Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
Harry van der Hulst
Harry van der Hulst is Full Professor of linguistics and Director of Undergraduate Studies at the Department of Linguistics of the University of Connecticut. He has been editor-in-chief of the international SSCI peer-reviewed linguistics journal The Linguistic Review since 1990 and he is co-editor of the series ‘Studies in generative grammar’, he is a Life Fellow of the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, a board member of the European linguistics organization GLOW. Until 2000 he taught at Leiden University, where he obtained his PhD on the basis of a dissertation on stress and syllable structure in Dutch, where he was Director of the inter-university research institute Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics, he specializes in phonology and has done research in feature systems and segmental structure, syllable structure, word accent systems, vowel harmony, sign language phonology, the phonology-phonetics interface, historical phonology and language acquisition. His theoretical orientation is that of Dependency Phonology and Government Phonology, his own model of segmental and suprasegmental structure is called ‘Radical CV Phonology’.
In addition, he teaches on cognitive science. He has published four books, two textbooks, over 170 articles, edited over 30 books and six thematic journal issues in the linguistic research areas mentioned above, he has held guest positions at the University of Salzburg, the University of Girona, Skidmore College and New York University, taught at the LSA Summer Institute in 1997, as well as numerous other international summer schools. Asymmetries in vowel harmony. A representational account. ISBN 978-0-19-881357-6. Oxford University Press. Phonological typology. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Typological Linguistics, Cambridge University Press. Word stress: Theoretical and typological issues. ISBN 978-1-107-03951-3. Cambridge University Press. Deconstructing stress. Lingua 122, 1494-1521. Recursion and human language. ISBN 978-3-11-021924-1. Mouton de Gruyter; the phonological structure of words. An introduction. ISBN 978-0521359146. Cambridge University Press; the syllable: Views and facts. ISBN 978-3-11-016274-5.
Mouton de Gruyter Word prosodic systems in the languages of Europe. ISBN 978-3-11-015750-5. Mouton de Gruyter Units in the analysis of signs. Phonology 10, 209-241. Syllable structure and stress in Dutch. ISBN 978-9067650373. Foris Publications; the structure of phonological representations. ISBN 978-90-70176-54-9. Foris Publications. Homepage at the Department of Linguistics, University of Connecticut
A. E. Meeussen
Achille Emile Meeussen spelled Achiel Emiel Meeussen, or A. E. Meeussen was a distinguished Belgian specialist in Bantu languages those of the Belgian Congo and Rwanda. Together with the British scholar Malcolm Guthrie he is regarded as one of the two leading experts in Bantu languages in the second half of the 20th century. A. E. Meeussen studied Classical Philology at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium, where he submitted his PhD thesis on Indo-European ablaut in 1938. After studying at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, in 1950 he was appointed to the staff of the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium, he was Professor of African Linguistics at the University of Louvain from 1952–62 and Professor at Leiden University in the Netherlands from 1964-77. Among the Bantu languages which Meeussen described or studied were Luba-Kasayi, Kirundi, Bangubangu, Luganda, Sotho, Lega and Yao, his descriptions of the grammar of Ombo and Rundi were written as a result of fieldwork notes which he made on a visit to Rwanda-Urundi and Maniema district of the Belgian Congo in 1950-51.
He wrote articles on other languages, including the American Indian languages Cheyenne and Cree. Meeussen was interested in the tones of the Bantu languages, is famous for his discovery of Meeussen's rule, which describes how in some circumstances a sequence of two High tones in a word changes to High + Low, he is said to have had an exceptional ability to hear and reproduce the sounds of the languages he studied. In addition to studying individual languages, Meeussen made major contributions to the comparative study of Bantu and to the reconstruction of the phonemes and vocabulary of Proto-Bantu, his 40-page article "Bantu Grammatical Reconstructions" of 1967 succinctly outlines the main facts of Proto-Bantu grammar as they were known at that time. In 1969 he was responsible for founding the database "Bantu Lexical Reconstructions" still maintained today by the Tervuren museum. Professor Meeussen was born at Sint-Pieters-Jette, Belgium on April 6, 1912, died at Louvain on February 8, 1978, at the age of 65.
