Demographics of Malawi
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Malawi, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Malawi derives its name from the Maravi, a Bantu people who came from the southern Congo about 600 years ago. On reaching the area north of Lake Malawi, the Maravi divided. One branch, the ancestors of the present-day Chewas, moved south to the west bank of the lake; the other, the ancestors of the Nyanjas, moved down the east bank to the southern part of the country. By AD 1500, the two divisions of the tribe had established a kingdom stretching from north of the present-day city of Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River in the south, from Lake Malawi in the east, to the Luangwa River in Zambia in the west. Migrations and tribal conflicts precluded the formation of a cohesive Malawian society until the turn of the 20th century. In more recent years and tribal distinctions have diminished.
Regional distinctions and rivalries, persist. Despite some clear differences, no significant friction exists between tribal groups, the concept of a Malawian nationality has begun to take hold. Predominantly a rural people, Malawians are conservative and traditionally nonviolent; the Chewas constitute 90% of the population of the central region. In addition, significant numbers of the Tongas live in the north. Bantus of other tribes came from Mozambique as refugees. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 18,091,575 in 2016, compared to only 2 881 000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 45.8%, 51.1% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.1% was 65 years or older. TFR - 5,2 Structure of the population: Structure of the population: Numbers are in thousands. UN medium variant projections 2015 17,522 2020 20,677 2025 24,212 2030 28,173 2035 32,667 2040 37,797 2045 43,521 2050 49,719 Registration of vital events is in Malawi not complete.
The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Births and deaths Data refer to the 12 months preceding the census in June Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Fertility data as of 2016: Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019. One birth every 45 seconds One death every 4 minutes One net migrant every 44 minutes Net gain of one person every 57 secondsThe following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook unless otherwise indicated. 19,842,560 19,196,246 0-14 years: 46.17% 15-24 years: 20.58% 25-54 years: 27.57% 55-64 years: 3% 65 years and over: 2.69% total: 16.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 223th male: 16.5 years female: 16.8 years 40.7 births/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 8th 41 births/1,000 population 7.7 deaths/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 100th 7.9 deaths/1,000 population 5.43 children born/woman Country comparison to the world: 9th 3.31% Country comparison to the world: 3th 3.31% 18.9 years note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 59.2% 0 migrant/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 91st 0 migrants/1,000 population.
There is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities. Protestant 27.2%, Catholic 18.4%, other Christian 41%, Muslim 12.1%, other 0.3%, none 1% Christian:86.9% Islam: 12.5% Other: 0.1% None: 0.5% total dependency ratio: 91 youth dependency ratio: 85.3 elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 potential support ratio: 17.4 urban population: 16.9% of total population rate of urbanization: 4.19% annual rate of change total population: 62.2 years male: 60.2 years female: 64.3 years total population: 61.7 years male: 59.7 years female: 63.8 years at birth: 1.03 male/female under 15 years: 1 male/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male/female total population: 0.97 male/female 1 Doctor/65,000 Malawians noun: Malawian adjective: Malawian Chewa 32.6% Lomwe 17.6% Yao 13.5% Ngoni 11.5% Tumbuka 8.8% Nyanja 5.8% Sena 3.6% Tonga 2.1% Ngonde 1% Other 3.5% English Chichewa - 6,500,000 Chiyao - 1,760,000 Chitumbuka - 1,180,000 Chilomwe - 2,290,000 Chingoni - 37,500 Chimakhuwa - 200,000 Chisena - 468,000 Chitonga - 271,000 Chinyika - 5,000 Chinyiha - 10,000 Chindali - 70,000 Chinyakyusa - 149,000 Chilambya - 59,500 definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 62.1% male: 69.8% female: 55.2% total: 11 years male: 11 years female: 11 years total: 8% male: 7.4% female: 8.5% Malawi Malawian American
Nkhata Bay District
Nkhata Bay is a district in the Northern Region of Malawi. The capital is Nkhata Bay; the district covers an area of 4,071 km.² and has a population of 164,761. Nkhata Bay District houses the charity group Ripple Africa in Mwaya and the charity Temwa, in Usisya. There are six National Assembly constituencies in Nkhata Bay: Nkhata Bay - Central Nkhata Bay - North Nkhata Bay - North West Nkhata Bay - South Nkhata Bay - South East Nkhata Bay - West Nkhata Bay is populated by the Tonga; however some parts like Usisya have Tumbuka people. The predominant language is Chitonga. Other languages like Chitumbuka, Khobwe and kiyankhonde are spoken; the people of Nkhata Bay have several dances. Some of the dominant cultural dances are Malipenga and Honala; these dances are devoid of a religious attachment. They are danced for entertainment; the majority of the people in the district are agriculturalists growing cassava, their staple food. Apart from cassava they grow groundnuts, maize, pigeon peas and millet; the people along the lake earn their living through fishing.
