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Tone row

In music, a tone row or note row series or set, is a non-repetitive ordering of a set of pitch-classes of the twelve notes in musical set theory of the chromatic scale, though both larger and smaller sets are sometimes found. Tone rows are most types of serial music. Tone rows were used in 20th-century contemporary music, like Dmitri Shostakovich's use of twelve-tone rows, "without dodecaphonic transformations."A tone row has been identified in the A minor prelude from book II of J. S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier and by the late eighteenth century, their use was a well-established technique, found in works such as Mozart's C major String Quartet, K. 157, String Quartet in E-flat major, K. 428, String Quintet in G minor, K. 516, the Symphony in G minor, K. 550. Beethoven used the technique but, on the whole, "Mozart seems to have employed serial technique far more than Beethoven". Franz Liszt used a twelve-tone row in the opening of his "Faust" Symphony. Hans Keller claims that Schoenberg was aware of this serial practice in the classical period and that "Schoenberg repressed his knowledge of classical serialism because it would have injured his narcissism."

Tone rows are designated by letters and subscript numbers. The numbers indicate the initial or final pitch-class number of the given row form, most with c = 0. "P" indicates a forward-directed right-side up form. "I" indicates a forward-directed upside-down form. "R" indicates retrograde, a backwards right-side up form. "RI" indicates a backwards upside-down form. Transposition is indicated by a T number, for example P8 is a T transposition of P4. A twelve-tone composition will take one or more tone rows, called the "prime form", as its basis plus their transformations; these forms may be used to construct a melody in a straightforward manner as in Schoenberg's Piano Suite Op. 25 Minuet Trio, where P-0 is used to construct the opening melody and varied through transposition, as P-6, in articulation and dynamics. It is varied again through inversion, taking form I-0. However, rows may be combined to produce melodies or harmonies in more complicated ways, such as taking successive or multiple pitches of a melody from two different row forms, as described at twelve-tone technique.

Schoenberg required the avoidance of suggestions of tonality—such as the use of consecutive imperfect consonances —when constructing tone rows, reserving such use for the time when the dissonance is emancipated. Alban Berg, sometimes incorporated tonal elements into his twelve-tone works; the main tone row of his Violin Concerto hints at this tonality: This tone row consists of alternating minor and major triads starting on the open strings of the violin, followed by a portion of an ascending whole tone scale. This whole tone scale reappears in the second movement when the chorale "Es ist genug" from J. S. Bach's cantata O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60 is quoted in the woodwinds; some tone rows have a high degree of internal organization. An example is the tone row from Anton Webern's Concerto for Nine Instruments Op. 24, shown below. In this tone row, if the first three notes are regarded as the "original" cell the next three are its retrograde inversion, the next three are retrograde, the last three are its inversion.

A row created in this manner, through variants of a trichord or tetrachord called the generator, is called a derived row. The tone rows of many of Webern's other late works are intricate; the tone row for Webern's String Quartet Op. 28 is based on the BACH motif and is composed of three tetrachords: The "set-complex" is the forty-eight forms of the set generated by stating each "aspect" or transformation on each pitch class. The all-interval twelve-tone row is a tone row arranged so that it contains one instance of each interval within the octave, 0 through 11; the "total chromatic" is the set of all twelve pitch classes. An "array" is a succession of aggregates; the term is used to refer to lattices. An aggregate may be achieved through combinatoriality, such as with hexachords. A "secondary set" is a tone row, derived from or, "results from the reversed coupling of hexachords", when a given row form is repeated. For example, the row form consisting of two hexachords: 0 1 2 3 4 5 / 6 7 8 9 t e when repeated results in the following succession of two aggregates, in the middle of, a new and complete aggregate beginning with the second hexachord: 0 1 2 3 4 5 / 6 7 8 9 t e / 0 1 2 3 4 5 / 6 7 8 9 t e secondary set: A "weighted aggregate" is an aggregate in which the twelfth pitch does not appear until at least one pitch has appeared at least twice, supplied by segments of different set forms.

