His Majesty's Armed Forces (Tonga)
His Majesty's Armed Forces is the military of Tonga. It is composed of two support elements; the mission of HMAF is to: Defend the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Tonga. The HMAF is supported by defense cooperation agreements with Australia, United States, China and New Zealand; these Security Cooperation aim at capacity development through training of HMAF personnel in leadership and trades while support for infrastructure development is another part of these Security Cooperation. In recent years, members of HMAF have supported Coalition of the Willing in Operation Iraqi Freedom, the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands, his Majesty's Armed Forces are organized in a unified command system. It consists of three forces; the main elements of HMAF are: His Majesty's Armed Forces HQ Joint Force HQ Tonga Royal Guards Land Force Tonga Navy Training Command Air Wing Support Unit Territorial Forces The Maritime Force is equipped with three Pacific-class patrol boats, a tanker, a Landing Craft Mechanized and a motor boat, the royal yacht.
Tongan Maritime Force performs patrol missions dealing with border violations. Notably at the Minerva Reef and Tonga’s restricted fishing zones; the Royal Tongan Marine Infantry is organized as a single Battalion size group with a HQ and 3 Light Infantry Companies. The Tonga Royal Guards is a company size unit, responsible for the security of His Majesty; the Air Wing was established in 1996 and operates one Beechcraft G.18S aircraft in the maritime patrol and search and rescue roles, an American Champion Citabria light trainer. The current position of the HMAF air wing is unclear but both aircraft have not been active for a long time Victa Airtourer 1 aircraft The HMAF is a member of the following international defense organisations: Pacific Armies Management Seminar Pacific Area Senior Officers Logistics Seminar Western Pacific Naval Symposium International Hydrographic Organization South Pacific Hydrographic Commission NATO Codification, where though Pacific Codification System and Fiji are sponsored by AustraliaTonga has an agreement to share "disaster response knowledge" with the United States Nevada National Guard.
Tonga participated as part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. The Tonga Defense Service came into existence at the beginning of World War II in 1939. In 1943 New Zealand helped train two Tongan contingents of about 2000 troops, who saw action in the Solomon Islands. In addition, New Zealand and US troops were stationed on Tongatapu, which became a staging point for shipping. At the end of World War II, the TDS was disbanded, but was reactivated in 1946. Former Prime Minister Prince Lavaka Ata'Ulukalala joined the naval arm of the Tonga Defense Service in 1982 and became Lieutenant-Commander of the defense force in 1987. From 1990 to 1995 he commanded the PPB VOEA Pangai and his time in charge included peacekeeping operations in Bougainville. In 2002, TDS soldiers were deployed as part of a multi-national regional in the Solomon Islands. In July 2004, a 45-member contingent of the TDS served in the Solomon Islands. A third contingent was sent in July 2005; this contingent consisted of 33 TDS troops, was expected to remain four months.
In March 2003 Military to Military talks began between Tonga and the United States about Tonga providing troops for the Multinational force in Iraq. Support arrangements were finalized in May 2004. 45 Royal Tongan Marines led by the Chief of Defense of the Tonga Defense Services, Colonel Tau'aika'Uta'atu, departed Tonga on 13 June 2004. From July 2004, the Royal Tonga Marines were augmenting the 1st Marine Expeditionary Forces in the Al Anbar Province of Iraq; the Royal Marines supported the 1st Marine Division's security and stabilization mission at Camp Blue Diamond. Tonga first served with the 1st MEF on the Solomon Island during World War II; the Royal Tongan Marines returned from Iraq in December 2004. In December 2008, the Tonga Defence Services returned home. In 2006, TDS soldiers, in cooperation with local police, were deployed to deal with the Nuku'alofa riots. In 2010, Tongan troops began training with the RAF Regiment, in preparation for operations in Afghanistan. Tonga's military size was 450 troops, half of which were sent to fight in the War in Afghanistan, serving in Camp Bastion and Camp Leatherneck.
