Lip gloss is a product used to give lips a glossy lustre, sometimes to add a subtle color. It is distributed as a liquid or a soft solid The product is available in ranges of opacity from translucent to solid, can have various frosted, glittery and metallic finishes. Like lipstick, lip gloss may be applied in different ways, it can be contained in a small cylinder and applied with a rounded or sloped applicator wand or with a built in lip brush. It can come in a small, squeezable plastic tube designed to be passed over the lips or applied with a fingertip or lip brush. Solid or semisolid glosses come in boxes or tubes and sometimes blur the distinction between lip gloss and lip balm. Basic lip gloss adds basic shine to the lips without color. Colored lip gloss adds a combination of shine. Glittery lip gloss has a glitter base. New types of "plumping" lip gloss contain ingredients that make the lips appear plumper; these are a cheap and harmless alternative if compared to collagen, Juvederm, or fat injections.
They are not as effective. Lip gloss is used when a person wants to have some color on their lips, but does not want an intense, solid lip color effect, as lipstick would create. Lip gloss is often used as an introduction to makeup, it is used by preteen and young teenage girls who want to wear some makeup, but are too young to wear more intense lipstick colors. Lip gloss is common for young women who don't like to wear makeup but have to attend a formal occasion. Lip gloss can be applied on top of lipstick to increase the gloss of a color, or to add depth as in the case of glitter gloss. Like lipstick, lip gloss is a mixture of waxes and pigments. However, lip gloss contains fewer pigments, those used are pale in color or diluted. Furthermore, the free-flowing nature of the product requires less wax; the principal components are lanolin, which feels good on the lips due to its moisturizing qualities and imparts gloss, polybutene. Lip gloss was invented by Max Factor in 1930, he wanted to create a lip product that would make lips glossy for films.
Factor created makeup for the movie industry. He developed makeup for actresses starring in black and white films. Women were inspired by movie actresses to embrace this makeup trend; this led to the popularity of lip gloss. The first commercially available lip gloss was Max Factor's X-Rated, launched in 1932; the original formula was sold until 2003, when Gamble retired the product. In 1973, Bonne Bell introduced Lip Smackers. Lip Smackers were, still are, popular among young teenagers. Lip Smackers came in two sizes: small and big; the small ones could be kept in the pocket and the big ones had a rope to hang around the neck. It was advertised that before a date, a teen girl should choose an appropriate flavor because that would be her date's first taste when his lips kissed hers. Lip augmentation Lip liner Lip stain
Shampoo is a hair care product in the form of a viscous liquid, used for cleaning hair. Less shampoo is available in bar form, like a bar of soap. Shampoo is used by applying it to wet hair, massaging the product into the hair, rinsing it out; some users may follow a shampooing with the use of hair conditioner. The typical reason of using shampoo is to remove the unwanted build-up of sebum in the hair without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable. Shampoo is made by combining a surfactant, most sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most cocamidopropyl betaine in water. Specialty shampoos are available for people with dandruff, color-treated hair, gluten or wheat allergies, an interest in using an organic product, infants and young children. There are shampoos intended for animals that may contain insecticides or other medications to treat skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas; the word shampoo entered the English language from the Indian subcontinent during the colonial era.
It dates to 1762 and is derived from Hindi chāmpo, itself derived from the Sanskrit root chapati, which means to press, soothe. In the Indian subcontinent, a variety of herbs and their extracts have been used as shampoos since ancient times. A effective early shampoo was made by boiling Sapindus with dried Indian gooseberry and a selection of other herbs, using the strained extract. Sapindus known as soapberries or soapnuts, a tropical tree widespread in India, is called ksuna in ancient Indian texts and its fruit pulp contains saponins which are a natural surfactant; the extract of soapberries creates a lather. It leaves the hair soft and manageable. Other products used for hair cleansing were shikakai, hibiscus flowers and arappu. Guru Nanak, the founding prophet and the first Guru of Sikhism, made references to soapberry tree and soap in the 16th century. Cleansing with hair and body massage during one's daily bath was an indulgence of early colonial traders in India; when they returned to Europe, they introduced the newly learned habits, including the hair treatment they called shampoo.