They catch usipa, utaka, bombe among others. Few of the populace are in wage employment at Chombe and Vizara where tea and rubber are cultivated. Most of the times, 80% of the male active population goes to work in other countries such as Tanzania and South Africa. Nkhata Bay much known by European tourists and regard it as Switzerland of Malawi due to its mild to moist weather pattern coupled with hilly topographical stratum. Edgar Ching'oli Chirwa - Architect of Malawi Congress Party Kanyama Chiume - Minister of Education and made strides to improve the Malawi Education Curriculum Yesaya Zelenji Mwase - father and founder of the Blackman's Church of African Presbytery now changed to Church of Africa Presbytery with Ching'oma as his church's headquarters. Great Angels Choir is a daughter of this church but is based in Lilongwe with Rev. Zonda as its current General Secretary. Manowa Chirwa Aleke Kadonaphani Banda-one of the district's most popular politicians. Was the district's most youngest person to go into journalism and is the brainchild of Blantyre Newspapers which came after Nyasaland Times.
Wiseman Chijere Chirwa: professor Wisdom Achimalemba Mawowa - another upcoming hero in Nkhata bay central. Richard Banda SC is former athlete, he is a judge who served as Chief Justice of Malawi and Swaziland and as Minister of Justice in Malawi. He was president of the Commonwealth Magistrates' and Judges' Association and Commonwealth Secretariat Arbitral Tribunal; as a sportsman, Banda was a field athlete and soccer player. He is the spouse of the former President of Malawi, Joyce Banda and, as such, was the First Gentleman. From Nkhata-bay we have seen football players make a cut in the national team and national Football league clubs as professionals, these are Richard Banda Mwanabola, Christopher Banda, Charles Phiri, John Banda, Spy Msisya, Zolo Msisya, Frank Banda, Ficher Kondowe, Micium Mhone without excluding famous players like Brain Malowe Ndau, Aaron Chulu, Charles Kheza, Joe Mkumbira Phiri, Abel Mkandawire who played in bigger clubs in the national Premier league of Malawi
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
Malawi the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa, known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, Mozambique on the east and west. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 with an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area, its capital is Lilongwe, Malawi's largest city. The name Malawi comes from an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area; the country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people. The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century. Centuries in 1891 the area was colonised by the British. In 1953 Malawi known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964 the protectorate over Nyasaland was ended and Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II with the new name Malawi.
Two years it became a republic. Upon gaining independence it became a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained president until 1994. Malawi has a democratic, multi-party government headed by an elected president Arthur Peter Mutharika; the country has a Malawian Defence Force that includes a navy and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western and includes positive diplomatic relations with most countries and participation in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the African Union. Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries; the economy is based in agriculture, with a rural population. The Malawian government depends on outside aid to meet development needs, although this need has decreased since 2000; the Malawian government faces challenges in building and expanding the economy, improving education, environmental protection, becoming financially independent amidst widespread unemployment.
Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on these issues, the country's outlook appears to be improving, with a rise in the economy and healthcare seen in 2007 and 2008. Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. There is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, a drain on the labour force and government expenditures. There is a diverse population of native peoples and Europeans, with several languages spoken and an array of religious beliefs. Although there was periodic regional conflict fuelled in part by ethnic divisions in the past, by 2008 it had diminished and the concept of a Malawian nationality had reemerged; the area of Africa now known as Malawi had a small population of hunter-gatherers before waves of Bantu peoples began emigrating from the north around the 10th century. Although most of the Bantu peoples continued south, some remained permanently and founded ethnic groups based on common ancestry. By 1500 AD, the tribes had established the Kingdom of Maravi that reached from north of what is now Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River and from Lake Malawi to the Luangwa River in what is now Zambia.