During the September 2012 Camp Bastion raid Tonga troops were in perimeter guard towers without any night vision devices. On September 2013, Tonga Defence Services were renamed into His Majesty's Armed Forces. In April 2014, the Royal Tongan Marines ended their mission supporting Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.? Colonel Fetu’utolu Tupou Brigadier general Tau'aika'Uta'atu Brigadier general Tau'aika'Uta'atu Brigadier General Tupou Tongapo’uli Aleamotu’a Solomone Savelio. "Peacekeeping Debut Royal Tongan Marines Help US Comrades in Arms". Coalition Bulletin. 14: 7. Royal Tongan Marines are Camp Blue Diamond US Department of State Background Note: Tonga Ted Harris, "Digger History - An unofficial history of the Australian & New Zealand Armed Services", 2004
Tonga the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian country and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The total surface area is about 750 square kilometres scattered over 700,000 square kilometres of the southern Pacific Ocean; the sovereign state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu. Tonga stretches across 800 kilometres in a north-south line, it is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east, Kermadec to the southwest, New Caledonia and Vanuatu to the farther west. It is about 1,800 kilometres from New Zealand's North Island. Tonga became known in the West as the "Friendly Islands" because of the congenial reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773, he arrived at the time of the ʻinasi festival, the yearly donation of the First Fruits to the Tuʻi Tonga and so received an invitation to the festivities. According to the writer William Mariner, the chiefs wanted to kill Cook during the gathering but could not agree on a plan.
From 1900 to 1970, Tonga had British protected state status, with the United Kingdom looking after its foreign affairs under a Treaty of Friendship. The country never relinquished its sovereignty to any foreign power. In 2010, Tonga took a decisive path towards becoming a constitutional monarchy rather than a traditional absolute kingdom, after legislative reforms passed a course for the first partial representative elections. In many Polynesian languages, including Tongan, the word tonga comes from fakatonga which means "southwards", as the archipelago is the southernmost group of the islands of central Polynesia; the word tonga is cognate to the Hawaiian region of Kona, meaning leeward in the Hawaiian language. An Austronesian-speaking group linked to the archaeological construct known as the Lapita cultural complex reached and inhabited Tonga around 1500–1000 BC. Scholars have much debated the exact dates of the initial settlement of Tonga, but Thorium dating confirms that the first settlers came to the oldest town, Nukuleka, by 888 BC, ± 8 years.
Not much is known before European contact because of the lack of a writing system, but oral history has survived and been recorded after the arrival of the Europeans. By the 12th century and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire. In the 15th century and again in the 17th, civil war erupted; the Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht, captained by Willem Schouten, made a short visit to trade. Came other Dutch explorers, including Jacob Le Maire. Noteworthy European visitors included James Cook in 1773, 1774, 1777; the US Exploring Expedition visited in 1840. In 1845, the ambitious young warrior and orator Tāufaʻāhau united Tonga into a kingdom, he held the chiefly title of Tuʻi Kanokupolu, but had been baptised by Methodist missionaries with the name Siaosi in 1831. In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Waldemar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy.
Tonga became a protected state under a Treaty of Friendship with Britain on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. The treaty posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul. Under the protection of Britain, Tonga maintained its sovereignty, remained the only Pacific nation to retain its monarchical government; the Tongan monarchy follows an uninterrupted succession of hereditary rulers from one family. The 1918 flu pandemic, brought to Tonga by a ship from New Zealand, killed 1,800 Tongans, reflecting a mortality rate of about eight per cent; the Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protection status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970, became a member of the United Nations in September 1999. While exposed to colonial pressures, Tonga has always governed itself, which makes it unique in the Pacific; as part of cost-cutting measures across the British Foreign Service, the British Government closed the British High Commission in Nukuʻalofa in March 2006, transferring representation of British interests to the High Commissioner in Fiji.
The last resident British High Commissioner was Paul Nessling. Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. Reverence for the monarch replaces that held in earlier centuries for the sacred paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga. Criticism of the monarch is held to be contrary to Tongan etiquette. King Tupou VI, his family, powerful nobles and a growing non-royal elite caste live in much wealth, with the rest of the country living in relative poverty; the effects of this disparity are mitigated by education and lan
South Sudan–United States relations
South Sudan–United States relations are the bilateral relations between the Republic of South Sudan and the United States of America. The United States recognized South Sudan on 9 July 2011, the same day they declared independence; the United States Embassy in Juba, South Sudan, was first established on the same day with the former consulate, opened in 2005 in Juba being upgraded to the status of an embassy. The chief of mission was Chargé d'Affaires R. Barrie Walkley, pending the appointment of an ambassador to South Sudan. On 19 October 2011, Susan D. Page was confirmed as the first United States ambassador to South Sudan. In 2012, President Obama found that the United States could provide military assistance and equipment to South Sudan; this was soon followed by a team of five American officers to advise the South Sudanese military. Obama named Donald E. Booth as his special envoy for Sudan and South Sudan on 28 August 2013. In December 2016, USA drafted a resolution, that failed to pass, which would have implemented an arms embargo and more sanctions, due to signs in South Sudan of possible genocide.