Sake Dean Mahomed, a Bengali traveller and entrepreneur, is credited with introducing the practice of champooi or "shampooing" to Britain. In 1814, with his Irish wife Jane Daly, opened the first commercial "shampooing" vapour masseur bath in England, in Brighton, he described the treatment in a local paper as "The Indian Medicated Vapour Bath, a cure to many diseases and giving full relief when everything fails. During the early stages of shampoo in Europe, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 advertisement for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake. In 1927, liquid shampoo was invented by German inventor Hans Schwarzkopf in Berlin, whose name created a shampoo brand sold in Europe. Soap and shampoo were similar products. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo using synthetic surfactants instead of soap.
Early shampoos used in Indonesia were made from the straw of rice. The husks and straws were burned into ash, the ashes are mixed with water to form lather; the ashes and lather were scrubbed into the hair and rinsed out, leaving the hair clean, but dry. Afterwards, coconut oil was applied to the hair in order to moisturize it. Certain Native American tribes used extracts from North American plants as hair shampoo. Pre-Columbian Andean civilizations used this soapy by-product as a shampoo. Shampoo is made by combining a surfactant, most sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt, used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance. Other ingredients are included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities: pleasing foam ease of rinsing minimal skin and eye irritation thick or creamy feeling pleasant fragrance low toxicity good biodegradability slight acidity no damage to hair repair of damage done to hairMany shampoos are pearlescent.
This effect is achieved by the addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos include silicone to provide conditioning benefits. Ammonium chloride Ammonium lauryl sulfate Glycol Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 as evidence suggested it might be a carcinogen, this has yet to be disproved, as many sources still describe it as irritating
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase. The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance; when the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide with each other. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will escape and enter the surrounding air as a gas; when evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling. On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid; the evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is equal to its condensation. In an enclosed environment, a liquid will evaporate. Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle; the sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, moisture in the soil, other sources of water.
In hydrology and transpiration are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor. With sufficient energy, the liquid will turn into vapor. For molecules of a liquid to evaporate, they must be located near the surface, they have to be moving in the proper direction, have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome liquid-phase intermolecular forces; when only a small proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, the rate of evaporation is low. Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, evaporation proceeds more at higher temperatures; as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, the temperature of the liquid decreases. This phenomenon is called evaporative cooling; this is. Evaporation tends to proceed more with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and in liquids with higher vapor pressure.
For example, laundry on a clothes line will dry more on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation are heat, atmospheric pressure, air movement. On a molecular level, there is no strict boundary between the vapor state. Instead, there is a Knudsen layer; because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a macroscopic scale a clear phase transition interface cannot be seen. Liquids that do not evaporate visibly at a given temperature in a given gas have molecules that do not tend to transfer energy to each other in a pattern sufficient to give a molecule the heat energy necessary to turn into vapor. However, these liquids are evaporating, it is just that the process is much slower and thus less visible. If evaporation takes place in an enclosed area, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the molecules return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density and pressure of the vapor increases; when the process of escape and return reaches an equilibrium, the vapor is said to be "saturated", no further change in either vapor pressure and density or liquid temperature will occur.
For a system consisting of vapor and liquid of a pure substance, this equilibrium state is directly related to the vapor pressure of the substance, as given by the Clausius–Clapeyron relation: ln = − Δ H v a p R where P1, P2 are the vapor pressures at temperatures T1, T2 ΔHvap is the enthalpy of vaporization, R is the universal gas constant. The rate of evaporation in an open system is related to the vapor pressure found in a closed system. If a liquid is heated, when the vapor pressure reaches the ambient pressure the liquid will boil; the ability for a molecule of a liquid to evaporate is based on the amount of kinetic energy an individual particle may possess. At lower temperatures, individual molecules of a liquid can evaporate if they have more than the minimum amount of kinetic energy required for vaporization. Note: Air used here is a common example. Concentration of the substance evaporating in the air If the air has a high concentration of the substance evaporating the given substance will evaporate more slowly.