Soon after 1600, with the area united under one native ruler, native tribesmen began encountering, trading with and making alliances with Portuguese traders and members of the military. By 1700, the empire had broken up into areas controlled by many individual ethnic groups; the Arab slave trade reached its height in the mid- 1800s, when 20,000 people were enslaved and considered to be carried yearly from Nkhotakota to Kilwa where they were sold. Missionary and explorer David Livingstone reached Lake Malawi in 1859 and identified the Shire Highlands south of the lake as an area suitable for European settlement; as the result of Livingstone's visit, several Anglican and Presbyterian missions were established in the area in the 1860s and 1870s, the African Lakes Company Limited was established in 1878 to set up a trade and transport concern working with the missions, a small mission and trading settlement was established at Blantyre in 1876 and a British Consul took up residence there in 1883.
The Portuguese government was interested in the area so, to prevent Portuguese occupation, the British government sent Harry Johnston as British consul with instructions to make treaties with local rulers beyond Portuguese jurisdiction. In 1889, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the Shire Highlands, extended in 1891 to include the whole of present-day Malawi as the British Central Africa Protectorate. In 1907, the protectorate was renamed Nyasaland, a name it retained for the remainder of its time under British rule. In a prime example of what is sometimes called the "Thin White Line" of colonial authority in Africa, the colonial government of Nyasaland was formed in 1891; the administrators were given a budget of £10,000 per year, enough to employ ten European civilians, two military officers, seventy Punjab Sikhs and eighty-five Zanzibar porters. These few employees were expected to administer and police a territory of around 94,000 square kilometres with between one and two million people.
In 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress was formed by the Africans of Nyasaland to promote local interests to the British g
Likoma Island is the larger of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi, in East Africa, the smaller being the nearby Chizumulu. Likoma and Chizumulu both belong to Malawi, together they make up the Likoma District. Although both islands lie just a few kilometres from Mozambique, are surrounded by Mozambican territorial waters, they are both exclaves of Malawi; the island has an overall area of 18 km², is located in the north-eastern part of Lake Malawi, 7 km north-west of Cobue, Mozambique). The closest town on the Malawian coast is Chintheche. In 1880 missionaries from the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, founded in response to a plea by David Livingstone, established their headquarters on Likoma Island. Due to the presence of British missionaries, the island was assigned to Malawi rather than Mozambique when national borders in East Africa were established after World War II. Despite a high population density, the natural environment of Likoma island is unspoiled; the coast is varied, with sandy bays and swamps.
The interior of the island is covered by grassland, with a large number of baobab trees and mango trees. Fauna is composed of small reptilians, birds and a number of invertebrates, including scorpion spiders. On the coast, crocodiles are seen; the waters around Likoma, as is usual in Lake Malawi, host a number of cichlids. Likoma is densely populated, with about 14, 500 inhabitants dispersed in a dozen settlements, the main being the eponymous town of Likoma; the most represented ethnic groups are the Nyanja people and the Tonga people, followed by smaller groups of Tumbuka and Chewa. Their main economic activity is fishing, although agriculture is represented; the town of Mbamba hosts a busy market. It is known because of the Anglican cathedral of St Peter, one of the largest churches in Africa; as a consequence of poverty and insufficient hospitals, the situation of public health on the island is critical, although malaria has not been reported. Likoma has been the subject of a scientific study on the epidemiology of HIV and other sexually-transmitted diseases.
Despite the minimal economic development of Likoma, there are several schools serving all settlements, literacy is thus widespread. Likoma has no paved roads, there are few motor vehicles. Electricity is provided by a generator, switched off at 10pm. There is a small telephone network on the island. You can now get a reliable Internet connection with 3G operators. Likoma can be reached by plane. Nyassa Air Taxi have small aircraft flying between Lilongwe and Likoma on a regular shuttle service from $280/$490 for a single/return trip; the island's main mode of transportation is provided by the MV Ilala steamer boat that circumnavigates Lake Malawi, stopping over at all the main settlements on the coast and the islands. In addition, The MV Chambo links the island with the town of Nkhata Bay on the west side of the lake once a week. Smaller boats cross the strait between Likoma and Chizumulu, between Likoma and Cobue in Mozambique. Both goods and people are transported through these routes; as Likoma is a relevant tourist destination in Malawi, there are a few hotels and backpacker hostels based on ecotouristic principles.