UN alliterated this by warning South Sudan of possible genocide. In 2017, the USA's UN ambassador, Nikki Haley, criticized South Sudan for creating a "man made" famine. While South Sudan has not been its own sovereign country for a long time, President Salva Kiir has established rapport with the United States. Then-President of the United States Barack Obama recognized South Sudan the day it declared independence from Sudan, current President Donald Trump fostered relations with Kiir before he won the presidency in 2016. While relations between the two countries have changed from support to subtle threats the United States has been open about both the right to self-determination and insistence that humanitarian aid to South Sudanese affected by the civil war reach its victims. In August 2016, when Donald Trump was campaigning for the United States presidency, the South Sudanese government led an attack on Western aid workers, which included American humanitarians. Following this attack, the U.
S. and other countries in the U. N. Security Council moved to provide “4,000 more U. N. helmets to secure the capital.” While Donald Trump has shifted views on leadership and the status quo in South Sudan many times, the Obama administration was key to the self-determination of the South Sudanese people. In November 2016, when Donald Trump became President of the United States, many nations did not welcome the change. South Sudan, on the other hand, was pleased. At the time, South Sudan had dealt with three years of civil war and viewed Trump’s victory as a new and possible way to end the conflict. New U. S. policies on South Sudan were something that Tor Deng Mawien, a South Sudanese presidential advisor on decentralization affairs, was “looking forward” to. In March 2016, before Trump had won the election, South Sudanese leader Salva Kiir called Trump to wish him success, saying that if he was elected the two countries would work to gain back the mutual trust lost when Barack Obama was president.
While Kiir congratulated Trump on his victory, U. S. ambassador to South Sudan stated that, “there is no expectation that the United States government will change its foreign policy in South Sudan despite the election of Trump. Many South Sudanese supported Trump, believing that his presidency would result in Trump working towards a solution to end the civil war rather than its own interests. However, many South Sudanese viewed Obama’s presidency as “lukewarm” and “doing either no good or bad to the people of South Sudan.” The South Sudanese are “already in despair, so all we can hope for is a positive response from Trump.”In October 2017, U. S. Ambassador to the U. N. Nikki Haley was the first senior member of Donald Trump’s administration to visit South Sudan. At this point, South Sudan had been in a civil war for around four years, according to Haley, “The United States was at a crossroads and that every decision going forward was going to be based on actions.” Haley expressed that Americans were disappointed in Kiir’s leadership in South Sudan.
In addition to pressure from the U. S. the United Nations alleged ethnic cleansing on behalf of Kiir’s government and a “fertile ground” for genocide, which Kiir’s government denied. Trump imposed sanctions on three South Sudanese in September 2017 and expressed that the way to regain trust of the government is through providing care for affected citizens; the U. S. demanded that Kiir let “full and consistent humanitarian aid access” into the country, as well as an unspecified timeline of Kiir’s actions, to further positive relations between the two countries. In December 2018, Donald Trump officiated a controversial relocation of the U. S. embassy in Israel, moving it from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Following the decision, a foreign newspaper published a report saying that South Sudan “lauded” the decision. In addition, it was said that a South Sudanese embassy had congratulated both Trump and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on the decision, a high-ranking South Sudanese presidential aide had spoken to the newspaper supporting Trump’s decision.
However, an official statement said otherwise. According to the South Sudan Presidential Press Unit, the government “will not make any specific statement or take any position on the decision of President Trump.” The government views the newspaper that published the report as “fabricated and false.” South Sudan expressed that their main priority is to find an inclusive solution to their country’s conflict, not the affairs of other countries. In December 2018, Donald Trump proposed a new Africa strategy, being specific on South Sudan; the country ended a violent five
Rwanda–United States relations
Rwanda–United States relations are bilateral relations between Rwanda and the United States. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 76% of Rwandans approve of U. S. leadership, with 17% disapproving and 7% uncertain. U. S. Government interests have shifted since the 1994 genocide from a humanitarian concern focusing on stability and security to a strong partnership with the Government of Rwanda focusing on sustainable development; the largest U. S. Government programs are the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative, which aim to reduce the impact of these debilitating diseases in Rwanda. Other activities support good governance and decentralization. Overall U. S. foreign assistance to Rwanda has increased fourfold over the past four years. A major focus of bilateral relations is the U. S. Agency for International Development's program. In support of the overall Government of Rwanda development plan, USAID aims to improve the health and livelihoods of Rwandans and increase economic and political development.