Meeussen, Achille E.. "Syntaxis van het Tshiluba". Kongo-Overzee 9: 81-263. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Guthrie, M. The classification of the Bantu languages". Kongo-Overzee 14: 314-318. Meeussen, Achille E.. "De tonen van de imperatief in het Ciluba". Kongo-Overzee 16: 110-111. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Tooncontractie in het Ciluba". Kongo-Overzee 17: 289-291. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Notes de grammaire rundi". Unpublished. Meeussen, Achille E.. Esquisse de la langue ombo. MRAC, Annales du Musée royal du Congo belge Tervuren. Meeussen, Achille E.. "La voyelle des radicaux CV en bantou commun". Africa 22, 367-713 Meeussen, Achille E.. "Rundi-teksten van André Barumwete". Kongo-Overzee 19: 420-427. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Notes sur la tonalité du nom en laadi". Etudes bantoues II 79-86. Meeussen, Achille E.. "De talen van Maniema". Kongo-Overzee 19: 385-390. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Werkwoordafleiding in Mongo en Oerbantoe. Aequatoria 27: 81-86. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Klinkerlengte in het Oerbantoe". Kongo-Overzee 20:423–31. Translated as "Vowel Length in Proto-Bantu".
Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 1: 1-8 · January 1979. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Linguïstische schets van het Bangubangu". Tervuren, 1954, 53 p. Meeussen, Achille E.. "The tones of prefixes in common Bantu." Africa 24: 48-53. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Le ton des extensions verbales en bantu." Orbis 10: 424-427. Meeussen, Achille E. & Biebuyck, Daniel. "Bembe-tekst". Kongo-Overzee 20: 74-77. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Tonunterschiede als Reflexe von Quantitätsunderschieden im Shambala". In Lukas J. Afrikanistische Studien Diedriech Westermann zum 80. Geburtstag gewindet, 154-156. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Les phonèmes du ganda et du bantu commun". Africa 25: 170-180. Sharman, J. C. & Meeussen, A. E.. "The representation of structural tones, with special reference to the tonal behaviour of the verb, in Bemba, Northern Rhodesia". Africa, 25, 393-404. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Morphotonologie de la conjugaison en sotho". Unpublished. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Morfotonologie van de vervoeging in het Suthu". Zaïre 12: 383-392.
Meeussen, Achille E.. "Essai de grammaire rundi". Tervuren. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Lega-teksten". Africana Linguistica 1: 75-97. Meeussen, Achille E.. "De tonen van subjunktief en imperatief in het Bantoe." Africana Linguistica 1: 57-74. Meeussen, Achille E.. "The independent order in Cheyenne". Orbis, 11: 260-288. Meeussen, Achille E.. "The independent indicative in Mistassinl Crée". Studies in Linguistics, 1: 73-76. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Meinhof's rule in Bantu." African Language Studies 3:25-29. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Morphotonology of the Tonga verb". Journal of African Languages, 2.72–92. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Notes suku". Unpublished, Tervuren. Meeussen, Achille E.. "A preliminary tonal analysis of Ganda verb forms". Journal of African Languages 4: 107-113. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Syntactic tones of nouns in Ganda: a preliminary synthesis". In Lebrun Yvan Recherches linguistiques en Belgique, 77-86. Meeussen, Achille E.. "Notes on Swahili prosody"
A lingua franca known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect when it is a third language, distinct from both of the speakers' native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons but for cultural, religious and administrative convenience, as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities; the term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. A world language – a language spoken internationally and learned and spoken by a large number of people – is a language that may function as a global lingua franca. Lingua Franca refers to any language used for communication between people who do not share a native language.
It can refer to hybrid languages such as pidgins and creoles used for communication between language groups. It can refer to languages which are native to one nation but used as a second language for communication between groups. Lingua Franca is a functional term, independent of any linguistic language structure. Whereas a vernacular language is the native language of a specific geographical community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community, for trade, political or academic reasons. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines. Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, Portuguese and Russian, serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas, across regional and national boundaries. International auxiliary languages created with the purpose of being lingua francas such as Esperanto and Lingua Franca Nova have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas.