Concentration of other substances in the air If the air is saturated with other substances, it can have a lower capacity for the substance evaporating. Flow rate of air This is in part related to the concentration points above. If "fresh" air is moving over the substance all the time the concentration of the substance in the air is less to go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation; this is the result of the boundary layer at the evaporation surface decreasing with flow velocity, decreasing the diffusion distance in the stagnant layer. The amount of minerals
Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing the hair color. The main reasons for this are cosmetic: to cover gray or white hair, to change to a color regarded as more fashionable or desirable, or to restore the original hair color after it has been discolored by hairdressing processes or sun bleaching. Hair coloring can be done independently at home. Today, hair coloring is popular, with 75% of women and 18% of men living in Copenhagen having reported using hair dye according to a study by the University of Copenhagen. At-home coloring in the United States reached $1.9 billion in 2011 and is expected to rise to $2.2 billion by 2016. Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian, described in detail how Celtic people dyed their hair blonde: "Their aspect is terrifying... They are tall in stature, with rippling muscles under clear white skin, their hair is blond, but not so: they bleach it, to this day, washing it in lime and combing it back from their foreheads. They look like their hair thick and shaggy like a horse's mane.
Some of them are clean-shaven, but others—especially those of high rank—shave their cheeks but leave a moustache that covers the whole mouth...". This practice continued in some parts of Britain long after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in Wales, where Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd was described in an elegy by Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch to have blonde hair: "... Not since Camlann has there been such weeping, Gone is our mainstay, his golden hair, stained with a death blow...". The dyeing of hair is an ancient art that involves treatment of the hair with various chemical compounds. In ancient times, the dyes were obtained from plants; some of the most well known are henna, Cassia obovata, senna and amla. Others include black walnut hulls, red ochre and leeks. In the 1661 book Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art & Nature, various methods of coloring hair black, green, red and white are explained; the development of synthetic dyes for hair is traced to the 1860s discovery of the reactivity of para-phenylenediamine with air.
Eugène Schueller, the founder of L'Oréal, is recognized for creating the first synthetic hair dye in 1907. In 1947 the German cosmetics firm Schwarzkopf launched the first home color product, "Poly Color". Hair dyeing is now a multibillion-dollar industry that involves the use of both plant-derived and synthetic dyes. Hair color was traditionally applied to the hair as one overall color; the modern trend is to use several colors to produce streaks or gradations, but not all work on top of a single base color. These are referred to as: Highlighting, where sections of hair are treated with lighteners Lowlighting, where sections of hair are treated with darker hair colors Splashlighting a horizontal band of bleached hair from ear to earThere are newer coloring techniques such as ombré, in which hair is dark on the crown and bit by bit becomes lighter toward the ends; these are off-the-scalp techniques, can be applied by the following methods: Foiling, where pieces of foil or plastic film are used to separate the hair to be colored when applying more than one color Cap, when a plastic cap is placed on the head and strands are pulled through with a hook Balayage, where hair color is painted directly onto sections of the hair with no foils used to keep the color contained Dipping or tip dyeing, similar to balayage in that the color is painted directly on the hair All coloring techniques can be used with any type of color.
For lightening, the hair sometimes has to be bleached before coloring. Hair coloring can be applied on the scalp for a more solid level of coverage Root touch-up, where color is applied only to the most recent section of re-growth Root touch-ups are repeated every 4–6 weeks as the natural color grows in and becomes apparent. People who color their hair to disguise gray have these root touch-ups. All-over color, where the person wants all of their hair to be a different solid color Block coloring, where the person wants two or more colors applied to their hair, resulting in dimension and contrastAll coloring techniques can be used with any type of color. For lightening, the hair sometimes has to be bleached before coloring; the four most common classifications are permanent, demi-permanent, semi-permanent, temporary. Permanent hair color contains ammonia and must be mixed with a developer or oxidizing agent in order to permanently change hair color. Ammonia is used in permanent hair color to open the cuticle layer so that the developer and colorants together can penetrate into the cortex.
The developer, or oxidizing agent, comes in various volumes. The higher the developer volume, the higher the "lift" will be of a person's natural hair pigment. Someone with dark hair wishing to achieve two or three shades lighter may need a higher developer whereas someone with lighter hair wishing to achieve darker hair will not one as high. Timing may vary with permanent hair coloring but is 30 minutes or 45 minutes for those wishing to achieve maximum color change. Demi-permanent hair color is hair color that contains an alkaline agent other than ammonia and, while always employed with a developer, the concentration of hydr
Permanent makeup is a cosmetic technique which employs tattoos as a means of producing designs that resemble makeup, such as eyelining and other permanent enhancing colors to the skin of the face and eyelids. It is used to produce artificial eyebrows in people who have lost them as a consequence of old age, such as alopecia totalis, chemotherapy, or a genetic disturbance, to disguise scars and white spots in the skin such as in vitiligo, it is used to restore or enhance the breast's areola, such as after breast surgery. Most called permanent cosmetics, other names include dermapigmentation, micropigmentation, cosmetic tattooing, the latter being most appropriate since permanent makeup is applied under sterile conditions similar to that of a tattoo. In the United States the inks used in permanent makeup are subject to approval as cosmetics by the Food and Drug Administration; the pigments used in the inks are color additives, which are subject to pre-market approval under the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act.
