Tonga at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Tonga participated in the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom, which were held from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The country's participation in London marked its eighth appearance in the Summer Olympics since its debut at the 1984 Summer Olympics; the delegation included three competitors: two in athletics, Joseph Andy Lui and ʻAna Poʻuhila, along with one short distance swimmer Amini Fonua. The latter entry was Tonga's first appearance in Olympic swimming competition. Lui and Fonua qualified through wildcard places while Po'uhila made the games by meeting qualification standards. Fonua was selected as the flag bearer for the opening ceremony while Lui held it at the closing ceremony. Lui and Fonua failed to progress farther than the preliminary round of their respective events while Po'uhila finished 29th in the heat stage of the women's shot put contest. Tonga participated in eight Summer Olympic Games between its debut at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, United States and the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, England.
The country sent its largest delegation to an Olympic Games with seven to the 1984 Summer Olympics. No Tongan athlete has won a medal at the Olympic Games. Tonga participated in the London Summer Games between 27 July to 12 August 2012; the Tongan National Olympic Committee selected two athletes through wildcard places. An NOC would be able to enter up to three qualified athletes in each individual event as long as each athlete met the "A" standard, or one athlete per event if they met the "B" standard. However, since Tonga had no athletes that met either standard, they were allowed to select two athletes, one of each gender, as wildcards; the three athletes that were selected by Tonga to compete at the London Games were Joseph Andy Lui in the men's 100 metres, ʻAna Poʻuhila in the women's shot put contest and Amini Fonua in the men's 100 metre breaststroke. The country's male Olympic football team failed to qualify after being defeated by New Zealand 10-0 in their last group stage match in the OFC Men's Olympic Qualifying Tournament.
Along with the three athletes, the country's delegation was led by its chef de mission Ahongalu Fusimalohi. Fonwa was selected as the flag bearer for the opening ceremony while Lui held it at the closing ceremony. Fusimalochi said in June 2012 that the team hoped ten athletes would be qualified, but after that did not occur, he expected that the competitor's performance in London will inspire participants who wanted to compete at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. At the age of 20, Joseph Andy Lui was the youngest person, he had not taken part in any previous Olympic Games, Lui qualified for the Games by using a wildcard because his fastest time of 10.82 seconds, set at the 2011 Oceania Athletics Championships, was 0.58 seconds slower than the "B" qualifying standard for his event, the men's 100 metres. In preparation for the games he trained in his native Tonga and spent one month in Gold Coast, Queensland. Lui was drawn in the first heat of the preliminary round on 4 August, finishing fourth out of seven athletes, with a time of 11.17 seconds.
He finished in front of Mohan Khan of Bangladesh but behind Guinea-Bissau's Holder da Silva in a heat led by Bruno Rojas from Bolivia. Overall Liu placed 65th out of 75 runners and did not advance into the first round because his time was 0.48 seconds slower than Da' Silva's time who progressed him into the stages. After the Games he said to ABC Radio Australia that while he did not expect to run he expressed his desire to represent Tonga at the Rio Games.ʻAna Poʻuhila was the oldest person to take part for Tonga at the London Olympic Games at the age of 32. She had participated in the previous two Olympic Games in Beijing. Po'uhila gained entry into the Games by meeting qualification standards because her best throw of 16.40 metres, set at the 2011 Pacific Games, was 0.90 metres better than the "B" qualifying standard for the women's shot put competition. She spent time in Auckland preparing for the Games. During the qualifying heat of her event, which took place on 7 August, the Tongan field athlete was placed in the sixteen-person second heat.
Po'uhila was given three attempts to put the shot as far. During the first attempt, she lobbed the shot ranking 14th in her heat. Po'uhila was unable to best the ranking on her ranking when she lobbed it 15.75 metres, placing 11th amongst those who threw during the second try. Her third and final attempt, 15.11 metres, did not beat her first attempt. Using her best mark, 15.80 metres, Po'uhila placed 29th out of 30 athletes. She finished ahead of Elena Smolyanova of Uzbekistan but behind Taiwan's Lin Chia-ying in a heat led by Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia. Of the 30 athletes who finished the event Po'uhila finished in 29th, did not progress into the final. Key Note–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only MenWomen Competing at his first Olympics, Amini Fonua was the sole representative to compete in Swimming on Tonga's behalf, he qualified for the games by gaining a universality place from FINA because his time of one minute and 4.02 seconds did not reach the "A" or "B" standard entry times for his event, the men's 100 metre breaststroke.