The term lingua franca derives from Mediterranean Lingua Franca, the language that people around the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean Sea used as the main language of commerce and diplomacy from late medieval times during the Renaissance era, to the 18th century. At that time, Italian-speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be used as the "lingua franca" of the region. In Lingua Franca, lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian. In all three cases, the literal sense is "Frankish", but the name applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Empire; the Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca was first recorded in English during the 1670s, although an earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested from 1632, where it is referred to as "Bastard Spanish".
As as the late 20th century, some restricted the use of the generic term to mean only hybrid languages that are used as vehicular languages, its original meaning, but it now refers to any vehicular language. The term is well established in its naturalization to English, why major dictionaries do not italicize it as a "foreign" term, its plurals in English are lingua francas and linguae francae, with the first of those being first-listed or only-listed in major dictionaries. The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Hellenistic culture. Akkadian and Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires. In certain countries, the lingua franca is the national language. Indonesian – which originated from a Malay language variant spoken in Riau – has the same function in Indonesia, although Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is spoken throughout the country. Persian is both the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.
The Hindustani language is the lingua franca of Northern India. Many Indian states have adopted the Three-language formula in which students in Hindi speaking states are taught: " Hindi; the order in non-Hindi speaking states is: " the regional language. Hindi has emerged as a lingua franca for the locals of Arunachal Pradesh, a linguistically diverse state in Northeast India, it is estimated. The only documented sign language used as a lingua franca is Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of North America, it was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research
Mozambique the Republic of Mozambique, is a country located in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Eswatini and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east; the capital of Mozambique is Maputo. Between the first and fifth centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to present-day Mozambique from farther north and west. Northern Mozambique lies within the monsoon trade winds of the Indian Ocean. Between the 7th and 11th centuries, a series of Swahili port towns developed here, which contributed to the development of a distinct Swahili culture and language. In the late medieval period, these towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Egypt, Arabia and India; the voyage of Vasco da Gama in 1498 marked the arrival of the Portuguese, who began a gradual process of colonisation and settlement in 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter.
After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. In 1994, Mozambique held its first multiparty elections, has since remained a stable presidential republic, although it still faces a low-intensity insurgency. Mozambique is endowed with extensive natural resources; the country's economy is based on agriculture, but industry is growing food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and aluminium and petroleum production. The tourism sector is expanding. South Africa is Mozambique's main trading partner and source of foreign direct investment, while Belgium, Brazil and Spain are among the country's most important economic partners. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been among the world's highest. However, the country is still one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, ranking low in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality and average life expectancy; the only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, spoken as a second language by about half the population.
Common native languages include Makhuwa and Swahili. The country's population of around 29 million is composed overwhelmingly of Bantu people; the largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant minorities following Islam and African traditional religions. Mozambique is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Development Community, is an observer at La Francophonie; the country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique, derived from Mussa Bin Bique or Musa Al Big or Mossa Al Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki or Mussa Ibn Malik, an Arab trader who first visited the island and lived there. The island-town was the capital of the Portuguese colony until 1898, when it was moved south to Lourenço Marques. Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the west and north through the Zambezi River valley and gradually into the plateau and coastal areas.
They established agricultural societies based on herding cattle. They brought with them the technology for smithing iron. From the late first millennium AD, vast Indian Ocean trade networks extended as far south into Mozambique as evidenced by the ancient port town of Chibuene. Beginning in the 9th century, a growing involvement in Indian Ocean trade led to the development of numerous port towns along the entire East African coast, including modern day Mozambique. Autonomous, these towns broadly participated in the incipient Swahili culture. Islam was adopted by urban elites, facilitating trade. In Mozambique, Sofala and Mozambique Island were regional powers by the 15th century; the towns traded with merchants from both the broader Indian Ocean world. Important were the gold and ivory caravan routes. Inland states like the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and Kingdom of Mutapa provided the coveted gold and ivory, which were exchanged up the coast to larger port cities like Kilwa and Mombasa. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the Arabic commercial and military hegemony, becoming regular ports of call on the new European sea route to the east.