However, because of other competing public health priorities in the United States and a previous lack of evidence of safety problems associated with these pigments, FDA traditionally has not exercised regulatory authority for color additives on the pigments used in tattoo inks. The first documented permanent makeup treatment was done by the famous U. K. tattoo artist Sutherland MacDonald in 1902 at his parlor, #76 Jermyn Str. London, "all-year-round delicate pink complexion" on the cheeks. In 1920s this "London fad" crossed the Atlantic, the "electrically tattoing a permanent complexion or blush on the face" became popular in the USA; the tattooist George Burchett, a major developer of the technique when it become fashionable in the 1930s, described in his memoirs how beauty salons tattooed many women without their knowledge, offering it as a "complexion treatment... of injecting vegetable dyes under the top layer of the skin." Permanent makeup results in enhanced features of the face—definition is rendered to eyebrows and lips by the use of colors.
Results can imitate topically applied cosmetics or can be quite unnoticeable, depending upon the design, color value and amount of pigment used. At first, permanent makeup results may look darker; this is due to colour remaining in the outermost epidermal layers of skin at the start. Colour softens within a few days during the healing process as the upper layers of epidermis slough and are replaced by new epidermal cells; the best possible colour results may begin to fade over time. The amount of time required. While permanent makeup pigment remains in the dermis, its beauty-span may be influenced by several possible factors, including environmental, procedural and/or individual factors. Sun exposure fades colour; the amount and colour of pigment deposit at the dermal level can affect the length of time that permanent makeup looks its best. Natural-looking applications are to require a touch-up before more dramatic ones for this reason. Individual influences include lifestyles that find an individual in the sun such as with gardening or swimming.
Skin tones are a factor in colour value changes over time. There are cases of undesired results; the four most common complaints are "too dark," "wrong colour," "uneven" and "too big." A skilled, experienced permanent makeup professional is able to adjust the colour and evenness of permanent makeup results in most cases. A design, too large presents a serious challenge. Costly pigment lightening techniques and/or removal may be the only solutions; as with tattoos, permanent makeup can be difficult to remove. Common techniques used for this are laser resurfacing and surgical removal. Camouflaging—adding a new pigment which counteracts the tattoo color and attempts to emulate normal skin color is considered a poor choice by professionals. Removal is more laborious than the tattooing itself; the choice to get a tattoo, regretted is related to the end-of-history illusion, in which teenagers and adults of all ages know that their tastes and preferred fashion and makeup styles have changed over the years before the current moment, but they believe that their tastes will somehow not continue to grow and mature in the future.
As with tattoos, permanent makeup may have complications, such as migration, allergies to the pigments, formation of scars and keloids, skin cracking, peeling and local infection. The use of unsterilized tattooing instruments may infect the patient with serious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Removal problems may ensue, due to patient dissatisfaction or regret, they may be difficult to remove in places such as eyelids and lips without leaving permanent sequelae. Compliance with'standard precautions' and a uniform code of safe practice should be insisted upon by a person considering undergoing a cosmetic tattoo procedure, it is essential that technicians use appropriate personal protective equipment to protect the health of the technician and the client in the prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens. It is essential that technicians have been properly trained in the application of pigment into the skin to avoid migration. Tattoo pigments can "migrate" when a technician "overworks" an area around the eyes where the pigment can "bleed" into surrounding tissue.