It seems to have been first used in Milton Babbitt's String Quartet No. 4. An aggregate may be horizontally weighted. An "all-partition array" is created by combining a collection of hexachordally combinatorial arrays. Schoenberg specified many strict rules and desirable guidelines for the construction of tone rows such as number of notes and intervals to avoid. Tone rows that depart from these guidelines include the above tone row from Berg's Violin Concerto which contains triads and tonal emphasis, the tone row below from Luciano Berio's Nones which contains a repeated note making it a

Debutante ball

A debutante ball is a formal ball that includes presenting debutantes during the season, meaning during the spring or summer. Debutante balls may require prior instruction of social etiquette, appropriate morals. In the United Kingdom, the tradition with debutantes ceremoniously presented at the British royal court during Queen Charlotte's Ball was discontinued by Queen Elizabeth II in 1958; the ball was revived in the 2000s under the patronage of the Duke of Somerset. In contemporary United States, they are sometimes known as debutante cotillion balls in American English. Most are for middle schoolers as a chance to teach manners, are a time to socialize with friends at after-parties; the after-parties at cotillion feature food and music. In Australia, this practice has disappeared in cities, but in rural areas, it remains a strong tradition and has become something unique. Girls dress up in flowing white dresses, boys don sharp black suits, for weeks beforehand they come together to learn ballroom dancing in the lead-up to the event.

List of debutante balls in the United States International Debutante Ball

Mary River cod

The Mary River cod is a species of temperate perch native to the coastal Mary River system of southern Queensland, Australia. Mary River cod are one of Australia's most endangered freshwater fishes and are notable for being the most northerly of the four Maccullochella cods found or once found in coastal river systems of eastern Australia; the Mary River cod is a large fish recorded up to 40 kg and 120 cm in the early years of European settlement, but now are less than 5 kg and 70 cm. Similar in appearance to Murray cod and eastern freshwater cod, they are a striking looking, golden-yellow to dark green or brown, deep-bodied fish with dark green to black mottling. Curiously, Mary River cod have a shorter, thicker caudal peduncle than the other cod species; the Mary River Cod is listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and is estimated to only occur in less than 30% of its historic range. Mary River Cod are subject to the usual story of woe.

Abundant at the time of first European settlement, they were grossly overfished with nets and explosives by the early European settlers and, as with other Maccullochella cods, were used as pig feed. This overfishing, combined with the massive siltation of their habitats by land clearing, destruction of riparian vegetation and cattle trampling river banks, dams and weirs blocking migration caught up with this large, slow-growing, long-lived Maccullochella cod species, as it has with all its close relatives. Outside of a few stocked Queensland impoundments- upstream of the walls of Cressbrook, Maroon, North Pine and Wivenhoe Dams and lakes Dyer and Clarendon- the fish is a no take species and any caught should be released. A strict bag limit of one fish with a minimum size of 50 cm applies to the stocked impoundments. Taxonomically, Mary River cod were described as a subspecies of the Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii based on studies of muscle proteins and enzymes; as of 2010, after studies of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, Mary River cod have been raised to full species status.

This research reveals the Mary River cod's closest relative is the eastern freshwater cod of the Clarence River system. Rowland, S. J.. Maccullochella ikei, an endangered species of freshwater cod from the Clarence River System, NSW, M.peelii mariensis, a new subspecies from the Mary River System, QLD. Records of the Australian Museum 45: 121-145. Simpson, R. R. and Mapleston, A. J.. Movements and Habitat Use by the Endangered Australian Freshwater Mary River cod, Maccullochella peelii mariensis. Environmental Biology of Fishes 65: 401–410

Professor Potter

Professor Phineas Potter is a supporting character in stories published by DC Comics featuring Superman and several related characters, most notably Jimmy Olsen. Phineas Potter first appeared in Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen #22 and was created by Otto Binder and Curt Swan; the original incarnation of Professor Potter was the maternal uncle of Lana Lang and first encountered the Man of Steel during his teenage years as Superboy. An eccentric scientist, Potter invented odd or fantastical devices which he intended to use for the betterment of humanity. However, he considered the potential downsides of his inventions. While several of his devices were harmless, many others were not, chaos ensued when they were activated. Potter befriended three newspaper reporters from the Daily Planet: Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen and Clark Kent. Olsen, in particular, was the intended victim of Potter's inventions gone awry. Thanks to the professor, Olsen was evolved into a super-intelligent being from one million A. D. given an elongated nose like the character Pinocchio, stricken with "flame-breath", cursed with an evil twin, among other calamities.