The waters around Likoma are appreciated for diving. Likoma Island at Malawi Tourism Likoma Island at Go2Africa Travel diary of Chris Farrell Sunrise Inn, Likoma
Lake Malawi known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is an African Great Lake and the southernmost lake in the East African Rift system, located between Malawi and Tanzania. It is the fourth largest fresh water lake in the world by volume, the ninth largest lake in the world by area—and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. Lake Malawi is home to more species of fish than any other lake, including at least 700 species of cichlids; the Mozambique portion of the lake was declared a reserve by the Government of Mozambique on June 10, 2011, while in Malawi a portion of the lake is included in Lake Malawi National Park. Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake; the permanent stratification of Lake Malawi's water and the oxic-anoxic boundary are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. Lake Malawi is between 560 kilometres and 580 kilometres long, about 75 kilometres wide at its widest point; the lake has a total surface area of about 29,600 square kilometres.
The lake is 706 m at its deepest point, located in a major depression in the north-central part. Another smaller depression in the far north reaches a depth of 528 m; the southern half of the lake is shallower. The lake has shorelines on western Mozambique, eastern Malawi, southern Tanzania; the largest river flowing into it is the Ruhuhu River, there is an outlet at its southern end, the Shire River, a tributary that flows into the large Zambezi River in Mozambique. Evaporation accounts for more than 80% of the water loss from the lake more than the outflowing Shire River; the lake is about 350 kilometres southeast of Lake Tanganyika, another of the great lakes of the East African Rift. The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the southern end of the lake. Malawi is one of an ancient lake; the lake lies in a valley formed by the opening of the East African Rift, where the African tectonic plate is being split into two pieces. This is called a divergent plate tectonics boundary. Malawi has been estimated to be 1—2 million years old, but more recent evidence points to a older lake with a basin that started to form about 8.6 mya and deep-water condition first appeared 4.5 mya.
The water levels have varied over time, ranging from 600 m below current level to 10–20 m above. During periods the lake dried out completely, leaving only one or two small alkaline and saline lakes in what are Malawi's deepest parts. A water chemistry resembling the current conditions only appeared about 60,000 years ago. Major low-water periods are estimated to have occurred about 1.6 to 1.0—0.57 million years ago, 420,000 to 250,000—110,000 years ago, about 25,000 years ago and 18,000–10,700 years ago. During the peak of the low-water period between 1390 and 1860 AD, it may have been 120–150 m below current water levels; the lake's water is alkaline and warm with a typical surface temperature between 24 and 29 °C, while deep sections are about 22 °C. The thermocline is located at a depth of 40–100 m; the oxygen limit is at a depth of 250 m restricting fish and other aerobic organisms to the upper part. The water is clear for a lake and the visibility can be up to 20 m, but less than half this figure is more common and it is below 3 m in muddy bays.
However during the rainy season months of January to March, the waters are more muddy due to muddy river inflows. The Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. David Livingstone reached the lake in 1859, named it Lake Nyasa, he referred to it by a pair of nicknames: Lake of Stars and Lake of Storms. The Lake of Stars nickname came after Livingstone observed lights from the lanterns of the fishermen in Malawi on their boats, that resemble, from a distance, stars in the sky. After experiencing the unpredictable and violent gales that sweep through the area he referred to it as the Lake of Storms. On 16 August 1914, Lake Malawi was the scene of a brief naval battle when the British gunboat SS Gwendolen, commanded by a Captain Rhoades, heard that World War I had broken out, he received orders from the British Empire's high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only gunboat on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt.
Rhoades's crew found the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near Sphinxhaven, in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disabled the German boat with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres; this brief gunboat conflict was hailed by The Times in England as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I. The partition of the lake's surface area between Malawi and Tanzania is under dispute. Tanzania claims. On the other hand, Malawi claims the whole of the surface of this lake, not in Mozambique, including the waters that are next to the shoreline of Tanzania. Both sides cite the Heligoland Treaty of 1890 between Great Britain and Germany concerning the border; the wrangle in this dispute occurred when the British colonial government, just after they had captured Tanganyika from Germany, placed all of the waters of the lake under a single jurisdiction, that of the territory of Nyasaland, without a sepa