Migration is avoidable by not over-working swollen tissue. Understanding the need to minimize swelling and recognize a good stopping point is paramount to successful application. Removing migrated pigment is a difficult and complicated p
Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down—to the level of the skin or otherwise. Shaving is most practiced by men to remove their facial hair and by women to remove their leg and underarm hair. A man is called clean-shaven if he has had his beard removed. Both men and women sometimes shave their chest hair, abdominal hair, leg hair, underarm hair, pubic hair, or any other body hair. Head shaving is much more common among men, it is associated with religious practice, the armed forces and some competitive sports such as swimming and extreme sports. Head shaving has been used to humiliate and show submission to an authority, in more recent history as part of fund-raising efforts for cancer research organizations and charitable organizations which serve cancer patients; the shaving of head hair is sometimes done by cancer patients when their treatment may result in partial hair loss. Before the advent of razors, hair was sometimes removed using two shells to pull the hair out or using water and a sharp tool.
Around 3000 BC when copper tools were developed, copper razors were invented. The idea of an aesthetic approach to personal hygiene may have begun at this time, though Egyptian priests may have practiced something similar to this earlier. Alexander the Great promoted shaving during his reign in the 4th century BC because he believed it looked tidier. In some Native American tribes, at the time of contact with British colonists, it was customary for men and women to remove all bodily hair using these methods. Straight razors are known to have been manufactured in England since the 18th century. In the United States, getting a straight razor shave in a barbershop and self-shaving with a straight razor were still common in the early 1900s; the popularisation of self-shaving changed this. According to an estimate by New York City barber Charles de Zemler, barbers' shaving revenue dropped from about 50 percent around the time of the Spanish–American War to 10 percent in 1939 due to the invention of the safety razor and electric razor.
Safety razors have been known to exist since at least 1876 when the single-edge Star safety razor was patented by brothers Frederick and Otto Kampfe. The razor was a small piece of a straight razor attached to a handle using a clamp mechanism. Before each shave the blade had to be attached to a special holder, stropped with a leather belt, placed back into the razor. After a time, the blade needed to be honed by a cutler. In 1895, King Camp Gillette invented the double-edged safety razor, which utilised inexpensive, disposable blades sharpened from two sides, it took him until 1901 to build a working, patentable model, commercial production began in 1903. The razor gained popularity during World War I when the U. S. military started issuing Gillette shaving kits to its servicemen: in 1918, the Gillette Safety Razor Company sold 3.5 million razors and 32 million blades. After the First World War, the company changed the pricing of its razor from a premium $5 to a more affordable $1, leading to another big surge in popularity.
The Second World War led to a similar increase in users when Gillette was ordered to dedicate its entire razor production and most blade production to the U. S. military. During the war, 12.5 million razors and 1.5 billion blades were provided to servicemen. In 1970, Wilkinson Sword introduced the'bonded blade' razor, which consisted of a single blade housed in a plastic cartridge. Gillette followed in 1971 with its Trac II cartridge razor. Gillette built on this twin blade design for a time, introducing new razors with added features such as a pivoting head, lubricating strip, spring-mounted blades until their 1998 launch of the triple-bladed Mach3 razor. Schick launched a four-blade Quattro razor the same year, in 2006 Gillette launched the five-blade Fusion. Since razors with six and seven blades have been introduced. Wholly disposable razors gained popularity in the 1970s after Bic brought the first disposable razor to market in 1974. Other manufacturers, Gillette included, soon introduced their own disposable razors, by 1980 disposables made up more than 27 percent of worldwide unit sales for razors.
Shaving can be done with an electric razor or beard trimmer. The removal of a full beard requires the use of scissors or an electric trimmer to reduce the mass of hair, simplifying the process. There are two types of manual razors: straight safety razors. Safety razors are further subdivided into double-edged razors, single edge, injector razors, cartridge razors and disposable razors. Double-edge razors are named so because the blade that they use has two sharp edges on opposite sides of the blade. Current multi-bladed cartridge manufacturers attempt to differentiate themselves by having more or fewer blades than their competitors, each arguing that their product gives a greater shave quality at a more affordable price. Before wet shaving, the area to be shaved is doused in warm to hot water by showering or bathing or covered for several minutes with a hot wet towel to soften the skin and hair. A lathering or lubricating agent such as cream, shaving soap, foam or oil is applied after this. Lubricating and moisturizing the skin to be shaved helps prevent irritation and damage known as razor burn.
Many razor cartridges include a lubricating strip, made of polyethylene glycol, to function instead of or in supplement to extrinsic agents. It lifts and softens the hairs, causing them to swell; this enhances the cutting action and sometimes permits cutting the ha