title but suggests that it was granted by warrant on 25 August 1812; the Grand Western Canal reached the town in 1835 and the Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1843. The town's own railway station survived until 1964. Wellington was home of Fox and Company, the last commercial bank permitted to print their own sterling banknotes in England and Wales.
In the 20th century closer links with Taunton meant that many of the residents of Wellington commuted there for work, the M5 motorway enabled car journeys to be made more easily. Local industries, which now include an aerosol factory and bed manufacturers, are celebrated at the Wellington Museum in Fore street. Wellington is home to the independent Wellington School, state-funded Court Fields School, it is home to a range of cultural and religious sites including the 15th century Church of St John the Baptist. The capital city of New Zealand is named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, being recognised as having some influence in the company that founded the New Zealand town; the New Zealand capital therefore takes its name from the English town of Wellington in Somerset. In a grant of between 899 and 909, Edward the Elder, gave the land known as Weolingtun, which means "wealthy estate", along with West Buckland and Bishops Lydeard to Bishop Asser; this was in exchange for the monastery of Plympton in Devon.
An alternative explanation for the origin of the name is "the settlement in the temple clearing". By the time of the Domesday Book of 1086, the name had changed to Walintone, the estate was owned by Gisa; the parish of Wellington was part of the Kilmersdon Hundred,A site at Longforth Farm near Tonedale has been identified as having Bronze Age occupation and, during excavations prior to the building of new homes, found to have been occupied by a 12th-14th century building with decorated floor tiles covering 0.4 hectares. A royal charter of 1215 gave Wellington its status as a town, during the medieval period it grew as a centre for trade on the road from Bristol to Exeter, being laid out, with the church at the east end of town, in a similar manner to other towns of this era. In 1548, the manor was sold to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, but reverted to the control of the bishops after his execution. By the end of the 16th century it had come under the protection of John Popham and his descendants who built a manor house, destroyed during the English Civil War.
Major rebuilding took place in the town following a fire in 1731. After this the town's importance grew as it became a centre for clothmaking across Somerset and Devon, its importance as trade centre enhanced by fires in Taunton and Tiverton. By the 1831 census, 258 people were recorded as cloth workers in Wellington. Arthur Wellesley took the title of his Marquessate in 1809 from this town of Wellington. Nearby Wellington Hill boasts a spotlit obelisk to his honour, the Wellington Monument; the Wellington Monument is a floodlit 175 feet high triangular tower designated by English Heritage as a grade II* listed building. It was erected to celebrate the Duke of Wellington's victory at the Battle of Waterloo; the foundation stone was laid in 1817, on land belonging to the Duke, owing to funding problems, the monument was not completed until 1854. It is now owned by the National Trust, who announced plans to reclad the monument at a cost of £4 million in 2009. In the 18th century turnpikes arrived in the area and in the 19th communications improved with the building of the Grand Western Canal, which reached the town in 1835, the Bristol and Exeter Railway.
Wellington station was opened when the line reached the town on 1 May 1843. It was a typical Brunel design; this entailed the platforms being moved back to accommodate the widened lines. These platforms are visible and a goods shed still stands on the east side of the line at the Taunton end of the station, although
Traditionally in Western music, a musical tone is a steady periodic sound. A musical tone is characterized by its duration, pitch and timbre; the notes used in music can be more complex than musical tones, as they may include aperiodic aspects, such as attack transients and envelope modulation. A simple tone, or pure tone, has a sinusoidal waveform. A complex tone is a combination of two or more pure tones that have a periodic pattern of repetition, unless specified otherwise; the Fourier theorem states that any periodic waveform can be approximated as as desired as the sum of a series of sine waves with frequencies in a harmonic series and at specific phase relationships to each other. The common denominator frequency, often the lowest of these frequencies is the fundamental frequency, is the inverse of the period of the waveform; the fundamental frequency determines the pitch of the tone, perceived by the human hearing. In music, notes are assigned to tones with different fundamental frequencies, in order to describe the pitch of played tones.
Mathematics of musical scales Reference tone Standard test tone Signal tone White noise Pure tones & complex sounds Media related to Musical tone at Wikimedia Commons
Frank Tønnesen, better known by his stage name Tønes, is a Norwegiansinger-songwriter and guitarist from Sokndal, Norway. He released his debut album, Rett te håves, in 1996 and has since released a number of albums and EPs, he tells intriguing stories. In 2018 he released his first novel under the name Vi kan ikke ta med oss alt dette hjem. Tønes performs both solo and with a backing band that differs in configuration, sometimes consisting of just a bass and/or accordion. Among his bandmates are Gaute Tengesdal, Erlend Aasland, Kjell Gudmestad, Øystein Holmen. Arne Andersen joined, playing percussion in 2012, Anne Lise Frøkedal joined playing electric guitar and keyboards and contributing with backing vocals. In the early years Johan Egdetveit performed in some shows. 1996: Rett te håves 1998: Gobai 2000: Det så e inne i krabben 2004: Grønnare gras 2008: Tork av deg fliret 2009: Sobihob 2012: Sån av Salve 2015: Vindbrest / Playground / Cosmos Music Group 2017: Sesong Fire 1998: Maleri 1999: Bonde 2000: Sko ikke sagt någe hvis det va drid 2003: Sju 2017: Ikkje mogna Official website
Tone is a town located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. As of September 2015, the town had an estimated population of 16,547, a population density 665 persons per km²; the total area is 24.9 km². Tone is located in the flatlands in the southern portion of Ibaraki Prefecture, bordered by Chiba Prefecture to the south; the Tone River, along with the Shin-Tone Kogawa River pass through the town. Ibaraki Prefecture Ryūgasaki, Ibaraki Toride, Ibaraki Kawachi, Ibaraki Chiba Prefecture Abiko, Chiba Inzai, Chiba Sakae, Chiba The area of present-day Tone was part of Shimōsa Province and was transferred to Ibaraki Prefecture in 1875 after the start of the Meiji period; the area was organized into the town of Fukawa and the villages of Fumi, Momma within Kitasōma District, Ibaraki Prefecture with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889. The modern town of Tone was founded by the merger of Fukawa with Fumi and Momma on January 1, 1955. Japan Wellness Sports University Tone is not served by any passenger railway line.
The nearest station is Fusa on the Abiko branch line of the JR East’s Narita Line. The town is not served by any national highway. Primary access is by Chiba Prefectural Route 4 and 170, by Ibaraki Prefectural Route 11, 68 and 209. Jun Sadogawa – manga artist Official Website