Fonua's qualification meant. He spent time training in the United States in preparation for the Olympics. In an interview before the Games Fonua stated it was an honour to be his country's first Olympic swimmer and hoped he would not be the only such competitor, he was drawn in the contest's fir
Olympic-style weightlifting, or Olympic weightlifting simply referred to as weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. The two competition lifts in order are the clean and jerk; the snatch is a one-move lift. The clean and jerk is a two-move lift; each weightlifter receives three attempts in each, the combined total of the highest two successful lifts determines the overall result within a bodyweight category. Bodyweight categories are different for female competitors. A lifter who fails to complete at least one successful snatch and one successful clean and jerk fails to total, therefore receives an "incomplete" entry for the competition; the clean and press was once a competition lift, but was discontinued due to difficulties in judging proper form. In comparison with other strength sports, which test limit strength, weightlifting tests aspects of human ballistic limits.
While there are few competitive Olympic weightlifters, the lifts performed in the sport of weightlifting, in particular their component lifts, are used by elite athletes in other sports to train for both explosive and functional strength. The sport is controlled by the International Weightlifting Federation. Based in Budapest, it was founded in 1905. Athletes compete in a division determined by their body mass. In Summer of 2018, the IWF approved the current weight categories, specifying which 7 of the 10 total would be contested at the Olympics. Men's weight classes: IWF Categories 55 kg 61 kg 67 kg 73 kg 81 kg 89 kg 96 kg 102 kg 109 kg 109 kg and over Olympic Categories 61 kg 67 kg 73 kg 81 kg 96 kg 109 kg 109 kg and over Women's weight classes: IWF Categories 45 kg 49 kg 55 kg 59 kg 64 kg 71 kg 76 kg 81 kg 87 kg 87 kg and over Olympic Categories 49 kg 55 kg 59 kg 64 kg 76 kg 87 kg 87 kg and over In each weight division, lifters compete in both the snatch and clean and jerk. Prizes are given for the heaviest weights lifted in each and in the overall—the maximum lifts of both combined.
The order of the competition is up to the lifters—the competitor who chooses to attempt the lowest weight goes first. If they are unsuccessful at that weight, they have the option of reattempting at that weight or trying a heavier weight after any other competitors have made attempts at the previous weight or any other intermediate weights; the barbell is loaded incrementally and progresses to a heavier weight throughout the course of competition. Weights are set in 1 kilogram increments. If two athletes lift the same weight, they are both credited with it but in terms of placing the one who listed the weight first gets the highest placing. During competition, the snatch event takes place first, followed by a short intermission, the clean and jerk event. There are two side judges and one head referee who together provide a "successful" or "failed" result for each attempt based on their observation of the lift within the governing body's rules and regulations. Two successes are required for any attempt to pass.
The judges' and referee's results are registered via a lighting system with a white light indicating a "successful" lift and a red light indicating a "failed" lift. This is done for the benefit of all in attendance be they athlete, administrator or audience. In addition, one or two technical officials may be present to advise during a ruling. At local competitions, a "Best Lifter" title is awarded, it is awarded to women's lifters. The award is based on a formula which employs the "Sinclair Coefficient", a coefficient derived and approved by the sport's world governing body and which allows for differences in both gender and bodyweight; when the formula is applied to each lifter's overall total and grouped along with the other competitors' and evaluated, it provides a numeric result which determines the competition's best overall men's and women's lifters. And while the winner of the heaviest weight class will have lifted the most overall weight during the course of a competition, a lifter in a lighter weight class may still have lifted more weight both relative to their own bodyweight, to the Sinclair coefficient formula, thereby garnering the "Best Lifter" award.
Competition to establish who can lift the heaviest weight has been recorded throughout civilization, with the earliest known recordings including those found in Egypt and ancient Greece. Today, the modern sport of weightlifting traces its origins to the European competitions of the 19th century; the first male world champion was crowned in 1891. The first Olympic Games of 1896 included weightlifting in the Field event of the predecessor to today's track and field or athletics event. During the 1900 Olympic Games, there was no weightlifting event. Weightlifting resumed as an event, again in athletics, in 1904 but was omitted from the Games of 1908 and 1912; these were the last Games until after the First World War. In these early Games, a distinction was drawn between lifting with'one hand' only and lifting with't
Clean and jerk
The clean and jerk is a composite of two weightlifting movements, most performed with a barbell: the clean and the jerk. During the clean, the lifter moves the barbell from the floor to a racked position across the deltoids, without resting on the clavicles. During the jerk the lifter raises the barbell to a stationary position above the head, finishing with straight arms and legs, the feet in the same plane as the torso and barbell. Of the several variants of the lift, the most common is the Olympic clean and jerk, with the snatch, is contested in Olympic weightlifting events. To execute a clean, a lifter grasps the barbell just outside the legs using a hook grip. Once the barbell is above the knees, the lifter extends explosively, raising the bar as high as possible before dropping into a squat and receiving it in a "racked" position in front of the neck and resting on the shoulders. To complete the clean, the lifter stands propelling the bar upward from the shoulders as the erect position is attained and shifting the grip wider and the feet closer together in preparation for the jerk.