The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 marked the Portuguese entry into trade and society of the region. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city of Sofala in the early 16th century, by the 1530s, small groups of Portuguese traders and prospectors seeking gold penetrated the interior regions, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena and Tete on the River Zambezi and tried to gain exclusive control over the gold trade. In the central part of the Mozambique territory, the Portuguese attempted to legitimise and consolidate their trade and settlement positions through the creation of prazos tied to their settlement and administration. While prazos were developed to be held by Portuguese, through intermarriage they became African Portuguese or African Indian centres defended by large African sl
The Zambezi is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square kilometres less than half of the Nile's; the 2,574-kilometre-long river rises in Zambia and flows through eastern Angola, along the north-eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses the country to empty into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi's most noted feature is Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river, the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There are additional two smaller power stations along the Zambezi River in Zambia, one at Victoria Falls and the other one near Kalene Hill in Ikelenge District.
The river rises in a black marshy dambo in dense undulating miombo woodland 50 kilometres north of Mwinilunga and 20 kilometres south of Ikelenge in the Ikelenge District of North-Western Province, Zambia at about 1,524 metres above sea level. The area around the source is forest reserve and Important Bird Area. Eastward of the source, the watershed between the Congo and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, running nearly east-west and falling abruptly to the north and south; this distinctly cuts off the basin of the Lualaba from that of the Zambezi. In the neighborhood of the source the watershed is not as defined, but the two river systems do not connect; the region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 900–1200 m high, composed in the remote interior of metamorphic beds and fringed with the igneous rocks of the Victoria Falls. At Shupanga, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow sandstones, with an occasional band of limestone, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, these persist beyond Tete, where they are associated with extensive seams of coal.
Coal is found in the district just below Victoria Falls. Gold-bearing rocks occur in several places; the river flows to the southwest into Angola for about 240 kilometres is joined by sizeable tributaries such as the Luena and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west. It turns south and develops a floodplain, with extreme width variation between the dry and rainy seasons, it enters dense evergreen Cryptosepalum dry forest, though on its western side, Western Zambezian grasslands occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly 400 metres wide in the rainy season and flows with rapids ending in the Chavuma Falls, where the river flows through a rocky fissure; the river drops about 400 metres in elevation from its source at 1,500 metres to the Chavuma Falls at 1,100 metres, in a distance of about 400 kilometres. From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is uniform, dropping only by another 180 metres in a distance of around 800 kilometres; the first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the Kabompo River in the northwestern province of Zambia.
A major advantage of the Kabompo River was irrigation. The savanna through which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with Borassus fan palms. A little farther south is the confluence with the Lungwebungu River; this is the beginning of the Barotse Floodplain, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle. Thirty kilometres below the confluence of the Lungwebungu the country becomes flat, the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of 25 km in the rainy season. For more than 200 km downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life and culture. Eighty kilometres further down, the Luanginga, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the Luampa/Luena system. A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is Lealui, one of the capitals of the Lozi people who populate the Zambian region of Barotseland in Western Province.
The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the Kuomboka. After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240 km. Before this, the Ngonye Falls and subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river borders Namibia's Caprivi Strip; the strip projects from the main body of Namibia, results from the colonial era: it was added to German South-West Africa expressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi. Below the junction of the Cuando River and the Zambezi the river bends due east. Here, the river is broad and shallow, flows but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Falls plunge; the Victoria Falls are considered the boundary between the middle Zambezi.
Below them the river continues to flow due east for about 20
The Tumbuka, ŵaTumbuka, Batumbuka and sometimes Henga although this is speaking the name of a subdivision, is an ethnic group found in Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia and Southern Tanzania. Tumbuka is classified as a part of the Bantu language family, with origins in a geographic region between the Dwangwa River to the south, the North Rukuru River to the north, Lake Malawi to the east, the Luangwa River, they are found in the valleys near lake as well as the highlands of Nyika Plateau. The Tumbuka people were a victim of invasion and raiding by the Ngoni tribe, which originated in South Africa, of socio-politics behind the ivory trade, by slave trading controlled by the so-called Arabs, a group including Swahili and non-Muslim Africans, but subsequently prospered in the colonial period as the result of the educational opportunities they benefited from. The Tumbuka have had a subsistence farming culture, with many adult men leaving their families to seekg migrant work. Various estimates suggest that over two million Tumbuka speakers live in north Malawi, northeast Zambia and Tanzania.