However, Potter was able to recreate a serum. Thus, Olsen was able to use those powers as Elastic Lad. Following the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series, Superman's history was revised, such that Clark Kent did not begin his public superhero career until adulthood, thus never operated as Superboy. In the revised continuity, Phineas Potter's role in the Superman mythos has been replaced by a more competent professor Emil Hamilton. Potter appears as a scientist working at the Hawaiian branch of S. T. A. R. Labs; the Superboy he encounters is the hybrid clone of Superman and Lex Luthor. There is no apparent relationship to Lana Lang. A similar themed character appeared on the Adventures of Superman television series in the 1950s; the absent-minded Professor Pepperwinkle is portrayed by Phil Tead in five episodes of the series, which featured George Reeves as Superman. Pepperwinkle appeared in Superman comics during the 1970s. Professor Potter appears in The Adventures of Superboy. In Smallville, Lana Lang has a maternal aunt named Nell Potter.

Professor Potter at DC Wiki Supermanica: Professor Potter Supermanica entry on the Pre-Crisis Professor Potter. Supermanica: Professor Pepperwinkle Supermanica entry on the Pre-Crisis Professor Pepperwinkle

Xavier Oriach

Xavier Oriach is a French painter and engraver from Catalonia. He is best known for his association with the School of Paris. Oriach was born in Sabadell in Catalonia; when his ancestors, the Oriacs of the Massif Central, settled in the area. His parents moved to Barcelona in 1930 to start a fashion house; when his parents moved again, this time to Valencia, in 1934 to open a factory, Xavier returned with his great-uncle to Sabadell, spending much of the rest of his childhood in Rifà's studio. Encouraged by the succession of artists that frequented the atelier, Oriach began to draw and paint at the end of the 1930s. In 1943 Oriach left his home village to rejoin his parents, working for a time in his father's business. In 1944 he entered the Fine Arts School of Valencia, he began to incorporate elements of Fauvism into his work. The local French Institute accorded him a scholarship, enough to allow him, after a first exhibition of his work in Catalonia, to flee Francoist Spain. In January, 1951, Oriach settled in Paris, accompanied by guitarist Narciso Yepes.

To continue painting he began experimenting with more diverse styles. He had, in his youth, met Antoni Clavé in Barcelona, had known Manolo Gil in Valencia; some months after arriving he attracted the interest of Bernard Dorival, who invited him to the retrospective of Georges Braque being organized at the Musée National d'Art Moderne. In 1953 Oriach was shown at the Galerie Breteau. During the 1950s the Francoist State attempted to entice various artists in exile to return to Spain. Oriach refused to return. There he turned his studio into a place for meetings and debates, creating a center for contemporary art where he showed the work of friends such as Pierre Tal Coat, Raoul Ubac, Tàpies. In 1991 Oriach moved again, this time to Normandy, where several retrospectives of his work have been organized. Arriving in Paris as realism was losing favor, Oriach soon threw himself into the study of abstraction. Leaving aside the naturalism of his early style, he chose instead to focus on more nebulous, less concrete subjects.

His work grew larger, but has remained precise, combining elements of Catalan and Spanish culture. This article is based on the article in the French Wikipedia

Hidden Stash V: Bongloads & B-Sides

Hidden Stash V: Bong Loads & B-Sides is the fourth b-sides and rarities collection by the Kottonmouth Kings. It contains remixes from the albums Long Live The Kings and Sunrise Sessions. Unlike Hidden Stash III and Hidden Stash 420, Hidden Stash V does not contain songs by other artists that feature Kottonmouth Kings members. Certain versions of the album include a bonus DVD that includes pranks, music videos, revisions. *These songs were released as a Nugg of the Week prior to appearing on the indicated retail release. Stonetown Intro Pot shot #1 Love Lost Pot shot#2 Cruisin’ Pot shot #3 Boom Clap Sound Pot shot #4 My Garden Pot shot #5 Reefer Madness Pot Shot #6 Mushrooms D Iz Who I B At it Again Amerika's Most Busted Part 1 Great when you’re high KMK Live Bust No Cops Amerika's Most Busted Part 2 Stomp /Rampage Defy Gravity Party Girls Pack Your Bowls Suffocation Say goodbye Bonus Blue Skies - 30 minutes Bonus: Underground Revolution trailer