The jerk begins from the "front rack" position, the finishing position of the clean. The lifter dips a few inches by bending the knees, keeping the back vertical, explosively extends the knees, propelling the barbell upward off the shoulders, quickly dropping underneath the bar by pushing upward with the arms and splitting the legs into a lunge position, one forward and one back; the bar is received overhead on straight arms, once stable, the lifter recovers from the split position, bringing the feet back into the same plane as the rest of the body. JerkAnother variation of the jerk besides the split jerk described as the power jerk, in which the lifter receives the bar overhead in a partial squat, with the feet in the same plane as the bar rather than split forward and back; this is but not always, accompanied by a significant lateral movement of the feet for increased stability. When the bar is received in a full squat position, it is referred to as the squat jerk CleanThe power clean, a weight training exercise not used in competition, refers to any variant of the clean in which the lifter does not catch the bar in a full squat position.
The hang clean, another weight training exercise, begins with the barbell off the ground, hanging from the arms. Both power and hang cleans are considered to be ideal for sports conditioning; the Continental clean involves lifting the bar from the floor to the final clean position by any method of the lifter's choosing so long as the bar is not upended and does not touch the ground. The bar may be rested on stomach, or belt. Hands may be replaced. Men Women 1 This is the official world record for the Jerk in the Men's 105 kg + category. Clean and press List of World records in weightlifting * HOW TO CLEAN AND JERK VIDEOOlympic Clean and Jerk Techniques
2014 Winter Olympics
The 2014 Winter Olympics called the XXII Olympic Winter Games and known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event, held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee. Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City, it was the first Olympics to be held in a CIS state since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow; these were the first Olympic Games under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach. A record 98 events in fifteen winter sport disciplines were held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of twelve accounting for gender—were held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing and snowboard slopestyle, snowboard parallel slalom.
The events were held around two clusters of new venues: an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium, the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana. The 2014 Winter Olympics were the most expensive Games in the history of the Olympics. While budgeted at US$12 billion, major cost overruns, alleged to have been the result of corruption, caused this figure to expand to US$51 billion, more than three times the cost of the 2012 London Olympics and surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the 2014 Games achieved a record broadcast audience of 2.1 billion people worldwide. In 2016, an independent report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency confirmed allegations that the Russian Olympic team had been involved in a state-sponsored doping program, active from at least late-2011 through August 2015; the program was active during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, athletes had benefited from the cover-up.
The IOC stripped thirteen medals from Russian athletes in 2017, but nine were reinstated by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. In December 2017, the IOC voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, with an option for whitelisted athletes to compete independently during the 2018 Winter Olympics. Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee session held in Guatemala City, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria; this is the first time. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held around Moscow; as of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion. This amount included the cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects; this total is over four times the initial budget of $12 billion, made the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, which hosted 3 times as many events. Dmitry Kozak was the main overseer for the events in Sochi.
In its final budget published in June 2014, Olimpstroy—the state corporation that oversaw the Sochi Olympics development—reported the total allocated funds for the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics of 1,524 billion rubles. However, only about a fifth of that budget was directly related to the Olympic games, while the rest went into urban and regional regeneration and the conversion of the Sochi region into an all-year round sea and alpine resort; the breakdown table below is based on a report that has analyzed the distribution of Olimpstroy's $49.5 billion budget. Estimates suggest that additional unrecoverable operational costs could have added another $3 billion. With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games. Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking, it is the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting winter games. The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretinsky Valley, about 4 km from Russia's border with Abkhazia/Georgia.