To achieve this, USAID activities focus on: Prevention and care of HIV/AIDS. The Mission is implementing a number of activities related to the goals above, is working with the Millennium Challenge Corporation to obtain approval of the Threshold Country Plan submitted by the Government of Rwanda in November 2007. Once approved, the plan will be implemented by USAID and will focus on strengthening the justice sector and civic participation, promoting civil rights and liberties; the State Department's Public Affairs section maintains a cultural center in Kigali, which offers public access to English-language publications and information on the United States. American business interests have been small. S. investment is limited to the tea industry and small holdings in service and manufacturing concerns. Annual U. S. exports to Rwanda, under $10 million annually from 1990–93, exceeded $40 million in 1994 and 1995. Although exports decreased in the years after the genocide, in 2007 they were estimated at $17 million, a 20% increase over 2006.
Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Donald W. Koran, Deputy Chief of Mission Jessica Lapenn, USAID Program Director George Lewis; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Rwanda. In July 2013, the US warned Rwanda to end its support for the March 23 Movement rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, after evidence was found that Rwandan military officials were involved. In November 2015, the US criticized a vote by Rwandan lawmakers to approve a change to their constitution to allow President Paul Kagame to serve a third term. A State Department spokesman did not explicitly threaten that US aid to its traditionally close African friend would be cut, but warned ties could be reviewed. Foreign relations of Rwanda Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Rwanda - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Rwanda and the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Somalia–United States relations
Somalia–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Federal Republic of Somalia and the United States of America. Somalia has an embassy in Washington, D. C. while the United States is represented through its embassy in Nairobi, due to the security situation in Somalia. Somalia had historic relations with the United States under the Geledi Sultanate. In 1776, the Geledi Sultanate was the first independent state in Africa to recognise the United States, diplomatic relations were established in 1777 with the Geledi sharing naval intelligence with the American naval forces. In 1897, the Geledi Sultanate sent a high-profile delegation to New York under their foreign minister Khalid Aden Mohammed and signed the Indian Ocean Naval Treaty to combat Zanzibar slave trading. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Somalia's socialist government abandoned alliances with its former partner the Soviet Union due to fallout over the Ogaden War; because the Soviet Union had close relations with both the Somali government and Ethiopia's new communist Dergue regime, they were forced to choose one side to commit to.
The Soviet shift in support to Ethiopia motivated the Siad Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It settled on the Soviet Unions' Cold War rival, the United States; the US had been courting the Somali government for some time on account of Somalia's strategic position at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and military support by the United States enabled it to build the largest army on the continent. After the collapse of the Barre government and the start of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s, the United States embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed down. However, the American government never formally severed diplomatic ties with Somalia, leading the UN-sanctioned multinational Unified Task Force in southern Somalia. Following the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, the U. S. acknowledged and supported the internationally recognized TFG as the country's national governing body.
It engaged Somalia's regional administrations, such as Puntland and Somaliland, to ensure broad-based inclusion in the peace process. The Federal Government of Somalia was established on August 20, 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate, it represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. On September 10, 2012, the new Federal Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the incumbent President of Somalia; the election was welcomed by the U. S. authorities, who re-affirmed United States' continued support for Somalia's government, its territorial integrity and sovereignty. In January 2013, the U. S. announced that it was set to exchange diplomatic notes with the new central government of Somalia, re-establishing official ties with the country for the first time in 20 years. According to the Department of State, the decision was made in recognition of the significant progress that the Somali authorities had achieved on both the political and war fronts.
The move is expected to grant the Somali government access to new sources of development funds from American agencies as well as international bodies like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, thereby facilitating the ongoing reconstruction process. At the behest of the Somali and American federal governments, among other international actors, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia; the endorsement lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles and cannons. On April 9, 2013, the U. S. government approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government. At the request of the Somali authorities and AMISOM, the U. S. military in late 2013 established a small team of advisers in Mogadishu to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces.
On 5 May 2015, President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, other senior Somali government officials met with US Secretary of State John Kerry in Mogadishu. The bilateral meeting was the first visit to Somalia by an incumbent US Secretary of State, it served as a symbol of the ameliorated political and security situation in the country. The officials focused on the benchmarks enshrined within Somalia's Vision 2016 political roadmap, as well as cooperation in the security sector. In January 2017 after President Donald Trump took office, Somali citizens were temporary banned from entering the United States by the executive order "Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States." This includes Somali refugees who are willing to resettle in the United States through the US refugee admissions program. After the election of Somali-American dual citizen Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed as the next Somali President, US Secretary Of State Rex Tillerson congratulated the president-elect and is looking forward to strengthen the relationship between Somalia and the United States and that the recent elections marks an important milestone in Somalia’s ongoing transition to peace and prosperity.
The United States has continued to be one of the main suppliers of armaments to the Somali National Army. In June 2009, the reconstituted SNA received 40 tonnes worth of arms and ammunition from the U. S. government to assist it in com