Ethnologue estimates a total of 1,546,000 Tumbuka speakers. However, Ember et al. estimate that about an additional million Tumbuka people live in central and southern African countries such as Tanzania because of the diffusion of Tumbuka people as migrant labor. The Tumbuka language called chiTumbuka, is a Bantu language, similar to many other Bantu languages in structure and vocabulary, it is classified as a central Bantu language in the Niger-Congo family, it has many dialects. The Tumbuka are collectively known as ba-tumbuka and one calls a fellow tribe member "mutumbuka" meaning one of the tribe of the Tumbuka; the Tumbuka language is related to the Tonga language and it has been suggested that they formed a single group of mutually intelligible dialects until different missionaries treated two such dialects as the standard Tumbuka and Tonga languages. Before a British protectorate was created over Nyasaland, there were many ethnic groups in what is now Malawi's Northern Region including a substantial group culturally-related people and loosely organized under autonomous village headmen who spoke dialects of the Tumbuka language.
Missionaries in the late 19th century standardised these languages into a small number of groups, chose the standardised Tumbuka language as the usual medium for teaching in the north of the country, in preference to the Ngoni, Tonga or Ngonde languages which were prominent in the area. By the start of the 20th century, the Ngoni and Ngonde languages were in decline, although Tonga was more resilient. In 1968, Tumbuka was abolished as an official language, as a medium of instruction and in examinations, the secondary school entrance system was manipulated to assist candidates from the Central Region and disadvantage those from the Northern Region; some of those that objected to the ban on the use of Tmbuka were arrested or harassed but both the Church of Central Africa Presbyterian and the Catholic Church continued to preach and use religious texts in Tumbuka in the Northern Region. After the advent if multi-party democracy, Tumbuka language programmes began to be broadcast on national radio in 1994 but a 1996 proposal for the reintroduced of Tumbuka as a medium for teaching in the first four years of compulsory education has not been implemented.
One effect of the failure to restore the Tumbuka language as the standard language of the Northern Region is that speakers of other languages in the region, the Tonga and the little-spoken Ngoni language are now seeking parity with Tumbuka. The Tumbuka entered the area between the Luangwa valley and northern Lake Malawi in the 15th century. At the start of the 18th century, they formed a number of groups, of which the Henga was one, living in small, independent communities without a central organisation, spread thinly over this area. By the mid-18th century, traders dressed “as Arabs”, although coming from the Unyamwezi region of what is now Tanzania were involved in trading for ivory and to some extent slaves as far inland as the Luangwa valley, they formed alliances with groups of Henga, their leader established the Chikulamayembe Dynasty ruling a federation of small chiefdoms However, by the 1830s, this Chikulamaybe dynasty was in decline and the area reverted to a state of political and military disorganisationThe large elephant herds of the region attracted groups of coastal Swahili ivory hunters and traders followed in the colonial era by European ivory traders.
In the 1840s, Swahili Arabs entered northern Malawi region, with Jumbe Salim bin Abdallah establishing a trading centre at Nkhotakota near Lake Malawi. Jumbe Abdallah's trade in slaves to satisfy the demand for slaves on Zanzibar plantations of cloves and for the Middle East triggered raids and violence against the Tumbuka people. A male slave was known as kapolo, while a chituntulu meant a young female slave; the rising demand for ivory in the European market led to conflicts to control the export trade, resulting in greater social distinctions and politically centralized chiefdoms among the Tumbuka. These ruling groups collapsed around 1855, when the militarized warriors of the Ngoni ethnic group from South Africa arrived seeking agricultural slaves and recruits, in addition to those acquired by the Swahili traders; the Ngoni of Mbelwa were a branch of Zwangendaba’s Ngoni, which began its migration from South Africa between 1819 and 1822 reaching southern Tanzania and remained there until Zwangendaba’s death in the mid-1840s.
After this, his followers split into several groups, one of which under his son Mbelwa settled permanently in what is now the Mzimba district of