The venues were clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. It features "The Waters of the Olympic Park", a choreographed fountain which served as the backdrop in the medals awards and the opening and closing ceremonies of the event; the new venues include: Fisht Olympic Stadium – ceremonies 40,000 spectators Bolshoy Ice Dome – ice hockey, 12,000 spectators Shayba Arena – ice hockey, 7,000 spectators Adler Arena Skating Center – speed skating, 8,000 spectators Iceberg Skating Palace – figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators Ice Cube Curling Center – curling, 3,000 spectators Main Olympic village International broadcasting centre and main press room Laura Biathlon & Ski Complex – biathlon, cross-country skiing Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – freestyle skiing and snowboarding Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort – alpine skiing
Olga Vasilyevna Shishigina is a retired Kazakhstani track and field athlete who competed in the 100 metres hurdles. She won an Olympic gold medal in 2000, many medals on the regional and continental level. Shishigina was banned between 1998 for failing a drug test, she holds a rank of Major in the Border Guard Service of Kazakhstan. Visiting Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages. List of doping cases in athletics Olga Shishigina at IAAF
1984 Summer Olympics
The 1984 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles, United States. This was the second time that Los Angeles had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932. California was the home state of the incumbent U. S. President Ronald Reagan, who opened the Games; the logo for the 1984 Games, branded "Stars in Motion", featured red and blue stars arranged horizontally and struck through with alternating streaks. The official mascot of the Games was Sam the Olympic Eagle; these were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. The 1984 Games were boycotted by a total of fourteen Eastern Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union and East Germany, in response to the American-led boycott of the previous 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Iran and Libya chose to boycott the Games for unrelated reasons. Despite the field being depleted in certain sports due to the boycott, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, a record at the time.
The 1984 Summer Olympics are considered to be the most financially successful modern Olympics and serve as an example of how to run the model Olympic Games. As a result of low construction costs, coupled with a reliance on private corporate funding, the 1984 Olympic Games generated a profit of more than $250 million. On July 18, 2009, a 25th anniversary celebration was held in the main Olympic Stadium; the celebration included a speech by the former president of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee, Peter Ueberroth, a re-creation of the lighting of the cauldron. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics for the third time in 2028. After the murder of Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists in Munich and the significant financial debts of Montreal, few cities by the late 1970s were willing to bid for the Summer Olympics. Only two cities made serious bids for the 1984 Summer Games, but before the final selection of a "winning" city in 1978, the bid from Tehran was withdrawn as a result of Iran's policy changes following the Iranian Revolution and a change in the country's ruling system.
Hence, the selection process for the 1984 Summer Olympics consisted of a single finalized bid from Los Angeles, which the International Olympic Committee accepted. The selection was made at the 80th IOC Session in Athens on 18 May 1978. Los Angeles had unsuccessfully bid for the two previous Summer Olympics, for 1976 and 1980; the United States Olympic Committee had submitted at least one bid for every Olympics since 1944, but had not succeeded since the Los Angeles Olympics in 1932, the previous time only a single bid had been issued for the Summer Olympics. The 1984 Olympic Torch Relay began in New York City and ended in Los Angeles, traversing 33 states and the District of Columbia. Unlike torch relays, the torch was continuously carried by runners on foot; the route involved 3,636 runners. Noted athlete O. J. Simpson was among the runners. Gina Hemphill, granddaughter of Jesse Owens, carried the torch into the Coliseum, completed a lap around the track handed it off to the final runner, Rafer Johnson, winner of the decathlon at the 1960 Summer Olympics.
With the torch, he touched off the flame which passed through a specially designed flammable Olympic logo, igniting all five rings. The flame passed up to cauldron atop the peristyle and remained aflame for the duration of the Games. John Williams composed the theme for the Olympiad, "Olympic Fanfare and Theme"; this piece won a Grammy for Williams and became one of the most well-known musical themes of the Olympic Games, along with Leo Arnaud's "Bugler's Dream". Composer Bill Conti wrote a song to inspire the weightlifters called "Power". An album, The Official Music of the XXIII Olympiad—Los Angeles 1984, featured three of those tracks along with sports themes written for the occasion by popular musical artists including Foreigner, Loverboy, Herbie Hancock, Quincy Jones, Christopher Cross, Philip Glass and Giorgio Moroder; the Brazilian composer Sérgio Mendes produced a special song for the 1984 Olympic Games, "Olympia," from his 1984 album Confetti. A choir of one thousand voices was assembled of singers in the region.
All were volunteers from nearby churches and universities. Etta James performed ``. Vicki McClure along with the International Children's Choir of Long Beach sang "Reach Out and Touch". Lionel Richie performed a 9-minute version of his hit single "All Night Long" at the closing ceremonies; the 1984 Summer Olympics was preceded by the 10-week-long adjunct Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival, which opened on June 2 and ended on August 12. It provided more than 400 performances by 146 theater and music companies, representing every continent and 18 countries, it was organized by then-CalArts President Robert Fitzpatrick. The opening ceremony featured the arrival of Bill Suitor by means of the Bell Aerosystems rocket pack; the United States Army Band formed the Olympic rings to start the opening ceremony. The United States topped the medal count for the first time since 1968, winning a record 83 gold medals and surpassing the Soviet Union’s total of 80 golds at the 1980 Summer Olympics; as a result of an IOC agreement designating the Republic of China in the name of Chinese Taipei, the Peo